GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

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BEST PPT ON GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES..................FOR ALL GRADES

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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

  1. 3. Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS ( subjects, objects, subject complements ) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition.
  2. 4. To form gerunds, use the base form + ing (don’t’ forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs) I enjoy learning English To form negative gerunds, use not + gerund Not speaking English well is my biggest problem in this country.
  3. 5. Gerunds used as subject of the sentence. Dancing is fun.
  4. 6. Gerunds used as objects He enjoys working with children.
  5. 7. Gerunds used as object of the preposition I am thinking about taking the children to Mexico.
  6. 8. Verbs that take only Gerunds <ul><li>Appreciate </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Deny </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Excuse </li></ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul><ul><li>understand </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>Mention </li></ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Miss </li></ul><ul><li>Postpone </li></ul><ul><li>Quit </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Resent </li></ul><ul><li>suggest </li></ul>
  7. 9. Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds <ul><li>Be excited about , complain about, talk about, think about , worry about </li></ul><ul><li>Apologize for , blame for, famous for </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in , interested in , succeed in </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of , instead of , be accused of </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on, count on, concentrate on </li></ul><ul><li>Keep from , prevent from, profit from </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to , look forward to , be used to </li></ul>
  8. 10. By + gerund You get good grades by studying hard.
  9. 11. go + gerund Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging, I will go fishing with you tomorrow.
  10. 12. Some expressions are used with gerunds Be busy, can’t help, have fun, it’s no use, it’s not worth
  11. 13. To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to play.
  12. 14. To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go to play.
  13. 15. Infinitives in the subject position To live in the United States is my dream. It is my dream to live in the United States.
  14. 16. Verbs that take infinitives <ul><li>Verb + infinitives – agree, appear,decide </li></ul><ul><li>hope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can afford </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Noun phrase + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourage </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase – ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise </li></ul>
  15. 17. Adjectives followed by infinitives
  16. 18. Infinitive of purpose In order to I came here in order to learn.
  17. 19. Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate that an action is happening or has happened. The action expressed by the verb comes at the same time or after the action expressed by the gerund. We enjoy going to concerts. (you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done – not things you haven’t done yet.)
  18. 20. Infinitives often follow verbs that indicate that an action will or could happen. The action expressed by the verb comes before the action expressed by the infinitive. We hope to go to the concert. (You can hope for things that could happen not things that have already happened )
  19. 21. Verbs that are followed by a noun phrase + infinitive can also be followed by a gerund . The gerund makes it general and the infinitive make specific the person indicated. They allow smoking in the house. They allowed me to smoke in the house.
  20. 22. These verbs are: advise allow encourage permit require urge
  21. 23. Some verbs can be followed by both gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning. Begin, hate, like, start, love, prefer, continue
  22. 24. I like cooking. I like to cook. She started losing weight. She started to lose weight.
  23. 25. Some verbs although they can be used after both gerunds and infinitives have a difference in meaning. remember forget regret stop try get
  24. 26. She stopped smoking. She stopped to smoke. They forgot buying bread. They forgot to buy bread.
  25. 27. Used to Be used to Get used to Used to + base form Be used to + gerund Get used to + gerund
  26. 28. Verbs of perception : infinitives: from start to finish Gerunds: in progress I heard the children cry . I saw your friends walking in the park.
  27. 29. Infinitive forms are not used after the following verbs of perception: feel see hear smell
  28. 30. When a specific performer of the gerund action needs to be indicated, a possessive noun or a possessive determiner is used. I really appreciate Karen’s/her writing that letter for me. Peter’s/his coming late really annoys me.
  29. 31. Your neglecting your teeth will cause an earlier return to the dentist. I didn’t like the dog’s barking all night.
  30. 32. I don’t mind his leaving early. (formal) I don’t mind him leaving early. (informal)
  31. 33. ANY QUESTIONS ???

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