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Artikel review the internet

  1. 1. Science owes more to the steam engineThe Internet and the than the steam engine owes to science (L.J. Henderson, 1917).libraryNick Moore The virtual library Virtual libraries are frequently referred to as ``libraries without walls and it is the Internet that provides the ``windows and the ``transparency which makes this possible. It allows users who are physically isolated from the library to see in and it allows those inside the library to see out. Although the great dreams of Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) and UniversalThe author Bibliographic Control (UBC) (Law, 1998), that have enthralled generations of librarians,Nick Moore is an Information Consultant, Visiting are still unfulfilled, the permeation of theProfessor at the University of Brighton, and Internet Editor Internet throughout every facet of daily lifeof Library Review. brings the dream closer to reality. The major, but by no means exclusive applications of theKeywords Internet have been in the form of the WorldLibraries, Librarians, Library services, Internet Wide Web and the establishment of intranets (locally based Internet functionality).Abstract Library Web sitesThe current and future applications and implications of In recent years a great deal of activity inthe Internet within and for libraries are indicated. Aspects libraries has been devoted to the design,of the virtual library are considered, followed by the implementation and refinement of libraryimpact of the Internet on aspects of library holdings. Web sites. These have formed the basicFeatures of online access, including search engine structure and infrastructure of the virtualperformance, are noted and collection development library and the services have included onlineeffects pointed out. Security issues, including pornography public access catalogues (OPACs), distanceand copyright are described, and finally future learning, library publicity, library holdingsimplications of the Internet for libraries, through home and other facilities.versus library use and discussion groups, and influenceson the Internet of library science are discussed. OPACs Most libraries have devoted largeElectronic access expenditures on the development of onlineThe current issue and full text archive of this journal is public access catalogues (OPACs). Theavailable at online aspect of these catalogues, originallyhttp://www.emerald-library.com aimed at internal use, has now been extended to include external access. In addition to the librarys stock of materials, such as books and audio-visual materials, the OPACs can also provide access to the librarys journals holdings and enable outside users to determine which journals are held by the library and in which part of the library. The Internet enables libraries at different locations to form networks involving their OPACs to give rise to powerful union catalogues, particularly of journals holdings. TheLibrary ReviewVolume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . pp. 422±427 cataloguing efforts have tended to be dual in# MCB University Press . ISSN 0024-2535 that they use the Internet as a medium for 422
  2. 2. The Internet and the library Library Review Nick Moore Volume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . 422±427co-operation while developing techniques for range of library publicity options offered by acataloguing Internet-based materials (Weber, library Web site is the updated introductory1999). library guide for first year undergraduates, produced by Bath University Library andDistance learning Learning Centre in which the printed guide wasAcademic libraries serving a scattered student replaced by a credit card holder bearing thepopulation can provide sophisticated distance Library logo and Web site URL on the frontlearning programmes[1]. The widespread and a concertina insert with basic informationaccess of the Internet into the homes of the (SCONUL Newsletter, 2000).students ensures the success of these schemesand enables the libraries to provide coursematerials and other documents electronically Library holdingsto students scattered over wide areas,particularly rural areas. Typical applications The implications of the Internet for libraryinclude the DERAL (Distance Education in holdings are both wide-ranging andRural Areas via Libraries) project[2] and contentious. The ability to replace internally-Project LISTED (Library Integrated System held paper stock with either access tofor Telematics-based Education), a European electronic equivalents via the Internet orCommission project part funded under the storage and provision of electronic materialsTelematics Applications Programme held on library or library-group intranets is(Libraries sector)[3]. A number of models particularly attractive given the growinghave been applied to the various ways in pressures placed on the librarys ability towhich the Web can be used as part of the store physically a growing amount of materialstudent learning experience: (Bawden, 1999; Rowlands, 1999).. the ``open resource model; where the Web is accessed to retrieve information Electronic journals from diverse sources which may, or may The frustration (for libraries), caused by the not, be educationally-based; reluctance of many journals publishers to face. the ``learning materials model where the the perceived risks of moving away from Web contains specific resources for printed and towards electronic journals, seems students such as background reading to be fading as the growth and acceptability of recommended by academic staff; business-to-business electronic commerce is. the ``teaching materials model which prompting publishers to make a commitment contains information provided by to the new