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Gene to protein ss

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  • 1. From Gene to ProteinTranscription & Translation
  • 2. I. PROTEINS: The NUCLEUS controls the ACTIVITIES in the cell and the DNA inside is composed of genes that code for certain proteins _PROTEIN codes for a particular trait or helps perform various activities within the cell or body The processes explained here will show how the genetic message of DNA is able to leave the nucleus and reach ribosomes which assemble all the proteins
  • 3. All in all, how you look and the activities of your body is largely determined by the proteins that are made!!
  • 4. II. STRUCTURE OF RNA Nuclear Pores DNA is too big to exit the nucleus, so its code must be read by RNA RNA is the molecule that will be assembled to help make proteins and the ribosomes
  • 5. A. RNA: RIBONUCLEIC ACID 1. _SINGLE strand 2. Nucleotide: –5 carbon sugar –Phosphate group –Nitrogen basePairs: A-U (not T!) C-G
  • 6. B. 3 Types of RNA:1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)• Reads DNA code and carries the MESSAGE for making proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosome
  • 7. B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)• Makes the structure of the RIBOSOME(remember from bio-a that ribosomes are the“workers” of the cell!!)
  • 8. B. 3 Types of RNA: (cont.)3. Transfer RNA (tRNA)• Transfers AMINO ACIDS to the ribosome for protein assembly
  • 9. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS A. Transcription happens in the Nucleus • _MESSAGE of DNA is copied or TRANSCRIBED into mRNA, which can leave the nucleus
  • 10. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) A. Transcription happens in the Nucleus • _MESSAGE of DNA is copied or TRANSCRIBED into mRNA, which can leave the nucleus
  • 11. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.)  Process of Transcription: 1. DNA UNZIPS animation
  • 12. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 2. mRNA is TRANSCRIBED from the DNA message  mRNA bases are grouped into sets of 3 nucleotides called a CODON or triplet code Codon: triplet code that represents an amino acid that will build a protein
  • 13. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 3. mRNA BREAKS AWAY from the DNA strand
  • 14. III. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PROTEINS (cont.) 4. mRNA LEAVES the NUCLEUS and enters the cytoplasm to await attachment of the ribosome.
  • 15. B. Translation:Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of READING the mRNA codons and translating them into PROTEINS (by attaching amino acids together)
  • 16. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes Process of translation: mRNA leaves the nucleus to the cytoplasm1. A RIBOSOME (rRNA) ATTACHES to the mRNA,which is the site for constructing proteins mRNA ribosome
  • 17. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes2. mRNA CODONS will be READ by the ribosome
  • 18. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes3. A tRNA carrying an AMINO ACID in the cell willbase pair its ANTICODON with the complimentary(matching) codon on the mRNA strand
  • 19. ANTICODON: acodon’sCOMPLEMENT thatwill help bring thecorrect amino acidto the ribosome
  • 20. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation begins with a START codon, which is AUG  AUG – Methionine…starts the process but does not make the protein
  • 21. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes4. Translation ends when a STOP codon is read
  • 22. B. Translation (cont.):Happens in the cytoplasm, proteins built at ribosomes6. When each amino acid joins together at theribosome, they are LINKED by a PEPTIDE bondwhich forms the PROTEIN