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Definition and main characteristics of content-based instruction CBI/T : Content based instruction/teaching CLIL : Content and language integrated learning AICLE : Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenido y Lengua Extranjera EMILE : Enseignement de Matières par Integration D’une Langue Étrangère
Brinton, Snow and Wesche (1989):
“ the integration of content with language-teaching aims" (p. 2).
It involves the teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills.
The students receive curricular information and do their academic tasks in the TL and, at the same time, acquire the L2/TL in a very natural way.
Learners are encouraged to think and learn through the use of the TL by integrating the four traditional language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing).
It primarily relies on intralingual , experiential and implicit teaching.
The separation between curricular development and the study of the L2 or TL is eliminated
It is assumed that the use of the TL for classroom instruction -if made comprehensible- is the most efficient way to improve the student's proficiency level.
This approach puts its emphasis on content and themes that develop the different curricular areas and tries to take into account the interests and needs of the learners.
The intralingual and curricular content dimension are integrated so that the students develop their linguistic competence and general education at the same time.
It aims to provide meaningful learning by connecting the new information with the student's previous learning experiences (constructivism).
Rotation movement of the earth Rotation and Revolution The earth rotates from west to east about a line (its axis). The period of one complete rotation is a day; the rotation of the earth is responsible for the alternate periods of light and darkness (day and night). The earth revolves about the sun once in a period of a little more than 365 1/4 days (a year). - Find the rotation and revolution movement in the picture From: Ladybird Learners: Space From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Making Friends . La Calesa
Antecedents and connections to the content-based instruction movement
Natural methods along the history of LT.
The communicative approach (Widdowson, 1978; Brumfit and Johnson, 1979; Richard and Schmidt, 1983; Littlewood, 1981, Finocchiaro and Brumfit, 1983, Sánchez Pérez, 1993).
Cognitive theories (Ausubel, 1968; Anderson, 1983; Chamot and O'Malley, 1994).
Natural approach (Krashen and Terrell, 1983).
ESP movement (Strevens, 1977; Mackey and Mountford, 1978; Hutchinson and Walters, 1987).
Bilingual programs (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Mackey and Andersson, 1977; Genese, 1987; Hoffman, 1991; Swain and Cummins, 1982; Swain and Lapkin, 1982).
Immersion LT in the Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, the teaching of Latin -and to some extent Greek- were implemented by using the language taught as a means of instruction.
St. Augustine instructed and trained young boys to become priests and preachers in the Latin language. As early as 389 AD, St. Augustine stressed the need for a focus on meaning content in language learning.
Some children enjoyed a private tuition and the communication between the master and his pupil also took place entirely in the TL (Latin).
The natural methods tradition
The direct method in LT fully exploits the intralingual techniques described in the previous sections, since classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the TL.
The direct method techniques found some precursors in M. Montaigne (1533-1592), J. Webbe (1560-1633), J. A. Comenius (1592-1670), L. Sauveur (1826-1907), Berlitz (1852-1921) and other proponents of naturalistic techniques in language teaching and learning.
In the XIXth century, the initiative was developed by C. Marcel (1793-1896) and F. Gouin (1831-1896). It was considered that L1 learning could be a good model to be reproduced with the TL learning. They emphasise the importance of meaning in learning and try to present the language in a context that makes their meaning clear.
More recently, Terrell (1977) and Krashen and Terrell (1983) have developed a natural approach , where the entire class period is devoted to communicative activities. This approach aims to develop basic personal oral and written communication skills:
The general goal is communication skills.
Comprehension precedes production.
Production emerges without forcing it, after a silent period .
Learning activities must promote subconscious acquisition rather than conscious learning.
Content-based roots in the communicative approach
The communicative approach (CA) proposes to work with motivated activities, topics and themes which involve the learner in authentic communication. In general, the techniques used by the CA are predominantly holistic and global , experiential and non-analytic.
Communicative syllabuses tend to focus more on the message of the content than on the single formal aspects of the language used. In this sense it is message-orientated as is the CBT.
Opportunities for authentic language use are sought.
Learning the TL through the TL . The language class is considered an ideal setting to develop communication through the TL, so classroom instructions and management are conducted in the TL.
Relevant topics . The CA often seeks substantive topics which satisfy the student's interests and needs and that have some educational relevance.
Semantic emphasis . The emphasis that the CBA puts on the semantic aspects is also rooted in the CA that emphasises the expression of meaning, concepts and ideas above all.
