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Embrylogy & human body
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Embrylogy & human body


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  • 1. Embryology & Human Biology
  • 2. REPRODUCTION & EMBRYONICDEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGANISM Organisms have the ability to reproduce by sexual or asexual means
  • 3. I. Embryonic Development:The basic body plan is established early indevelopment• Process of DEVELOPING a multicellular EMBRYO is quite complex and takes many steps
  • 4. A. _FERTILIZATION : fusion of egg and spermduring sexual reproduction to produce a diploidzygote cell
  • 5. B. _CLEAVAGE: repeated mitotic divisions of azygote that makes a mass of cells• Takes several days• Cells have no function yet
  • 6. C. _GASTRULATION: development of amultilayered embryo
  • 7. • Cell Differentiation: embryo forms DIFFERENT tissue layers and cells SPECIALIZE to carry out a particular FUNCTION
  • 8. • Cause: a. Different GENES are ACTIVATED and signal cells to have different functions (example: liver, heart, blood cells, muscle cells) b. The ENVIRONMENT can also influence differentiation Ex: Metamorphosis Ex: Nutrition and Lifestyle
  • 9. Metamorphosis• _CHANGE in an animal’s APPEARANCE or structure from one stage to another through cell growth and differentiation• May be influenced by change in HABITAT or behavior
  • 10. Nutrition/Lifestyle:• Diabetes (type2): poor diet high in sugar leads to insulin insensitivity **body’s insulin tries to push the “gas pedal” but cells can’t react
  • 11. II. THE HUMAN BODY• Later in embryonic development, organs, made up of various tissue types, and organ systems work together to support the needs of the entire organism
  • 12. • The body has been organized into 11 body systems that work together to maintain homeostasis and supports the major PROCESSES required for LIFE
  • 13. _HOMEOSTASIS : steady internal state or condition
  • 14. The body has FEEDBACK mechanisms that respond to changes in the organisms environment and will REVERSE the direction of the UNWANTED change
  • 15. The body’s NERVOUS and ENDOCRINE systems along with other systems monitor body conditions inside and out
  • 16. Changes in an organism’s homeostasis could be due to: a. _DISEASE AGENTS such as bacteria 0r viruses b. Changing PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, or ENVIRONMENTAL conditions such as temperature, atmosphere, light exposure
  • 17. III. EXAMPLES OF HOMEOSTASIS• Cells function in a NARROW range of physical conditions a. Temperature: body sweats to maintain normal level b. Blood pH: breathing controls CO2 levels in blood c. Blood Sugar: insulin secreted from pancreas removes glucose from the blood
  • 18. How is your homeostasis How does your body react todisrupted on a daily basis? correct the situation?