Douglas McGregorA,B,C …X,Y,Z
McGregor’s Profile Bachelor’s from Wayne StateUniversity District manager of retail gascompany Worked with transient la...
McGregor’s Beliefs“If there is anything he was trying toovercome or destroy, it was theinstitutional habit of talking abou...
McGregor’s Beliefs Employees are not machine parts tobe fixed, redesigned, or eliminated They are individual people in a...
Influencing McGregor’sWork McGregor challenges the prevailing moodof Taylor, alienation, and dehumanization Existing org...
McGregor’s Contributions toManagement Improved performance appraisalprocess Theory X and Theory Y How to improve organi...
Improved PerformanceAppraisal Process
Problems with ConventionalPerformance Appraisals Organizational objectives andrequirements evolve Individuals skills, ne...
McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Three uses of performance appraisal Administrative – salary, promotion ...
McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Drucker’s MBOSubordinate provides a clear jobstatementSubordinate provi...
McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Employees know their own strengthsand weaknesses best The manager knows ...
McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal By using MBO, the emphasis is on: Analysis not appraisal The future not...
Critique of McGregor’sPerformance Appraisal Performance issues are ignored Salary and promotion issues Some workers don...
Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory X assumptions The average person dislikes work andwill avoid it Most...
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory X outcomes Work becomes a means to an end Reinforces the rigid lines...
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory Y assumptions Physical and mental work effort are natural Committing...
McGregor’s X and Y TheoryYour belief structure (X or Y or ?)does not limit you from employinghard or soft managerial strat...
Critique of McGregor’sContributions He builds Theory X and Theory Y onMaslow’s hierarchyWhat are the strengths andweaknes...
McGregor’s Critiques Theory X and Y are insufficient inaccounting for all situations Nathan Harter states that Theory Xm...
How to ImproveOrganizationalEffectiveness?
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory People can achieve their own goalsby pursuing the organization’s goals The o...
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory The current management personais: decisive, force, competitive, just People...
McGregor’s View ofOrganizational Maps Current organizational structures: Delegate some authority notresponsibility You ...
McGregor’s View ofOrganizational Maps The organizational “maps” are notreal Maps have limited usefulness Authority ofte...
McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Three factor’s that make up amanager’s style: Cosmology Identity of the man...
McGregor’s Critique ofCurrent Management Existing management uses extrinsicrewards well Intrinsic rewards are not utiliz...
McGregor’s Observation Workers perceptions determine howthey respond to a policy or decision Don’t apply mechanical syst...
McGregor’s Suggestion forImproving OrganizationalEffectiveness Independent teams become the operativework groups Teams h...
Final Critique of McGregor Do teams really remove the reason tofight the system? Describe the characteristics of a human...
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Mcgregor(2)

  1. 1. Douglas McGregorA,B,C …X,Y,Z
  2. 2. McGregor’s Profile Bachelor’s from Wayne StateUniversity District manager of retail gascompany Worked with transient laborers Masters and PhD from Harvard Psychologist at MIT President at Antioch
  3. 3. McGregor’s Beliefs“If there is anything he was trying toovercome or destroy, it was theinstitutional habit of talking aboutthe virtues of democracy whilerunning affairs autocratically.”An Antioch College Professor
  4. 4. McGregor’s Beliefs Employees are not machine parts tobe fixed, redesigned, or eliminated They are individual people in all oftheir complexity
  5. 5. Influencing McGregor’sWork McGregor challenges the prevailing moodof Taylor, alienation, and dehumanization Existing organizations model the churchor the military 50 years of political, social and economicchange The problem is that management isapplying the wrong tools
  6. 6. McGregor’s Contributions toManagement Improved performance appraisalprocess Theory X and Theory Y How to improve organizationaleffectiveness
  7. 7. Improved PerformanceAppraisal Process
  8. 8. Problems with ConventionalPerformance Appraisals Organizational objectives andrequirements evolve Individuals skills, needs andobjectives change Management’s judgments differ Focus is on the past Employee performance is related tohow he is managed
  9. 9. McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Three uses of performance appraisal Administrative – salary, promotion Informative – feedback, suggestions forbehavioral change Motivation – coach, council
  10. 10. McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Drucker’s MBOSubordinate provides a clear jobstatementSubordinate provides job-relatedtargetsManagement and employee cometo terms on worker’s objectives
  11. 11. McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal Employees know their own strengthsand weaknesses best The manager knows the goals andobjectives of the organization andhimself
  12. 12. McGregor’s Contribution toPerformance Appraisal By using MBO, the emphasis is on: Analysis not appraisal The future not the past Performance not personality
  13. 13. Critique of McGregor’sPerformance Appraisal Performance issues are ignored Salary and promotion issues Some workers don’t want theresponsibility for setting their owngoals
  14. 14. Theory X and Theory Y
  15. 15. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory X assumptions The average person dislikes work andwill avoid it Most people must be coerced orcontrolled People avoid responsibility and havelittle ambition
  16. 16. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory X outcomes Work becomes a means to an end Reinforces the rigid lines of authority Managers that assume Theory X getTheory XSatisfied needs are not motivators
  17. 17. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Theory Y assumptions Physical and mental work effort are natural Committing to objectives will allow the fullrange of control tools to be utilized Commitment is a function of proper rewards People learn to seek responsibility People have the ability to creatively solveorganizational problems Employees need the freedom to utilize theiruntapped potential
  18. 18. McGregor’s X and Y TheoryYour belief structure (X or Y or ?)does not limit you from employinghard or soft managerial strategies
  19. 19. Critique of McGregor’sContributions He builds Theory X and Theory Y onMaslow’s hierarchyWhat are the strengths andweaknesses of this position?
  20. 20. McGregor’s Critiques Theory X and Y are insufficient inaccounting for all situations Nathan Harter states that Theory Xmanagers are not necessarilyinhuman
  21. 21. How to ImproveOrganizationalEffectiveness?
  22. 22. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory People can achieve their own goalsby pursuing the organization’s goals The organization will suffer if thisdoes not occur
  23. 23. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory The current management personais: decisive, force, competitive, just People are rational and emotional Emotions often drive different pointsof view Motivation is an emotional force
  24. 24. McGregor’s View ofOrganizational Maps Current organizational structures: Delegate some authority notresponsibility You only have one boss Strict span of control
  25. 25. McGregor’s View ofOrganizational Maps The organizational “maps” are notreal Maps have limited usefulness Authority often does not equalresponsibility Informal organization is real
  26. 26. McGregor’s Contribution toManagement Theory Three factor’s that make up amanager’s style: Cosmology Identity of the manager Organizational situation
  27. 27. McGregor’s Critique ofCurrent Management Existing management uses extrinsicrewards well Intrinsic rewards are not utilized You have to learn to see what isreally broken
  28. 28. McGregor’s Observation Workers perceptions determine howthey respond to a policy or decision Don’t apply mechanical systemrewards and punishments whenintrinsic rewards are called for
  29. 29. McGregor’s Suggestion forImproving OrganizationalEffectiveness Independent teams become the operativework groups Teams have high self control/selfregulation Supervision becomes support/instruction Teams help fulfill “social man” needs Teams remove reasons to fight thesystem
  30. 30. Final Critique of McGregor Do teams really remove the reason tofight the system? Describe the characteristics of a humaneTheory X. When would it be moreappropriate? What evidence do you see of this today?

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