Example of communicative activity
Influence of the language teaching through cross-curricular contents
The language across the curriculum movement has influenced L2 instructional theory and practice. This movement puts a great emphasis on the teaching of the L1 across the curricular subjects (Maths, Science, Geography, History, etc.).
The Spanish reform also introduces the teaching of cross-curricular contents (transversalidad curricular) (civic education, health education, etc.) through the TL. That has often implied some emphasis on contents.
MATHS: Mental arithmetic
Notice that the colours red, yellow, and blue, known as primary colours , can be combined in varying proportions to produce all other colours ARTS: Where do colours come from? How can we obtain colours? Combine these colours and see what you obtain! MUSIC: Who was Beethoven?
Cross-curricular aspects: health education DO YOU WANT TO STOP SMOKING?
Connection with the Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) movement
CLIL also connects with the LSP movement, which aims to satisfy the students’ needs and interests. The content and aims of teaching are determined by the requirement of the learner.
The content is restricted to fit the learner's purposes, selected according to his/her interests, developed through themes and topics according to his/her needs and focused to satisfy his/her communicative needs .
ESP Physical Education through English
Find more information about:
Rock and roll
From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress. La Calesa.
Similarities with bilingual education programs
The CBA uses the TL as the means of instruction and, through it, a variety of curricular subjects are taught. This is a common feature of bilingual education programmes. Two well known examples are the bilingual programs in Canada (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Swain, 1972; Stern, 1973; Swain and Lapkin, 1982) and in the USA (CDE, 1990; Stern, 1984).
These programs work according to the following principles:
A great emphasis must be put on thinking , communication and problem-solving.
A rich content in all curricular areas, including history , science and literature should be presented.
They must be content-based and emphasise central concepts, patterns and relationships from each discipline.
They must provide a holistic view of learning by integrating and connecting the curricular areas.
The approach followed in the presentation and organisation of contents must be sequentially and spirally organised , so that the concepts, skills and topics introduced in the first stages are cyclically exploited and treated in later stages.
Variety of teaching strategies . It is recommended to use a wide range of techniques and strategies which satisfy the variety and diversity of students.
The skills and information provided must be relevant for the students, so that it keeps relation with the real-life situations that the students may encounter in society.
Bilingual programs in Canada
Aims of the St Lambert Experiment:
The children should:
Become competent in speaking, reading and writing French .
Reach normal achievement levels throughout the curriculum including
the English language.
Appreciate the traditions and culture of French speaking Canadians as
well as English speaking Canadians.
In short, the aims were for children to become bilingual and bicultural
without loss of achievement .
Relation with the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA)
The CBA keeps important similarities with the CALLA, designed by Chamot and O'Malley (1994). The CALLA, the same as the CBA, integrates language and content for L2 instruction as follows (1994: 10):
The content topics are aligned with an all-English curriculum.
Practice is provided of the topics that the students will encounter in grade-level classrooms.
Beginning with science instruction is recommended because this context, rich in discovering and hands-on-techniques, easily supports the academic language development.
Another content subject that can be introduced is mathematics, currently involved in solving word problems.
Social studies is the third content subject introduced in a CALLA programme.
What are the dimensions of CLIL in the classroom?
A successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of the four principles below:
A) CONTENT Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum.
B) COMMUNICATION / LANGUAGE Using language to learn - whilst learning to use language. The key is interaction, NOT reaction .
C) COGNITION / LEARNING
Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete), understanding and language
D) CULTURE Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self.
Prepare for internationalisation, a ccess International Certification, ETC.
A) Content: Houses From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress . La Calesa.
B) Communication on the topics: ex. Houses
Let’s talk about houses:
Where did primitive men live?
What were the first houses built with?
Where do Eskimos live? What are their
- Where do nomads live?
C) COGNITION / LEARNING Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete),
Building material and houses resistance
Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , sand , wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic . The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry , plumbing , roofing and insulation work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes.
Common materials used for houses are: Mud and clay, Rock, Thatch, Brush, Ice, Wood, Concrete, Metal, Glass, Foam, Cement composites
Find pictures of houses and blocks of houses made of the previous materials.
How resistant do you think they are? Link the material houses are made of and their resistance.
D) Culture Where are these houses from? Relate the type of house and their inhabitants’ cultural background.
E) Transnational dimension: Prepare for internationalisation, a ccess International Certification Europe is the world's second-smallest continent in terms of area , covering about 10,400,000 square kilometres (4,010,000 sq mi ) or 2.0% of the Earth's surface. The European Union (EU) comprises 27 member states , and it is the largest political and economic entity by area and population covering the European continent. The EU has the world's largest economy with an estimated nominal GDP* of 14.2 trillion USD (2006) accounting for 35% of world GDP. 
