3 2 organic compounds notes

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  • 1. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Biology Notes
  • 2. I. What is an Organic Compound?1. Composed of 2 or more CARBON atoms2. Common elements that form organic molecules:Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus (P), and Sulfur (S)
  • 3. 3. May be HYDROPHOBIC (nonpolar)
  • 4. Or HYDROPHILLIC (polar)
  • 5. Or both
  • 6. 4. May contain Functional Groups: reactive part of a molecule thatundergoes predictable reactions OH(Hydroxyl group,a type of alcohol)
  • 7. 5. Ex. Macromolecules: antifreeze, acetone,diamonds
  • 8. 6. Ex. Fossil fuels: coal, oil, natural gas Energy rich hydrocarbons that are primary source of energy on Earth
  • 9. II. Organic MacromoleculesStructure of Macromolecules in Living Things1. Monomer Units: A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.
  • 10. 1. Monomer Units: A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.Ex: = ring = simple structure sugar
  • 11. 2. Polymers: Molecules built from 2 or more monomer units Can be formed by identical or similar monomer units
  • 12. 3. MACROMOLECULES:Very large carbonstructures madeup of repeatingpolymers100’s of carbon moleculeslinked together. Ex: Carbs,Lipids, Proteins, NucleicAcids
  • 13. III. The Building and Breaking Apart ofMacromolecules Organic macromolecules may differ, but they are ALL assembled and disassembled in the same way
  • 14. 1. Dehydration reactions: LINKS monomer units TOGETHER to make larger molecules LOSS or PRODUCTION of a WATER molecule AS A RESULTDrawthis
  • 15. Dehydration Reaction
  • 16. 2. Hydrolysis Reaction: “to break” Reverse of dehydration ADDITION of WATER to break a larger molecule apart into smaller monomer unitsBig Polymer Small Monomers
  • 17. Hydrolysis Reaction