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  • 1. Mutation & Genetic Variation
  • 2. I. MUTATION & GENETIC VARIATION1. Mutation: a CHANGE or alteration of the DNAsequence that can cause a disruption of a geneand in turn alter the production of a protein
  • 3. a. Mutation can involve the ENTIRE chromosome or a SINGLE geneb. May HELP, HARM, or have LITTLE to no effect on future generations o Changes may be SILENT or may cause phenotypic changes
  • 4. c. Can occur during SEXUAL and ASEXUAL reproduction • _INHERITED mutation: occur in gametes and can be passed down to offspring cells – Happens during meiosis • _NONINHERITED mutation: occur in somatic cells which can alter the future new cells – Happens during mitosis!
  • 5. II. CAUSES OF MUTATION:1. _HEREDITY2. _CARCINOGENS: chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol, etc.3. _CHANCE: mistakes that happen during replication but are rare
  • 6. III. MAJOR EXAMPLES THAT CAUSEMUTATIONS:1. _JUMPING GENES: a TRANSPOSON or segment of DNA that can insert itself into different positions along a chromosome
  • 7. 2. _CROSSING OVER fails: incomplete separation ofchromosomes leads to more or less chromosomesin new progeny (happens in meiosis)
  • 8. 3. SINGLE GENE MUTATIONSa. SUBSTITUTION: ONE or MORE nucleotides are REPLACED by a different nucleotide in the gene sequence ex: AGA copied as AGG  Results in a NEW CODON (mRNA)  If codon is the same as the original, the protein will not be affected ex: UCU and UCC both code for same amino acid  If codon is a “stop” or different amino acid the protein will be altered
  • 9. Ex:Normal: EAT THE CATMutation: EAT THE BAT
  • 10. b. DELETION: _ONE or MORE nucleotides may be DELETED from the gene sequence o More serious consequences than substitutions o The deletion of a single nucleotide cause remaining nucleotide codons to be grouped incorrectly
  • 11. IV. RESULTS OF MUTATIONS• CHANGES TO DNA CAN INCREASE CHANCES OF GENETIC VARIATION THAT MAY OR MAY NOT BE HARMFUL1. Hereditary disorders: inherited mutation a. _SICKLE CELL ANEMIA b. _PKU: phenylketonuria c. _CYSTIC FIBROSIS2. Cancer: non-inherited mutation