Magic Numbers<br />An In-Depth Guide to the 5 Key Performance Indicators for Software Security Assurance       v1.3.2<br /...
Proceedings<br />2<br />Background<br />Essential KPIs<br />Applications<br />Practical<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />U...
Background<br />Metrics, KPIs, and Information Security<br />3<br />
When I first came here, this was all swamp. Everyone said I was daft to build a castle on a swamp, but I built in all the ...
Yes.Software Security Assurance programs have been known to fail in spite of their success… <br />
Security Metrics Primer<br />6<br />INFORMATION SECURITY HAS HAD A ROUGH RELATIONSHIP WITH METRICS<br />Three core issues ...
7<br />Information Security hasn’t capitalized on available metrics … can KPIs save the day?<br />
KPI Primer<br />8<br />A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance, commonly used to help an organizatio...
KPI Primer<br />9<br />A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance, commonly used to help an organizatio...
Business vs. IT Goals<br />IT Security Goals [App Sec]<br />Business Goals<br />What are Business Goals?<br />Test 100% we...
Organizations act on risk.Risk is bad, but in "shades of gray".Application vulnerabilities contribute to IT riskIT risk is...
Tough Questions<br />12<br />Will it be possible to perform an analysis of 100% of enterprise applications?<br />Will a ze...
Enterprise Application Security Program Challenges<br />13<br />Challenges<br />Get funded  Justify required resources<br...
Essential KPIs<br />Proving Success with Advanced Metrics<br />14<br />
The 5 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)<br />15<br />WRT– Weighted Risk Trend<br />DRW– Defect Remediation Window<br />RDR...
KPI #1 – Weighted Risk Trend<br />16<br />Maturity Rank: 1<br />A business-based representation of risk from vetted applic...
KPI #2 – Defect Remediation Window<br />17<br />Maturity Rank: 2<br />The length of time from when a vetted application se...
KPI #3 – Rate of Defect Recurrence<br />18<br />Maturity Rank: 3<br />The rate, over time, at which previously closed appl...
KPI #4 – Specific Coverage Metric<br />19<br />Maturity Rank: 4<br />The flow-based or component-based coverage of total f...
KPI #5 – Security to Quality Defect Ratio<br />20<br />Maturity Rank: 4<br />The ratio of security defects to the total nu...
Performance as a quality defect
Functional (+related) as a quality defect</li></ul>Tight cooperation of Information Security & Quality Assurance<br />
KPI Facts<br />KPI: WRT<br />KPI: DRW<br />KPI: RDR<br />Metric is best graphed<br />Risk trend will decrease over time si...
KPI Facts<br />KPI: SCM<br />KPI: SQR<br />Most difficult KPI to achieve<br />Most organizations cannot identify even know...
Applications<br />Applying the KPIs<br />23<br />
Applying KPIs to Web ApplicationSecurity Programs<br />What You Want<br />What You Have<br />
Failures of Common Metrics<br />Common Metrics<br />Failure Mode(s)<br />Options?<br />Number of vulnerabilities found<br ...
When Metrics Aren’t Enough<br />KPIsAnswer<br />Objective<br />Combine metrics with business-level context<br />Provide di...
Remove subjectivity of metrics by providing business context
Bring IT Security into higher-level business discussion
Unify “testing” methodologies</li></ul>26<br />
Practical<br />Real-life KPI use-case<br />27<br />
Current Situation<br /><ul><li>1,500 web applications
Security testing some web applications pre-production
Difficult to halt critical applications
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Magic Numbers - 5 KPIs for Measuring SSA Program Success v1.3.2

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If you've ever wanted to know how a Software Security Assurance program can have a closer tie-in with a business-level conversation, this is the presentation you can't miss.

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  • Multipliers are key hereShould be non-linearExplain what each “multiplier” is…Explain what the “Criticality-to-the-business” multiplier is… why is it importantWhere does it come from?
