Optimal synthesis of steam and power plants

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Optimal synthesis of steam and power plants

  1. 1. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARY O PTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF STEAM AND POWER PLANTS Rahul Anantharaman Department of Energy & Process Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology PhD Trial Lecture Trondheim, 06.12.2011
  2. 2. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  3. 3. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  4. 4. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HE TOPICAND MY INTEPRETATION Optimal Synthesis of Steam and Power Plants
  5. 5. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HE TOPICAND MY INTEPRETATION Optimal Synthesis of Steam and Power Plants
  6. 6. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HE TOPICAND MY INTEPRETATION Optimal Synthesis of Steam and Power Plants
  7. 7. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HE TOPICAND MY INTEPRETATION Optimal Synthesis of Steam and Power Plants
  8. 8. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HE TOPICAND MY INTEPRETATION Optimal Synthesis of Steam and Power Plants
  9. 9. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  10. 10. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC OMBINED H EAT AND P OWER (CHP) PLANT
  11. 11. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC OMBINED H EAT AND P OWER (CHP) PLANT
  12. 12. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYP RIME MOVERT YPICAL CHARACTERISTICS Gas Micro- Reciprocating Steam Fuel turbine turbine engine turbine cell NG, biogas NG, biogas NG, biogas H2 , NG, Fuel propane, propane, propane, all propane, oil oil diesel methanol Use for thermal Heat, HW, Heat, HW, HW, LP steam LP-HP steam HW, LP* steam output LP-HP steam LP steam Power to Heat 0.5-2 0.4-0.7 0.5-1 0.1-0.3 1-2 ratio Typical 0.5-250 0.03-0.25 0.01-5 0.5-250 0.005-2 capacity (MWe)
  13. 13. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC OMBINED H EAT AND P OWER (CHP) PLANT
  14. 14. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC OMBINED H EAT AND P OWER (CHP) PLANT
  15. 15. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC OMBINED H EAT AND P OWER (CHP) PLANT
  16. 16. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYOTHER COMPONENTS IN THE CHP SYSTEM Boilers for steam generation Waste heat boilers for steam generation Generators for conversion of power to electricity Electric motors as mechanical drivers (in addition to gas and steam turbines)
  17. 17. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  18. 18. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYP ROCESS S YNTHESIS Process synthesis is the systematic generation of alternative process flowsheets and selection of a design whose configuration and parameters optimize a given objective function.
  19. 19. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HERMODYNAMIC METHODSA NOTE The two products from a CHP or utility system power and heat. First law analysis where heat and work are equivalent is not sufficient. Second law analysis required for consistent evaluation and consideration of both products in a systematic way. E XERGY BASED APPROACH TO THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS .
  20. 20. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  21. 21. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HERMODYNAMICS - BASED H EURISTIC METHODS N ISHIO AND J OHNSON (1979), N ISHIO ET. AL . (1980) Introduced a number of thermodynamic-based heuristics for reducing the loss of available energy in steam cycles. Developed Heuristics for preliminary selection of energy conservation and power generation technologies. Two-step approach that differentiated between steam dominant and power dominant cases. Linear Program for allocation of drivers. C HOU AND S HIH (1987) Similar approach to Nishio et. al. (1982). Included gas turbine and combined gas-steam cycles. Five step procedure for designing the system starts with screening based on P/H ratio.
  22. 22. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYT HERMODYNAMICS - BASED H EURISTIC METHODS N ISHIO AND J OHNSON (1979), N ISHIO ET. AL . (1980) Introduced a number of thermodynamic-based heuristics for reducing the loss of available energy in steam cycles. Developed Heuristics for preliminary selection of energy conservation and power generation technologies. Two-step approach that differentiated between steam dominant and power dominant cases. Linear Program for allocation of drivers. C HOU AND S HIH (1987) Similar approach to Nishio et. al. (1982). Included gas turbine and combined gas-steam cycles. Five step procedure for designing the system starts with screening based on P/H ratio.
  23. 23. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  24. 24. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  25. 25. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  26. 26. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  27. 27. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  28. 28. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  29. 29. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  30. 30. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTENSION OF P INCH A NALYSIS D HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993) AND L INNHOFF AND D HOLE (1993) Extended Pinch Analysis for total site wide targets for fuel, co-generation and emissions. Site Source-Sink Profiles (SSSP) for site level targeting. First systematic thermodynamic method for targeting co-generation. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed. Methodology extended in Raissi (1994) and developed the TH-shaftwork targeting model. The methodology extended by Bandyopadhyay et al. (2010) to generate Site level Grand Composite Curves (SGCC) to include indirect heat transfer.
