REPORTED SPEECH Have you heard Maria said thatReally! Viktor the newsaid that Larisa teacher the latest gossipNo, whatthat told me is it?Wow! Yeah, I the new teacher didn’t givenew about the any studentsheard he was had given all the teacher? homework. could eat in an easy students an A his class. teacher. last semester.
DIRECT SPEECH “In text we “SpeechIn direct speech put marks are we use the speech also speaker’s own marks called words. around the inverted words commas” spoken”
INDIRECT SPEECHIn indirect speech, we do not use the exact words of the speaker.Instead we report what was said.We sometimes need to change pronouns and verb tenses. We don’t use speech marks. “I am going home.” Helen said she was going home.
USING DIRECT SPEECHWhen using direct speech in your writing you need to use the correct punctuation.• The exact words spoken must be enclosed in speech marks.• The first word of the speech must begin with a capital letter.• The words in the speech marks must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.• You must use a new line when a new speaker begins to speak.
USING INDIRECT SPEECHUsing speech in fiction and non-fiction writing adds variety.However, writing out long pieces of direct speech can make your writing confusing. It also slows down the action.Reported speech can summarise what the speaker has said so that the action moves along more quickly.Reported speech is useful when you want a contrast between what a character says and what he or she is thinking.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH• now then• today that day• tomorrow the next day the day after the following day a day later• next the … after the following …
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH• last … the … before the previous … the preceding …• … ago … before … earlier• yesterday the day before the previous day the preceeding day• here there• this that• these those
TENSESTHE CHANGE IN THE TENSE OF APASSAGE IS SUBSEQUENT TO THESPEECH-RELATED CHANGES. Direct Speech Reported Speech Simple Present Simple PastPresent Continuous Past ContinuousSimple Past Tense Past Perfect Present Perfect Past Perfect
EXAMPLES “The She said teacher the teacheris strict.” was strict. He said “The teacher the is giving teacher everyone an was A.” giving everyone an A.
EXAMPLES She said “Somebody somebody put the final had put the exam on the final exam Internet.” on the Internet. “Theteacher has graded our Joe said the grammar teacher had tests.” graded our grammar tests.
CHANGE DIRECTEXERCISE 1 SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH… Example: “My friend is helping me study.” She said… She said her friend was helping her study.1. “The library is closed.” He said… He said the library was closed.2. “We have registered for classes.” They said… They said they had registered for classes.3. “She got an A on the test.” You said… You said she had gotten an A on the test.
TENSESThe Modal Auxiliary (helping) Verbsare changed into their past forms.Direct Speech Reported Speech will would can could may might must had to
EXAMPLES “The test He said the test will be would be difficult.” difficult.“You can She said weuse your could usenotes on our notesthe test.” on the test.
EXAMPLES“We may She said we have a might have asubstitute substituteteacher.” teacher. “You must study hard She said we for the final had to study exam.” hard for the final exam.
CHANGE DIRECTEXERCISE 2 SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH… Example: “You can relax about the exam.” She said… She said I could relax about the exam.1. “We’ll help you with your homework.” They said… They said they would help me with my homework.2. “Anna must finish her paper.” He said… He said Anna had to finish her paper.3. “She may take a different class.” You said… You said she might take a different class.
TENSES THE FOLLOWING MODALS DO NOT CHANGE DEPENDING ON THE SPEECH-RELATED CHANGES : Should, Could, might, and ought to. “You She said Ishouldn’t shouldn’t tell tell this this secret tosecret to anyone.anyone.” “You ought He said I to tell this to ! ought to tell a friend.” this to a friend.
TENSES“If thought I had chosen “I I had studied, I would“I could have gotten help He said if he had studied, he He said he could have had thought he gotten have gotten an A.” the easy teacher.” from a tutor.” chosen have gotten an A. would the easy teacher. help from a tutor.
CHANGE DIRECTEXERCISE 3 SPECCH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH… Example: “We ought to study some more.” He said… He said we ought to study some more.1. “If I knew, I would tell you.” She said… She said if she knew, she would tell me.2. “I might have known the test was difficult.” He said… He said he might have known the test was difficult.3. “She had had that teacher before.” We said… We said she had had that teacher before.
Do you understand reported speechbetter NOW than you did BEFORE? Congratulations! Keep practicing!!! And please . . . ask if you need assistance!