  • Magic Numbers - 5 KPIs for Measuring SSA Program Success v1.3.2

    1. 1. Magic Numbers<br />An In-Depth Guide to the 5 Key Performance Indicators for Software Security Assurance v1.3.2<br />Rafal Los – HP Security Evangelist<br />@Wh1t3Rabbit<br />Rafal @HP.com … cell: +1 (404) 606-6056<br />
    2. 2. Proceedings<br />2<br />Background<br />Essential KPIs<br />Applications<br />Practical<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />Understand the need for business-level intelligence<br />Identify essential KPIs, their definitions, components<br />Applying the 5 Essential KPIs to Enterprise Programs<br />A practical example of real-life application of KPIs<br />
    3. 3. Background<br />Metrics, KPIs, and Information Security<br />3<br />
    4. 4. When I first came here, this was all swamp. Everyone said I was daft to build a castle on a swamp, but I built in all the same, just to show them.It sank into the swamp.So I built a second one. That sank into the swamp. So I built a third. That burned down, fell over, then sank into the swamp.But the fourth one stayed up. And that's what you're going to get, Lad, the strongest castle in all of England. <br />Monty Python & the Holy Grail (King of Swamp Castle)<br />
    5. 5. Yes.Software Security Assurance programs have been known to fail in spite of their success… <br />
    6. 6. Security Metrics Primer<br />6<br />INFORMATION SECURITY HAS HAD A ROUGH RELATIONSHIP WITH METRICS<br />Three core issues with metrics in security:<br />Very little actuarial data to support initiatives<br />Virtually no data supporting likelihood of being successfully attacked<br />Incorrect, hasty use of metrics as intelligence<br />Vulnerabilities being used as risks<br />Metrics – math without context<br />“It hasn’t happened to me” being used as a metric<br />Many victims don’t know, or won’t admit it<br />
    7. 7. 7<br />Information Security hasn’t capitalized on available metrics … can KPIs save the day?<br />
    8. 8. KPI Primer<br />8<br />A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance, commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term organizational goals.<br />
    9. 9. KPI Primer<br />9<br />A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance, commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is, typically in terms of making progress towards its long-term organizational goals.<br />
    10. 10. Business vs. IT Goals<br />IT Security Goals [App Sec]<br />Business Goals<br />What are Business Goals?<br />Test 100% web applications<br />Zero vulnerabilities in production web applications<br />SDLC-integrated security processes<br />Continual environment scanning for new vulnerabilities<br />Developer education & training<br />Automate testing & compliance<br />10<br />
    11. 11. Organizations act on risk.Risk is bad, but in "shades of gray".Application vulnerabilities contribute to IT riskIT risk is a factor of overall organizational riskOrganizational goal: Reduce IT risk to acceptable level.<br />Mindset reset<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Tough Questions<br />12<br />Will it be possible to perform an analysis of 100% of enterprise applications?<br />Will a zero vulnerability metric be reachable, practical or even desirable?<br />Is vulnerability reduction the same as risk reduction?<br />
    13. 13. Enterprise Application Security Program Challenges<br />13<br />Challenges<br />Get funded  Justify required resources<br />Find vulnerabilities  Bugs in business critical apps<br />Removing defects  Decrease risks with a budget<br />Proving success How do you prove success?<br />Resources<br />Security vulnerability metrics<br />Application registries<br />Defect tracking systems<br />Data from tools, human testing<br />
    14. 14. Essential KPIs<br />Proving Success with Advanced Metrics<br />14<br />
    15. 15. The 5 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)<br />15<br />WRT– Weighted Risk Trend<br />DRW– Defect Remediation Window<br />RDR– Rate of Defect Recurrence<br />SCM– Specific Coverage Metric<br />SQR– Security to Quality defect Ratio<br />KPIs provide business-level context to security-generated data<br />KPIs answer the “so what?” question<br />Each additional KPI indicates a step forward in program maturity<br />None of these KPIs draw strictly from security data<br />
    16. 16. KPI #1 – Weighted Risk Trend<br />16<br />Maturity Rank: 1<br />A business-based representation of risk from vetted application security defects over a specified time-period, or repeated iterations of application development.<br />Formula:<br />[(Multipliercritical x defects) + (Multiplierhigh x defects) + (Multipliermedium x defects) + (Multiplierlow x defects)] x *Criticalitybusiness<br />Requirements<br />Web application registry with business-level criticality assigned<br />*Pull business criticality rating from DR documents<br />Vetted web applications security defects by criticality level<br />Mathematic plot capability<br />
    17. 17. KPI #2 – Defect Remediation Window<br />17<br />Maturity Rank: 2<br />The length of time from when a vetted application security defect is identified until it is verified closed.<br />Requirements<br />Defect tracking system, tracking application security vulnerabilities in development, testing, and production environments<br />Self-service testing, bug tracking, and reporting capabilities<br />Cooperative security enablement thru development, QA, OPS teams<br />
    18. 18. KPI #3 – Rate of Defect Recurrence<br />18<br />Maturity Rank: 3<br />The rate, over time, at which previously closed application security defects are re-introduced into a given application, organization, or other logical unit.<br />Requirements<br />Advanced defect tracking system<br />Advanced application security testing capabilities<br />Capabilities to identify similar or like defects across an application or logical trackable unit<br />
