3 2 organic compounds notes
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    3 2 organic compounds notes 3 2 organic compounds notes Presentation Transcript

    • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
      Biology Notes
    • I. What is an Organic Compound?
      Composed of 2 or more CARBON atoms
      Common elements that form organic molecules:
      Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Sulfur (S)
    • 3. May be HYDROPHOBIC (nonpolar)
    • Or HYDROPHILLIC (polar)
    • Or both
    • 4. May contain Functional Groups:
      reactive part of a molecule that undergoes
      predictable reactions
      OH
      (Hydroxyl group,
      a type of alcohol)
    • 5. Ex. Macromolecules: antifreeze, acetone, diamonds
    • 6. Ex. Fossil fuels: coal, oil, natural gas
      • Energy rich hydrocarbons that are primary source of energy on Earth
    • II. Organic Macromolecules
      Structure of Macromolecules in Living Things
      Monomer Units:
      A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.
    • Monomer Units:
      A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.
      Ex: = ring = simple
      structure sugar
    • 2. Polymers:
      Molecules built from 2 or more monomer units
      • Can be formed by identical or similar monomer units
    • 3. MACROMOLECULES:
      Very large carbon structures made up of repeating polymers
      100’s of carbon molecules linked together. Ex: Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
    • III. The Building and Breaking Apart of Macromolecules
      • Organic macromolecules may differ, but they are ALL assembled and disassembled in the same way
    • Dehydration reactions:
      • LINKS monomer units TOGETHER to make larger molecules
      • LOSS or PRODUCTION of a WATER molecule AS A RESULT
      Draw
      this
    • Dehydration Reaction
      Monomers
      Polymer
    • 2. Hydrolysis Reaction: “to break”
      • Reverse of dehydration
      • ADDITION of WATER to break a larger molecule apart into smaller monomer units
      Big Polymer Small Monomers
    • Hydrolysis Reaction
      Polymer
      Monomers