  31. 31. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIOND HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993)
  32. 32. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIOND HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993)
  33. 33. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIOND HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993)
  34. 34. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIOND HOLE AND L INNHOFF (1993)
  35. 35. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  36. 36. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  37. 37. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  38. 38. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  39. 39. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  40. 40. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE XTRACTABLE POWER SURPLUS COMPOSITE CURVE E L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009) Targets for cogeneration given a set of combustible wastes and byproducts, heating cooling demands, non-heating steam demands. Using standard mass and heat integration procedures to identify process steam requirement and generation potential. New concept of extractable energy ˙ e = ηH Extractable power surplus composite curve targets for cogeneration potential. Only boilers and steam turbine systems are included. No detail design method proposed.
  41. 41. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009)
  42. 42. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009)
  43. 43. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009)
  44. 44. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYTARGETS FOR COGENERATIONE L -H ALWAGI ET AL . (2009)
  45. 45. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  46. 46. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION DESIGN SPACE El-Sayed Y.M. (2003)
  47. 47. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION DESIGN SPACE El-Sayed Y.M. (2003)
  48. 48. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION DESIGN SPACE El-Sayed Y.M. (2003)
  49. 49. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION DESIGN SPACE El-Sayed Y.M. (2003)
  50. 50. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYA PPROACHES TO OPTIMIZATION OF CHP SYSTEMS Two broad approaches to the use of optimization in the design of CHP or utility systems 1 Process Systems Engineering Superstrucrure based approach Evolution of structural changes 2 Thermodynamic/Thermoeconomic Parametric optimization Suitable for optimizing a base case rather than synthesizing a new design
  51. 51. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYA PPROACHES TO OPTIMIZATION OF CHP SYSTEMS Two broad approaches to the use of optimization in the design of CHP or utility systems 1 Process Systems Engineering Superstrucrure based approach Evolution of structural changes 2 Thermodynamic/Thermoeconomic Parametric optimization Suitable for optimizing a base case rather than synthesizing a new design
  52. 52. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORKG ENERIC SUPERSTRUCTURE
  53. 53. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORKG ENERIC SUPERSTRUCTURE
  54. 54. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORKG ENERIC SUPERSTRUCTURE
  55. 55. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK Given a set of steam and power demands: configure the CHP or utility plant; assign values of the operating pressures and temperatures of the steam; set the type and capacities of boilers, and all stream flowrates; and assign drivers to optimize the objective.
  56. 56. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK Given a set of steam and power demands: configure the CHP or utility plant; assign values of the operating pressures and temperatures of the steam; set the type and capacities of boilers, and all stream flowrates; and assign drivers to optimize the objective.
  57. 57. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK Given a set of steam and power demands: configure the CHP or utility plant; assign values of the operating pressures and temperatures of the steam; set the type and capacities of boilers, and all stream flowrates; and assign drivers to optimize the objective.
  58. 58. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK Given a set of steam and power demands: configure the CHP or utility plant; assign values of the operating pressures and temperatures of the steam; set the type and capacities of boilers, and all stream flowrates; and assign drivers to optimize the objective.
  59. 59. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO PTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK Given a set of steam and power demands: configure the CHP or utility plant; assign values of the operating pressures and temperatures of the steam; set the type and capacities of boilers, and all stream flowrates; and assign drivers to optimize the objective.
  60. 60. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  61. 61. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYM ATH PROGRAMMING APPROACHES PAPOULIAS AND G ROSSMANN (1983) Incorporates an extensive superstructure and model includes driver allocation. Linearized the inherent MINLP problem. Linear equation derived for each unit when operating parameters have fixed values. Binary variables identify the existence of each operating condition for each unit. Non-linear cost linearized using a fixed charge approximation or piece-wise linear function. The optimization criterion used was minimization of annual cost. Proved the strength of mathematical programming methods to synthesize utility systems compared to heuristic methods.
  62. 62. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYM ATH PROGRAMMING APPROACHESPAPOULIAS AND G ROSSMANN (1983)
  63. 63. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYM ATH PROGRAMMING APPROACHES P ETROULAS AND R EKLAITIS (1983) Decomposed the problem into 1 Steam header selection and 2 Driver selection The overall objective was to minimize a linear combination of objective costs. No gas turbines and capital costs were considered.
