I. Nucleic Acids• Built by repeating subunits called NUCLEOTIDES• Process of DEHYDRATION synthesis chains them togetherDNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid)RNA (ribonucleic acid)
II. Nucleotides have 3 parts(review from Bio-A!!)A. _PHOSPHATE groupB. 5 carbon SUGARC. _NITROGEN base Phosphate Nitrogen Base 5 Carbon SugarDRAW THIS& Label it! Hydrogen Bond Outside Inside Outside
There are 4 Nitrogen Basesa. Adenine (A)b. Thymine (T) –DNA, Uracil (U) – RNAc. Cytosine (C)d. Guanine (G)
Base Pairing Rule• The bases pair up in a particular way like pieces in a puzzlea. _A-T in DNA or A-U in RNAb. _C-G in both DNA and RNA
III. What is DNA?• DNA shape is a double helix 1. Deoxyribose sugar and phosphate form the OUTSIDE backbone 2. Pairs of nitrogen bases form the rungs or INSIDE of helix • Two strands connected by HYDROGEN bonds
• Functions: –Contains the hereditary instructions to make proteins that organisms need to function
IV. DNA Replication• The process of copying DNA in a cellA. Once fertilization occurs and before cell division can occur, a cell must make a copy of its chromosomes so each new daughter cell gets a full set of DNA
B. How it works: When a cell begins to copy DNA during the S-phase1. An enzyme separates and UNZIPS the two sides of DNA2. The HYDROGEN bonds are BROKEN between the strands • DNA can be transcribed to RNA when this happens
3. The DNA is read and eachcomplimentary base makesBASE PAIRS4. The REPLICATION processproduces TWO new strandsof DNA-each containing onestrand from the originalVideo
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