    19. 19. KPI #4 – Specific Coverage Metric<br />19<br />Maturity Rank: 4<br />The flow-based or component-based coverage of total functionality that application security testing has achieved.<br />Total functionality = known functionality + discovered functionality* <br />Requirements<br />Method for measuring total application surface (UI, API, code-level coverage methods) plus *advanced application discovery tools<br />Advanced security testing capabilities using flow-based, data-driven methodology for completeness<br />Integration with Quality Assurance for functional specification coverage<br />
    20. 20. KPI #5 – Security to Quality Defect Ratio<br />20<br />Maturity Rank: 4<br />The ratio of security defects to the total number of software quality defects being generated (functional + performance + security).<br />Formula: Ds = Total Security defects; Dt = Total Overall Quality defects<br />Ds<br />Dt<br />Requirements<br />Mature defect reporting system (tracking combined quality defects)<br /><ul><li>Security as a quality defect
    21. 21. Performance as a quality defect
    22. 22. Functional (+related) as a quality defect</li></ul>Tight cooperation of Information Security & Quality Assurance<br />
    23. 23. KPI Facts<br />KPI: WRT<br />KPI: DRW<br />KPI: RDR<br />Metric is best graphed<br />Risk trend will decrease over time similar to 1/x<br />Each defect criticality must have a non-linear factor assigned<br />Critical = 10<br />High = 5<br />Medium = 2<br />Low = 1<br />Application business criticality must be rigidly defined<br />Business critical<br />Critical<br />Important…<br />#1 most critical KPI<br />DRW will be potentially very large at first<br />Critical to shrink this metric as quickly as possible<br />Can be used to target education where needed<br />Important to note type of defect remediated (complex defects take longer to fix)<br />Reappearing defects measure internal development confusion<br />Recurring defects should prompt a systemic investigation into root-cause<br />Critical for identifying poorly-run development organizations<br />21<br />
    24. 24. KPI Facts<br />KPI: SCM<br />KPI: SQR<br />Most difficult KPI to achieve<br />Most organizations cannot identify even known attack surface coverage<br />Flow-driven & data-driven methodology is required to fully test known attack surface<br />Exploratory testing required to discover “unknown functionality”<br />Final step in organizational maturity with respect to security testing<br />Demonstrates security adoption as a component of overall software quality<br />22<br />
    25. 25. Applications<br />Applying the KPIs<br />23<br />
    26. 26. Applying KPIs to Web ApplicationSecurity Programs<br />What You Want<br />What You Have<br />
    27. 27. Failures of Common Metrics<br />Common Metrics<br />Failure Mode(s)<br />Options?<br />Number of vulnerabilities found<br />Number of pages scanned/tested<br />Critical vulnerabilities found<br />Critical vulnerabilities fixed<br />So what? No context!<br />So what? Do “pages” matter?<br />Business-critical? Or IT-critical? Or…?<br />Business-critical? Or IT-critical? Or…?<br />Business Context.<br />KPIsprovide business context to standard metrics reporting practices.<br />25<br />
    28. 28. When Metrics Aren’t Enough<br />KPIsAnswer<br />Objective<br />Combine metrics with business-level context<br />Provide direct feedback to the business to target ongoing effort<br />Track program effectiveness including education, corporate remediation strategies<br />Consolidate technical metrics into business-level dashboards<br />Successfully break the “security silo”<br /><ul><li>Conclusively prove that risk is being reduced through program effort
    29. 29. Remove subjectivity of metrics by providing business context
    30. 30. Bring IT Security into higher-level business discussion
    31. 31. Unify “testing” methodologies</li></ul>26<br />
    32. 32. Practical<br />Real-life KPI use-case<br />27<br />
    33. 33. Current Situation<br /><ul><li>1,500 web applications
    34. 34. Security testing some web applications pre-production
    35. 35. Difficult to halt critical applications
    36. 36. Metrics collected, reported ad-hoc (per test)</li></ul>Complaints<br />Example Application<br /> “the large financial”<br />No way to prioritize effort<br />Difficult to demonstrate if program spend is making a positive impact<br />Impossible to have business-level conversation on security vulnerabilities in go-live applications<br />No way of knowing what actual coverage is being achieved by security testing<br />Result: Business down-plays security’s role<br />28<br />
    37. 37. Example Application “the large financial”<br />29<br />Right Now<br />Applied KPI – Weighted Risk Trend (WRT)<br />Application registry + business ranking to prioritize application testing<br />Business context to go/no-go decisions for critical defects<br />Demonstrate risk reduction in business-critical applications over time<br />Demonstrate program spend effectiveness<br />Near Future<br />Applied KPI – Defect Remediation Window (DRW)<br />Produce baseline for defect remediation times<br />Implement program plan to prevent security defects from making it to production<br />Demonstrate program effectiveness by shrinking remediation window(s)<br />
    38. 38. 30<br />More vulnerabilities = more risk?<br />
    39. 39. 31<br />App criticality + defects = more risk<br />Context here<br />
    40. 40. Example Application “the large financial”<br />32<br />KPIs mean measurable gains<br />Break the “security silo”<br />Improve security team’s posture in the business<br />Apply business context to measure risk<br />Make key go/no-go decisions intelligently with business support<br />
    41. 41. 33<br />Data is raw information<br />Metrics are refined data<br />KPIs are metrics with business-context<br />Business context makes security relevant.<br />
    42. 42. The 5 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)<br />34<br />WRT– Weighted Risk Trend<br />DRW– Defect Remediation Window<br />RDR– Rate of Defect Recurrence<br />SCM– Specific Coverage Metric<br />SQR– Security to Quality defect Ratio<br />KPIs are the difference between technical data points, and the actionable intelligence that information security needs.<br />
    43. 43. Rafal Los - Security Evangelist, HP<br />Email: Rafal@HP.com Direct: +1 (404) 606-6056<br />Twitter: Twitter.com/Wh1t3Rabbit<br />Blog: HP.com/go/White-Rabbit<br />35<br />

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