Construction of panama canal


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Brief explanation and videos of how the Panama Canal operates.

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Construction of panama canal

  1. 1. Construction and How the Canal Works<br />
  2. 2. The Panama Canal Engineering Wonder of 20th Century<br />According to the American Society of Civil Engineers<br />“The canal remains a testament to the combined skills of structural, geotechnical, hydraulic and sanitary engineers.”<br />
  3. 3. Facts and Figures<br />Construction began 1904 <br />Opened Aug. 15, 1914<br />50 Miles long deep water to deep water<br />Average depth 43 feet<br />Width varies between 500 to 1000 feet<br />14000 vessels pass every year<br />Average of 8 to 10 hour journey <br />Travel time from NYC to San Francisco 6000 miles compared to 14000 taking route around Cape Horn<br />Tolls based on tonnage of the vessel<br />
  4. 4. Key Figures in the Construction <br />William C. Gorgas- Surgeon General U.S. Army 1914-1918 <br /> Sent to Panama in 1904 to eradicate yellow fever/ malaria from the Canal Zone.<br />John F. Stevens- Chief engineer from 1905-1907, Responsible for initial work on the Culebra Cut and deciding to build a lock type canal.<br />Gen. George Washington Goethals. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ,Assigned completion of canal in 1907 by Pres. Roosevelt.<br />
  5. 5. Culebra Cut<br />Manmade valley that cuts through Continental Divide.<br />Line that divides the flow of water between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans-East to West<br /> The Cut forms part of the Panama Canal linking Lake Gatun and the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf of Panama and Pacific Ocean<br />It is 4.8 miles from Pedro Locks on the Pacific side of the Chagres River (water levels of 85 feet above sea level)<br />
  6. 6. Layout of Canal<br />Consists of artificial lakes (Miraflores, Gatun)and channels and three sets of locks<br />Additional artificial lake, Alajuela Lake, acts as a reservoir for the canal<br />Chagres River is dammed by the Gatun Dam and forms Gatun Lake-it drains northwest into the Caribbean Sea<br />
  7. 7. Gatun Dam<br />Constructed 1907-1913<br />Impounds Gatun Lake <br />Hydro-electric generating station generates electricity <br />Electricity used to operate the locks and other equipment in the canal<br />
  8. 8. How Locks Work/Design<br />Three sets of the two lane Canal work as water elevators to lift the ships to the level of the Gatun Lake <br />Set of lanes can accommodate traffic on opposite or same direction<br />No pumps used to lift the ships, the work is done by a force of gravity<br />Later lower the ships back to sea level on the other side of the Isthmus of Panama<br /> Electric locomotive on the side provides complete control of movement of vessels<br />All operations accomplished from a control house built on the center wall of the upper lock chamber.<br />Single person can run every operation in the passage of the ship except for the towing<br />
  9. 9. . <br />
  10. 10. Story of the Bridges<br />When the Panama Canal was completed in 1914, it divided the country of Panama as well as North and South America except for a small service bridge at the Gatun Locks. <br />In 1942, a small service swing bridge was built at the Miraflores Locks. Both of these bridges were quite small and can only be used when the locks gates are closed. Therefore as traffic increased, the small service bridges and ferries could not handle the volume of traffic. <br />
  11. 11. Finally in 1959, the United States started construction on the Bridge of the Americas and completed the bridge in 1962.<br />When opened, the bridge was an important part of the Pan-American Highway, and carried around 9,500 vehicles per day; however, this expanded over time, and by 2004 the bridge was carrying 35,000 vehicles per day. The bridge therefore became a significant bottleneck on the highway, which led to the construction of the Centennial Bridge, which now carries the Pan-American Highway too. <br />
  12. 12. Bridge of the Americas<br />
  13. 13. Bridge of the Americas<br />Puente de Las Américas (In Spanish).<br />The Bridge of the Americas is approximately 354 ft. high and 5,400 ft. long, and connects the land that was divided during the construction of the Panama Canal(as well as north and south America). The Bridge of the Americas crosses the Pacific approach to the Panama Canal at Balboa, near Panama City and serves as an important part of the Inter-American Highway.<br />
  14. 14. -Originally known as the Thatcher Ferry Bridge, is a road bridge in Panama, which spans the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. <br />-Completed in 1962, costing $20 million, it was the only non-swinging bridge (there are two other bridges, one at the Miraflores locks and one at the Gatun locks) <br />
  15. 15. Centennial Bridge<br />
  16. 16. Centennial Bridge<br />(Spanish: Puente Centenario) <br /> A major bridge crossing the Panama Canal. It was built to supplement the overcrowded Bridge of the Americas, and to replace it as the carrier of the Pan-American Highway; upon its opening in 2004, it became only the second permanent crossing of the canal.<br />
  17. 17. The bridge is cable-stayed ,meaning it’s a bridge that consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the bridge, the cables are made nearly parallel by attaching cables to various points on the tower.<br /> It’s designed with a total span of 1,052 m (3,451 ft). The main span is 320 m (1,050 ft), and clears the canal by 80 m (262 ft), allowing large vessels to pass below it. <br /> The bridge is supported by two towers, each 184 m (604 ft) high. The deck carries six lanes of traffic across the canal.The bridge is designed to withstand the earthquake.<br /> The West Tower of the bridge was built ca. 50m inland to allow space for the future widening of the Panama Canal.<br />