formats. In addition to the large academic staff and related to a particular number of free electronic journals that are course of study and may contain brief currently available to libraries, there are a large summaries of lectures and be a number of subscription journals that offer replacement for paper-based handouts; libraries the ability to subscribe on the same. the ``directed learning model containing basis as print or to access on a pay-for-view the complete set of learning materials for basis. The role of the aggregator, well a course; established in the world of print journals, in. ``computer assisted learning model, the form of the subscription agent, far from involving computer-based training for being rendered obsolete by the emergence of self-study by students; and electronic journals has actually been. the ``communication model where reinvented and forms one of the main means students discuss and collaborate on their by which libraries access electronic journals via studies through facilities such as the Internet (CatchWord[4], EBSCOhost/ computer conferencing. EBSCO Online[5]).Library publicity Electronic booksThe Internet has stimulated libraries into Electronic books (e-books) are currentlyinvesting a great deal of time and imagination showing sign of taking off after a somewhatinto providing information about the library shaky start. Publishers who are contemplatingand its services. The provision of searching shedding their book programmes could wellfacilities on most sites allows users to be acting prematurely. Many publishers areinterrogate the Web sites. An example of the generating HTML versions of the first 423
  3. 3. The Internet and the library Library Review Nick Moore Volume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . 422±427chapters of their books and these will be Search enginesextremely valuable as collection development It probably came as a nasty surprise to manytools. A range of sources describing e-books to see the relatively poor coverage of the Webare available[6-10]. by the major search engines reported in recent studies (Lawrence and Lee, 1998; 1999).Patents Nevertheless, improvements continue to beAn excellent example of the availability of made in the coverage, timeliness,freely accessible online databases is the wealth functionality and special access featuresof full text patent databases (UK and US incorporated into the current range of searchPatent Offices[11,12]) accessible on the Web. engines. Reviews of search engine featuresThe ability of users to access and obtain continue to appear regularly in the literaturecopies of UK and US patents from these (Webber, 1998).databases has meant that the British Libraryspatent libraries are virtually deserted and the Gateways, portals and vortalsremaining users tend to be those interested in The value of Web sites as information sourcesold patents currently held on microfilm. As for libraries has been greatly increased withthese patents become digitised, the British the emergence of gateways, portals and vortalsLibrary will be able to reallocate the space to (vertically integrated portals). These servicesother functions. The vision of a library provide structured access to other, related,comprising electronic material is unattractive Web sites and benefit the users from theto many people but there can be no denying intellectual effort that goes into the selectionthat electronic materials have both the means processes that are used to select the site (aof relieving the pressure on space and the process very much analogous to the selectionplasticity to lend themselves to easier process undertaken by libraries to gear librarytransmission, copying and reprocessing into collections to the needs of library users).special formats such as talking books. There Portals and vortals are particularly valuable forare still many problems remaining to be business information and tend to providesolved and these include issues of permanence information free of charge, the services beingin archival material[13]. funded by advertising (Peek, 1999). Image databasesOnline database access As image databases continue to becomeOne of the major revolutions introduced by important as means both of preserving imagesthe Internet is the vastly increased access to from printed media and for enabling access toonline information made possible via the visual information, so the need for indexingWorld Wide Web. The range of information and subject access has become pressing.sources, in terms of both bibliographic and Digital libraries of geospatial and similarimage databases and specialized Web sites on multimedia content are currently deficient inall subjects is vast. A huge improvement in the providing fuzzy, concept-based retrievalaccess to online medical information has been mechanisms to users. Considerable work haswrought through the provision of free and been undertaken by the United Geologicalunlimited access to MEDLINE through a Survey in mechanising the labour-intensivenumber of differently packaged versions, processes of indexing and thesaurus creationnotably PubMed[14]. When this is coupled for text documents and especially for images,with online document delivery (Loansome where 800,000 declassified satelliteDoc), the result is a powerful online tool for photographs have been made availableall libraries. Similar examples include the free (Ramsey et al., 1999).access to the ERIC database and to the fulltext patent databases mentioned above. Themajor online vendors, such as DIALOG, now Collection development, outsourcing,all offer Web versions of their dial-up services, interlending and document deliverytaking advantage of the possibilities ofdocument delivery of electronic journal The Internet provides a number ofarticles directly from the publishers or opportunities for libraries to improve theirindirectly from the aggregators. collection development, interlending and 424
