From Gene to ProteinTranscription & Translation
I. PROTEINS: The NUCLEUS controls the ACTIVITIES in the  cell and the DNA inside is composed of genes  that code for cert...
All in all, how you look and the activities of your body is largely            determined by the proteins that are made!!
II. STRUCTURE OF RNA                           Nuclear                           Pores DNA is too big to exit  the nucleu...
A. RNA: RIBONUCLEIC ACID  1. _SINGLE strand  2. Nucleotide:        –5 carbon sugar        –Phosphate group        –Nitroge...
B. 3 Types of RNA:1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)• Reads DNA code and carries the MESSAGE for  making proteins out of the nucleus ...
B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)• Makes the structure of the RIBOSOME(remember from bio-a that ribosomes ...
B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)3. Transfer RNA (tRNA)• Transfers AMINO ACIDS to the ribosome for  protein assembly
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS A. Transcription    happens in the    Nucleus • _MESSAGE of DNA is   copied or   TRANS...
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  A. Transcription     happens in the     Nucleus  • _MESSAGE of DNA is    copi...
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)   Process of Transcription:  1. DNA UNZIPS  animation
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  2. mRNA is TRANSCRIBED from the DNA  message      mRNA bases are grouped int...
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  3. mRNA BREAKS AWAY from the DNA strand
III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  4. mRNA LEAVES the  NUCLEUS and enters the  cytoplasm to await  attachment of...
B. Translation:Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of READING the mRNA codons and  translating ...
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of translation: mRNA leaves the nucl...
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes2. mRNA CODONS will be READ by the ribosome
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes3. A tRNA carrying an AMINO ACID in the cell w...
ANTICODON: acodon’sCOMPLEMENT thatwill help bring thecorrect amino acidto the ribosome
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation begins with a START codon, whic...
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation ends when a STOP codon is read
B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes6. When each amino acid joins together at ther...
Gene to protein ss
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Gene to protein ss

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Gene to protein ss

  1. 1. From Gene to ProteinTranscription & Translation
  2. 2. I. PROTEINS: The NUCLEUS controls the ACTIVITIES in the cell and the DNA inside is composed of genes that code for certain proteins _PROTEIN codes for a particular trait or helps perform various activities within the cell or body The processes explained here will show how the genetic message of DNA is able to leave the nucleus and reach ribosomes which assemble all the proteins
  3. 3. All in all, how you look and the activities of your body is largely determined by the proteins that are made!!
  4. 4. II. STRUCTURE OF RNA Nuclear Pores DNA is too big to exit the nucleus, so its code must be read by RNA RNA is the molecule that will be assembled to help make proteins and the ribosomes
  5. 5. A. RNA: RIBONUCLEIC ACID 1. _SINGLE strand 2. Nucleotide: –5 carbon sugar –Phosphate group –Nitrogen basePairs: A-U (not T!) C-G
  6. 6. B. 3 Types of RNA:1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)• Reads DNA code and carries the MESSAGE for making proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosome
  7. 7. B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)• Makes the structure of the RIBOSOME(remember from bio-a that ribosomes are the“workers” of the cell!!)
  8. 8. B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)3. Transfer RNA (tRNA)• Transfers AMINO ACIDS to the ribosome for protein assembly
  9. 9. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS A. Transcription happens in the Nucleus • _MESSAGE of DNA is copied or TRANSCRIBED into mRNA, which can leave the nucleus
  10. 10. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) A. Transcription happens in the Nucleus • _MESSAGE of DNA is copied or TRANSCRIBED into mRNA, which can leave the nucleus
  11. 11. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  Process of Transcription: 1. DNA UNZIPS animation
  12. 12. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 2. mRNA is TRANSCRIBED from the DNA message  mRNA bases are grouped into sets of 3 nucleotides called a CODON or triplet code Codon: triplet code that represents an amino acid that will build a protein
  13. 13. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 3. mRNA BREAKS AWAY from the DNA strand
  14. 14. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 4. mRNA LEAVES the NUCLEUS and enters the cytoplasm to await attachment of the ribosome.
  15. 15. B. Translation:Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of READING the mRNA codons and translating them into PROTEINS (by attaching amino acids together)
  16. 16. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of translation: mRNA leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm1. A RIBOSOME (rRNA) ATTACHES to the mRNA,which is the site for constructing proteins mRNA ribosome
  17. 17. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes2. mRNA CODONS will be READ by the ribosome
  18. 18. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes3. A tRNA carrying an AMINO ACID in the cell willbase pair its ANTICODON with the complimentary(matching) codon on the mRNA strand
  19. 19. ANTICODON: acodon’sCOMPLEMENT thatwill help bring thecorrect amino acidto the ribosome
  20. 20. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation begins with a START codon, which is AUG  AUG – Methionine…starts the process but does not make the protein
  21. 21. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation ends when a STOP codon is read
  22. 22. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes6. When each amino acid joins together at theribosome, they are LINKED by a PEPTIDE bondwhich forms the PROTEIN
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