GDP* = gross domestic product
GDP = consumption + investment + ( government spending ) + ( exports − imports )
What are the practical implications of introducing CLIL into the school curriculum?
The content subject should always be the primary focus of any materials used in the CLIL classroom
Constituye una tentativa para superar las limitaciones de los planes de estudio tradicionales, de la enseñanza de materias individuales, y representa un cambio hacia la integración curricular .
Lessons will need to be challenging cognitively, with comparatively light linguistic demands.
Schools need to design materials to suit the needs of their learners, and to enable them to develop until they are working at high levels of cognitive and linguistic challenge.
How do schools tackle timetabling issues?
CILT research revealed a range of different approaches to timetabling CLIL:
isolated lessons over the school year and 'bilingual days‘
modules and even occasionally a whole year's commitment.
Many schools are starting to combine such work with class visits and/or partnerships with link schools abroad.
Some schools offer lessons where the foreign language learning is integrated with another curriculum subject.
What about resources and materials?
Most of the materials employed in CLIL lessons are teacher-generated .
There are insufficient commercially-produced resources to be easily available, or which are suitable.
English-language resources are sometimes translated directly into the target language, with modification as necessary.
The use of foreign language textbooks can be very profitable, but the texts often require modification of style and / or content to take the age and language level of students into account (modified input ).
Materials from textbooks 2. Find the picture From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Let’s Write . Miñón.
How does the CLIL approach benefit pupils? What are the advantages of content based instruction?
They will progress at faster-than-usual rates in the content subject.
CLIL aims to improve performance in both the content subject and the foreign language.
Research indicates there should be no detrimental effects for the CLIL pupils (and often progress is demonstrably better).
Greater pupil confidence
It can make learning a language more interesting and motivating . Students can use the language to fulfil a real purpose. AICLE se basa en la motivación intrínseca, es decir, el alumno se involucra en actividades interesantes, llenas de sentido, al mismo tiempo que utiliza el idioma.
Students can also develop a much wider knowledge of the world and improve their general educational needs.
Increase student awareness of the value of transferable skills and Knowledge. Taking information from different sources can help students to develop very valuable thinking skills that can then be transferred to other subjects.
The inclusion of a group work element within the framework given above can also help students to develop their collaborative skills , which can have great social value.
Debido a la naturaleza interactiva y cooperativa del trabajo, con AICLE el alumno gana autoestima y confianza en sí mismo, y aprende a trabajar con independencia y a organizarse mejor.
A través de unas condiciones de aprendizaje más favorables (debido al uso de estrategias y habilidades de aprendizaje comunes tanto en contenido como en lengua), con AICLE el alumno aprende a estudiar (learning to learn)
Con la integración de contenidos y lengua y con la implicación del alumno en actividades exigentes desde el punto de vista académico y cognitivo, AICLE favorece los procesos de pensamiento creativos .
What are the potential problems?
Because CBI isn't explicitly focused on language learning, some students may feel confused or may even feel that they aren't improving their language skills .
(We can deal with this by including some form of language focused follow-up exercises to help draw attention to linguistic features within the materials and consolidate any difficult vocabulary or grammar points).
Particularly in monolingual classes, the overuse of the students' native language during parts of the lesson can be a problem. Because the lesson isn't explicitly focussed on language practice students find it much easier and quicker to use their mother tongue.
We can try sharing your rationale with students and explain the benefits of using the target language rather than their mother tongue.
It can be hard to find adequate information sources and texts understand. Also the sharing of information in the target language may cause great difficulties.
A possible way around this at lower levels is either to use texts in the students' native language and then get them to use the target language for the sharing of information and end product, or to have texts in the target language, but allow the students to present the end product in their native language. These options should reduce the level of challenge.
Some students may copy directly from the source texts they use to get their information.
We can avoid this by designing tasks that demand students evaluate the information in some way, to draw conclusions or actually to put it to some practical use. Having information sources that have conflicting information can also be helpful as students have to decide which information they agree with or most believe.
Pollution is the release of environmental contaminants. The major forms of pollution include: Air pollution , the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage. Radioactive contamination , added in the wake of 20th-century discoveries in atomic physics . Noise pollution , which encompasses roadway noise , aircraft noise , industrial noise . Light pollution , includes light trespass and over-illumination Visual pollution , which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines , motorway indications, etc. Thermal Pollution , is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence Find the different types of pollution in the pictures More materials From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren. Making Progress . La Calesa. More materials