  4. 4. The Internet and the library Library Review Nick Moore Volume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . 422±427document delivery processes and switch to materials to be loaned or the transmission ofoutsourcing. electronic copies of actual documents. The influence of the Internet has been feltCollection development throughout this process and manifests itself inThe process of collection development has the use of electronic mail (e-mail) for orderingbeen revolutionised by the emergence of documents, the use of the Web for thebrand new Web-based information sources, transmission of electronic articles or otherin addition to Web-based equivalents of materials and the exploitation of thetraditional selection tools. Of particular value Internets ability to provide libraries with thefor book selection is the Amazon.com family opportunity to develop their collectionsof Web resources, which incorporate beyond the walls of their libraries; where thesearching facilities, reviews written by physical location of materials is no longer thevolunteers and mechanisms for purchasing key issue, but rather the provision of timelybooks that have been selected. Old favourites, access to information (Scully, 1999).such as Bowkers Books in Print, have alsolaunched Web sites with similar functionalityand customer-friendly features. These Security issuesselection tools will become even morepowerful as publishers develop electronic In addition to the security issues facingbooks (e-Books) and release HTML versions libraries in the use of electronic commerceof the first chapters of their books to these for purchasing and similar cash transactions,services enabling libraries to have even more there are also Internet issues involving theinformation on which to make their selection access, by children and young people, tojudgements. The increasing acceptability of pornography or other material likely to bebusiness-to-business electronic commerce is considered unsuitable and to copyrightbound to make library purchasing a smoother issues.and more efficient process and lead to costsavings. Periodicals market forces, budgetary Access to pornographyconstraints and growth in electronic resources One of the challenges facing public libraries ispurchasing have resulted in a decline in the that of unsupervised access to the Internet byacquisition of print items. Due to the decline children and young people. Public librariesof print collections, libraries are exploring are increasingly adding Internet and Webco-operative collection development of print access, along the lines of the burgeoningmaterials to ensure access and preservation. cybercafes. Considerable concern has been ÂThe decline of approval plan use and the need expressed regarding the possibility of childrenfor co-operative collection development may and young people becoming corrupted byrequire additional effort for sound collection some of the less attractive corners of the Web.development (Blecic, 1999). Part of the problem lies in the shortcomings of the search engines which can give some veryOutsourcing strange ``false drops. These problems,As the Internet and World Wide Web break together with the possibility of deliberatedown the barriers separating the library from access, have been addressed by attempts tothe rest of the world and as communications develop ``filtering software; so far with mixedare improved drastically, so the advantages, results. Currently available filtering softwareparticularly to public libraries, of outsourcing and services are notoriously clumsy,library processes, such as cataloguing and sometimes blocking perfectly respectable sitesacquisitions, are becoming increasingly and curtailing whole areas of legitimateattractive. The reason given most often by enquiry for young people through the use oflibraries for outsourcing was that it resulted in terms which might have sexual connotationscost savings (Blecic, 1999). (Stoker, 1999). Many companies are installing software designed to block access,Interlending and document delivery by employees, to selected Internet sitesThe underlying problem of interlending and (Rudich, 1999). The issue tends to bedocument delivery has always been that of wrapped up with considerations of freedom ofcommunication, whether it be the information and is still racked withcommunication of information regarding contention. 425
  5. 5. The Internet and the library Library Review Nick Moore Volume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . 422±427Copyright Science owes more to the steamPublishers have tended to have mixed feelings engine F F Fabout the Internet and libraries. The marriagebetween publishers and libraries, though a The profound influence that the steamnatural and, for the most part, a symbiotic engine had on the development of ideas inone has always been fraught with difficulty, thermodynamics is finding an echo in thewith each tending to suspect the other of influence that the library and informationinfidelity from time to time. The emergence science (LIS) profession is starting to haveof the Internet has served to make a difficult on certain aspects and functions of themarriage even more so, despite the fact that Internet.enormous opportunities exist. Publishers The search engines, which started out inprobably do not have enough experience yet isolation from the mainstream of LISto make permanent policy about copyright research, are beginning to take stock andand fair use but everyone involved in the apply some of the long-established librarypublishing chain should be flexible and trust techniques, particularly classification, tothe market to dictate what is required[15]. additional layers of