Human genetic inheritance patterns

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  • 1. Human Genetics
  • 2. I. 5 Human Patterns of Inheritance:a. Complete Dominance (Basic Mendelian Genetics)b. Incomplete Dominancec. Co-dominanced. Sex-Linkede. Polygenic
  • 3. a. Complete Dominance• Traits inherited are either DOMINANT or RECESSIVE• Ex. BB, Bb, bb
  • 4. b. Incomplete Dominance• Traits inherited show a new phenotype that is a BLENDING or MIXING of parental alleles –HETEROZYGOUS results in a blending of two alleles –Use 2 different CAPITAL letters to represent (neither allele is dominant or recessive)
  • 5. Incomplete Dominance cont.Ex: 4 o’clock flowers, snapdragons, Tay Sach’s Disease
  • 6. Incomplete Dominance cont.Ex: 4 o’clock flowers, snapdragons, Tay Sach’s Disease
  • 7. Incomplete Dominancecont.Ex: 4 o’clockflowers, snapdragons, TaySach’s Disease
  • 8. c. Co-dominance• Trait inherited shows a new phenotype that EXPRESSES BOTH parental alleles –HETEROZYGOUS condition results in the expression of both alleles – Use 2 different capital letters to represent
  • 9. Co-dominance continuedEx: Roan Horse X
  • 10. Co-dominance continuedEx: Roan Horse, Dalmatian
  • 11. d. Sex Linked Traits• Traits are controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosomesa. _X linked traits can be passed on to males and femalesb. _Y linked traits can only be passed to males
  • 12. X-Linked Traits1. Affect the X chromosome2. _FEMALES tend to be CARRIERS and XtY pass on the trait to their sons -3. Females can be affected but BOTH X chromosomes must have the gene for the trait - XtXt
  • 13. Examples:
  • 14. Hypertrichosis –Human Werewolf Syndrome: Congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH) Rare, X-linked dominant trait Found in a single multigenerational Mexican family
  • 15. Colorblindness Self Test:NUMBERS: 5 | 8 | 9 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 9 | 10 |
  • 16. Hemophilia
  • 17. Male Pattern Baldness
  • 18. Genotypes of Male Pattern Baldness
  • 19. e. Polygenic Traits• Traits are controlled by MULTIPLE gene pairs1.Genes may be on same or different chromosomes2.Expressed trait varies greatlyEx. Hair color, eye and skincolors, height, weight
  • 20. II. How to study patterns of inheritance infamilies Two Methods: 1. _KARYOTYPE: Photograph of an individual’s chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and can be viewed underneath a microscope a. Used to identify problems with chromosomes • _ABNORMAL NUMBERS • _DAMAGED OR BROKEN • _TO DETECT GENETIC DISEASES
  • 21. Typical Karyotype: Normal Individual Pattern of Inheritance: Normal Chromosome Pattern Abnormality: None Notation: 46, XY, Male
  • 22. 2. _PEDIGREE CHART: Diagram to show genetic traits and used to map genetic traits through generationsa. Shows SEX, PHENOTYPE S, and GENOTYPES of family membersb. Can predict patterns of inheritancec. Uses symbols