Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Mutation notes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Mutation notes

1,789

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,789
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Mutation & Genetic Variation
  • 2. I. MUTATION & GENETIC VARIATION1. Mutation: a CHANGE or alteration of the DNAsequence that can cause a disruption of a geneand in turn alter the production of a protein
  • 3. a. Mutation can involve the ENTIRE chromosome or a SINGLE geneb. May HELP, HARM, or have LITTLE to no effect on future generations o Changes may be SILENT or may cause phenotypic changes
  • 4. c. Can occur during SEXUAL and ASEXUAL reproduction • _INHERITED mutation: occur in gametes and can be passed down to offspring cells – Happens during meiosis • _NONINHERITED mutation: occur in somatic cells which can alter the future new cells – Happens during mitosis!
  • 5. II. CAUSES OF MUTATION:1. _HEREDITY2. _CARCINOGENS: chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol, etc.3. _CHANCE: mistakes that happen during replication but are rare
  • 6. III. MAJOR EXAMPLES THAT CAUSEMUTATIONS:1. _JUMPING GENES: a TRANSPOSON or segment of DNA that can insert itself into different positions along a chromosome
  • 7. 2. _CROSSING OVER fails: incomplete separation ofchromosomes leads to more or less chromosomesin new progeny (happens in meiosis)
  • 8. 3. SINGLE GENE MUTATIONSa. SUBSTITUTION: ONE or MORE nucleotides are REPLACED by a different nucleotide in the gene sequence ex: AGA copied as AGG  Results in a NEW CODON (mRNA)  If codon is the same as the original, the protein will not be affected ex: UCU and UCC both code for same amino acid  If codon is a “stop” or different amino acid the protein will be altered
  • 9. Ex:Normal: EAT THE CATMutation: EAT THE BAT
  • 10. b. DELETION: _ONE or MORE nucleotides may be DELETED from the gene sequence o More serious consequences than substitutions o The deletion of a single nucleotide cause remaining nucleotide codons to be grouped incorrectly
  • 11. IV. RESULTS OF MUTATIONS• CHANGES TO DNA CAN INCREASE CHANCES OF GENETIC VARIATION THAT MAY OR MAY NOT BE HARMFUL1. Hereditary disorders: inherited mutation a. _SICKLE CELL ANEMIA b. _PKU: phenylketonuria c. _CYSTIC FIBROSIS2. Cancer: non-inherited mutation

×