structure to Web sites. An important example of where libraryHome use versus library use practice has influenced Web site design and search engine functionality is in theOf all the library/Internet challenges yet to emergence of metadata (Vine, 1999; Heery,become clearly defined is the likely future 1996). OCLCs Dublin Core metadataeffect of home access to information sources elements, drawing heavily on the structuredon the Web. Users who can access full textdatabases from the comfort of their homes computerised bibliographic databasemay avoid the traditional visit to the library. formats, such as MARC, originallyThe trend towards end-user searching, much developed for sharing cataloguing data, arevaunted and much maligned in the 1980s and playing an increasingly important role inearly 1990s, where it was applied to dial-up bringing order to the Web[16].online services, is now starting to come into Similarly, the efforts expended by theits own with access to the Web. Public library and information community inlibraries may not be affected as much as creating USMARC Field 856 (Electronicacademic libraries and the services provided Location and Access) (Riemer, 1998),by national libraries, but the question arises as Persistent Uniform resource Locatorto the degree to which the powerful (PURL)[17] and the Digital Objectinformation access tools that are readily Identifier (DOI)[18-20] have played aavailable to anyone with a personal computer significant role in achieving greater library(PC) at home and access to the Internet will exploitation of the Internet.reshape some of the services and service One possible outcome could be the demisephilosophies currently applying to libraries. of the traditional abstracting and indexing (A&I) services, which have for a long timeDiscussion groups been sources of heavy expenditure for libraries. As search engines becomeThe application of the Internet and World increasingly sophisticated and publishersWide Web, as a medium for various levels of include metadata (including abstracts anddiscussion and the communication of ideas indexing) with their electronic journals, theand views, is becoming particularly valuablefor library and information science (LIS) need for A&Is could diminish unless they canprofessionals who can use discussion make a sufficiently good case for theirsoftware, Usenet, electronic mail discussion standardised indexing.lists (Mailbase, LIS-LINK), electronic Another example of this phenomenon isconferencing, instant messaging, chatrooms the way that the traditional concept ofand videoconferencing to assist them by selective dissemination of information (SDI)calling on the expertise of other LIS has become adopted by the Internet in theprofessionals if they have particular needs or form of ``push technologies (Solomon,are stuck for ideas. 1999). 426
  6. 6. The Internet and the library Library Review Nick Moore Volume 49 . Number 9 . 2000 . 422±427Notes Blecic, D.D. (1999), Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, Vol. 87 No. 2, April, pp. 178-86. 1 <http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/05-01/ Heery, R. (1996), Program, Vol. 30 No. 4, October, hooke.html> pp. 345-73. 2 <http://deral.infc.ulst.ac.uk> Law, D. (1998), Library Review, Vol. 47 No. 5/6, 3 <http://www.exploit-lib.org/issue1/listed/> pp. 296-300. 4 <http://www.catchword.com> Lawrence, S. and Lee, C.G. (1998), Science, Vol. 280 No. 3 5 <http://www.ebsco.com> April, pp. 98-100. 6 <http://www.ala.org/alonline/netlib/il500.html> Lawrence, S. and Lee, C.G. (1999), Nature, Vol. 400 No. 8, 7 <http://www.biblio-tech.com/html/e- July, pp. 107-9. (Summarized by David Green in book_technology.html> 8 <http://www.biblio-tech.com/html/e- Information World Review, No. 151, October 1999, book_update.html> pp. 31-32 and in a three page summary from Steve 9 <http://www.sls.lib.il.us/infotech/presentations/ Lawrence <lawrence@research.nj.nec.com>. ebooks/> Peek, R.P. (1999), Information Today, Vol. 16 No. 8, 10 <http://bibliofuture.homepage.com/> September, pp. 36-7. 11 < http://www.patent.gov.uk/dbservices/> Ramsey, M.C. et al. (1999), Journal of the American 12 < http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html> Society for Information Science, Vol. 50 No. 9, July, 13 <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/september99/vanderwerf/ pp. 826-34. 09vanderwerf.html> Riemer, J.J. (1999), Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 14 < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi> 15 <http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/04-03/ Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 5-9. strong.html> Rowlands, I. (1999), Libri, Vol. 49 No. 4, December, 16 <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/bearman/ pp. 192-202. 01bearman.html> Rudich, J. (1999), Link-Up (USA), Vol. 16 No. 2, March/ 17 <http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/04-03/ April, Vol. 6 No. 12. lindquist.html> SCONUL Newsletter, (2000), Vol. 19, Spring, pp. 25-26. 18 <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may99/05paskin.html> Scully, P. (1999), Australian Library Journal, Vol. 48 No. 2, 19 <http://www.icsti.org/icsti/forum/ May, pp. 178-88. fo9904.html#fennessy> Stoker, D. (1999), Journal of Librarianship and Information 20 <http://www.icsti.org/icsti/forum/ Science, Vol. 31 No. 1, March, pp. 3-6. fo9904.html#paskin> Vine (1999), Vol. 116, pp. 6-48; Vol. 117, pp. 3-53. Webber, S. (1998), Business Information Review, Vol. 15 No. 4, December, pp. 229-37.References Weber, M.B. (1999), Library Hi Tech, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 298-303.Bawden, D. (1999), Libri, Vol. 49 No. 4, December, Solomon, M. (1999), Searcher, Vol. 7 No. 6, June, pp. 181-91. pp. 70-6. 427

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