Ch01

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Ch01

  1. 1. General ChemistryPrinciples and Modern Applications Petrucci • Harwood • Herring 8th Edition Chapter 1: Matter—Its Properties and Measurement Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002Slide 1 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  2. 2. Contents  Physical properties and states of matter  Système International Units  Uncertainty and significant figures  Dimensional analysis http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/chapter1/deluxe.htmlSlide 2 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  3. 3. Properties of Matterter: Occupies space, has mass and inertiamposition: Parts or components ex. H2O, 11.9% H and 88.81% Operties: Distinguishing features physical and chemical properties Slide 3 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  4. 4. States of MatterSlide 4 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  5. 5. 1_15 Classification of Matter Matter (materials) Physical processes Substances Mixtures Chemical Homogeneous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds mixtures reactions mixtures (solutions)Slide 5 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  6. 6. SeparationsSlide 6 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  7. 7. Separating Mixtures Chromatography Chromatography 1_17 Substances to be separated mixture dissolved in liquid Pure liquid A B CSlide 7 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  8. 8. Significant Figures Count from left from Adding and subtracting. first non-zero digit. Number Significant Use the number of decimal Figures places in the number with the 6.29 g 3 fewest decimal places. 0.00348 g 3 1.14 9.0 2 0.6 1.0 × 10-8 2 11.676 100 eggs infinit 13.416  13.4 100 g e ad b π = 3.14159 notation variousSlide 8 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  9. 9. Significant figuresMultiplying and dividing. Rounding OffUse the fewest significant 3rd digit is increased iffigures. 4th digit ≥ 5 Report to 3 significant.figures.0.01208 ÷ 0.236 10.235  10.2 = 0.512 12.4590  12.5 19.75  19.8 = 5.12 × 10-3 15.651  15.7 Slide 9 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  10. 10. Units S.I. Units Other Common Units Length metre, m Length Angstrom, Å, 10-8 cm Mass Kilogram, kg Volume Litre, L, 10-3 m3 Time second, s Energy Calorie, cal, 4.184 J Temperature Kelvin, K Pressure Quantity Mole, 6.022×1023 mol-1 1 Atm = 1.064 x 102 kPa 1 Atm = 760 mm Hg Derived Quantities Force Newton, kg m s-2 Pressure Pascal, kg m-1 s-2 Eenergy Joule, kg m2 s-2Slide 10 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  11. 11. Slide 11 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  12. 12. TemperatureSlide 12 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  13. 13. Relative TemperaturesSlide 13 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  14. 14. VolumeSlide 14 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  15. 15. Density δ= m/V m=Vδ V=m/δ g/mL Mass and volume are extensive properties Density is an intensive propertySlide 15 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  16. 16. Conversion What is the mass of a cube of osmium that is 1.25 inches on each side? Have volume, need density = 22.48g/cm3Slide 16 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  17. 17. Wrong units The Gimli Glider, Q86, p30Slide 17 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  18. 18. Uncertainties • Systematic errors. – Thermometer constantly 2°C too low. • Random errors – Limitation in reading a scale. • Precision – Reproducibility of a measurement. • Accuracy – How close to the real value.Slide 18 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1
  19. 19. End of Chapter Questions 1, 3, 5, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 30, 41, 49, 50, 61, 72, 74, 79Slide 19 of 19 Prentice-Hall © General Chemistry: Chapter 1

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