  64. 64. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYM ATH PROGRAMMING APPROACHES C OLMENARES AND S EIDER (1989) Developed an NLP model for synthesis of utility system Superstructure consists of cascade of Rankine cycles at different temperature levels. The overall objective was to minimize cost of the utility system. No gas turbines and electric motors were included in the superstructure.
  65. 65. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYM ETAHEURISTIC APPROACHES M AIA ET AL . (1995) Simulated annealing approach for synthesis of utility system Superstructure is similar to Papoulias and Grossmann (1983). First attempt to include discrete equipement sizes in synthesis. Limitation of only one mechanical demand per drive. Costs and efficiency are obtained through continuous correlations.
  66. 66. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  67. 67. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR ECENT TRENDS IN OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF UTILITYSYSTEMS MINLP MODELS Bruno et al. (1998) extended the MILP model of Papoulias and Grossmann (1983) to develop an MINLP formulation. D ETAIL PROCESS UNIT MODELS Varbanov et al. (2004) developed detailed hardware models that were linearized and solved as a succession of MILPs.
  68. 68. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR ECENT TRENDS IN OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS OF UTILITYSYSTEMS MINLP MODELS Bruno et al. (1998) extended the MILP model of Papoulias and Grossmann (1983) to develop an MINLP formulation. D ETAIL PROCESS UNIT MODELS Varbanov et al. (2004) developed detailed hardware models that were linearized and solved as a succession of MILPs.
  69. 69. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR ECENT TRENDS M ULTIPERIOD MODELS Iyer and Grossmann (1998) extended the Papoulias and Grossmann (1983) model to include mutiperiod operation. Maia and Qassim (1997) extended the work by Maia et al.(1995) to include multiperiod operation. Oliviera and Matos (2003) included environmental aspects when extending the work by Iyer and Grossmann (1998) and Maia and Qassim (1997). Frangopoulos and Dimopoulos (2004) used thermoeconomic optimization of multiperiod co-generation systems with a limited superstructure. Aguilar et al. (2005) proposed a MILP formulation of multi-period utility systems. Chen and Lin (2011) develop a steam distribution network for integration with chemical processes by adapting the transhipment model for flexible operation.
  70. 70. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR ECENT TRENDS I NCORPORATING OTHER CONSIDERATIONS SUCH AS AVAILABILITY ETC . Frangopoulos and Dimopoulos (2004) used thermoeconomic optimization of multiperiod co-generation systems and include availability costs in calculating the NPV. Aguilar et al. (2005) do not explicity include availability but including the degree of equipment redundancy during optimization phase. Del Nogal et al. (2010) present an rich superstructure and MILP formulation to synthesize utility systems including availability considerations.
  71. 71. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  72. 72. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYP OWER AND STEAM PLANTS IN A CARBONCONSTRAINED SCENARIO C ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE Fossil fuel based utility plants would require CCS. Inclusion of CCS would mean addition of a chemical process facility in the utility system. Tight integration required between the different components to reduce efficiency penalty.
  73. 73. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE M ARTELLI ET AL . (2011) AND M ARTELLI ET AL . (2012) Two step optimization procedure for optimal design of heat recovery steam generator including external heat addition and extraction.
  74. 74. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE L IU ET AL . (2009, 2010) A MINLP framework for the synthesis of optimum poly-generation plants using coal as fuel.
  75. 75. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE A NANTHARAMAN AND B ERSTAD (2011) A MILP framework for generation of optimal integration schemes for post-combustion CO2 capture unit with NGCC power plant.
  76. 76. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE A NANTHARAMAN AND B ERSTAD (2011) A MILP framework for generation of optimal integration schemes for post-combustion CO2 capture unit with NGCC power plant.
  77. 77. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE J OHNSEN , E. (2011) A MINLP framework for generation of optimal synthesis of an air-blown Integrated Reforming Combined Cycle power plant using meta-models.
  78. 78. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYC ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIOC ARBON C APTURE AND S TORAGE J OHNSEN , E. (2011) A MINLP framework for generation of optimal synthesis of an air-blown Integrated Reforming Combined Cycle power plant using meta-models.
  79. 79. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYO UTLINE 1 I NTRODUCTION The topic Boundary conditions and components Process Synthesis Methods 2 T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS Early work Targeting methodologies 3 O PTIMIZATION METHODS Background Early work Recent Trends in synthesis 4 C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO CCS Bio-energy 5 S UMMARY
  80. 80. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYP OWER AND STEAM PLANTS IN A CARBONCONSTRAINED SCENARIO B IO - ENERGY CHP plants fired with biomass, MSW etc. The superstructure involved for biomass based CHP will be extensive: Selection of biomass Preparation of fuel Fuel/energy conversion system Integration with gas turbine systems No significant development in the systematic approach to the design of biomass based CHP systems.
  81. 81. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  82. 82. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  83. 83. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  84. 84. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  85. 85. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  86. 86. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  87. 87. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  88. 88. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYS UMMARY Synthesis of combined heat and power plants or utility plants is a mature area of research. Thermodynamic based targeting methods for co-generation have been developed. No thermodynamic based systematic synthesis methodology in the literature. Mathematical programming methods where an exhaustive superstructure is used to synthesize utility networks dominate literature. Most of these models are formulated as MILPs. Recent developments include multiperiod optimization models and incorporating availability consideration in the design phase. In a carbon constrained scenario, novel methods to synthsize power and steam systems with CCS need to be developed further. Systematic methods for the optimal synthesis of biomass based CHP needs development.
  89. 89. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR EFERENCES I O Aguilar, S Perry, J Kim, and R Smith. Design and Optimization of Flexible Utility Systems Subject to Variable ConditionsPart 1: Modelling Framework. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 85(8):1136–1148, 2007. J Bruno, F Fernandez, F Castells, and I.E. Grossmann. A Rigorous MINLP Model for the Optimal Synthesis and Operation of Utility Plants. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 76(3):246–258, March 1998. C.T. Chang and J.R. Hwang. A multiobjective programming approach to waste minimization in the utility systems of chemical processes. Chemical Engineering Science, 51(16):3951–3965, August 1996. C.L. Chen and C.Y. Lin. A flexible structural and operational design of steam systems. Applied Thermal Engineering, 31(13):2084–2093, September 2011. C.C. Chou and Y.S. Shih. A thermodynamic approach to the design and synthesis of plant utility systems. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 26(6):1100–1108, June 1987. T.R. Colmenares and W.D. Seider. Synthesis of utility systems integrated with chemical processes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 28(1):84–93, January 1989. F.L. Del Nogal, J.K. Kim, S. Perry, and R. Smith. Synthesis of mechanical driver and power generation configurations, Part 1: Optimization framework. AIChE Journal, pages NA–NA, 2010.
  90. 90. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR EFERENCES II V.R. Dhole and B. Linnhoff. Total site targets for fuel, co-generation, emissions, and cooling. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 17:S101–S109, 1993. M. El-Halwagi, D. Harell, and H. Dennis Spriggs. Targeting cogeneration and waste utilization through process integration. Applied Energy, 86(6):880–887, June 2009. C.A. Frangopoulos and G.G. Dimopoulos. Effect of reliability considerations on the optimal synthesis, design and operation of a cogeneration system. Energy, 29(3):309–329, March 2004. R.R. Iyer and I.E. Grossmann. Optimal multiperiod operational planning for utility systems. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 21(8):787–800, 1997. J. Klemeš, V.R. Dhole, K. Raissi, S.J. Perry, and L. Puigjaner. Targeting and design methodology for reduction of fuel, power and CO2 on total sites. Applied Thermal Engineering, 17(8-10):993–1003, August 1997. B. Linnhoff and V.R. Dhole. Targeting for CO2 emissions for Total Sites. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 16(4):252–259, August 1993. P. Liu, M.C. Georgiadis, and E.N. Pistikopoulos. Advances in Energy Systems Engineering. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, page 100917092426020, September 2010.
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  92. 92. I NTRODUCTION T HERMODYNAMIC METHODS O PTIMIZATION METHODS C ARBON CONSTRAINED SCENARIO S UMMARYR EFERENCES IV T. Petroulas and G. V. Reklaitis. Computer-aided synthesis and design of plant utility systems. AIChE Journal, 30(1):69–78, January 1984. V Papandreou and Z Shang. A multi-criteria optimisation approach for the design of sustainable utility systems. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 32(7):1589–1602, July 2008. Z. Shang and A. Kokossis. A systematic approach to the synthesis and design of flexible site utility systems. Chemical Engineering Science, 60(16):4431–4451, August 2005. P. Varbanov, S. Doyle, and R. Smith. Modelling and Optimization of Utility Systems. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 82(5):561–578, May 2004. P. Varbanov, S. Perry, J. Klemeš, and R. Smith. Synthesis of industrial utility systems: cost-effective de-carbonisation. Applied Thermal Engineering, 25(7):985–1001, May 2005.

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