3 2 organic compounds notes

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  • 1. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    Biology Notes
  • 2. I. What is an Organic Compound?
    Composed of 2 or more CARBON atoms
    Common elements that form organic molecules:
    Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Sulfur (S)
  • 3. 3. May be HYDROPHOBIC (nonpolar)
  • 4. Or HYDROPHILLIC (polar)
  • 5. Or both
  • 6. 4. May contain Functional Groups:
    reactive part of a molecule that undergoes
    predictable reactions
    OH
    (Hydroxyl group,
    a type of alcohol)
  • 7. 5. Ex. Macromolecules: antifreeze, acetone, diamonds
  • 8. 6. Ex. Fossil fuels: coal, oil, natural gas
    • Energy rich hydrocarbons that are primary source of energy on Earth
  • II. Organic Macromolecules
    Structure of Macromolecules in Living Things
    Monomer Units:
    A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.
  • 9. Monomer Units:
    A molecule that is a single subunit or “building block” that will bond with other molecules to form larger structures.
    Ex: = ring = simple
    structure sugar
  • 10. 2. Polymers:
    Molecules built from 2 or more monomer units
    • Can be formed by identical or similar monomer units
  • 3. MACROMOLECULES:
    Very large carbon structures made up of repeating polymers
    100’s of carbon molecules linked together. Ex: Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
  • 11. III. The Building and Breaking Apart of Macromolecules
    • Organic macromolecules may differ, but they are ALL assembled and disassembled in the same way
  • Dehydration reactions:
    • LINKS monomer units TOGETHER to make larger molecules
    • 12. LOSS or PRODUCTION of a WATER molecule AS A RESULT
    Draw
    this
  • 13. Dehydration Reaction
    Monomers
    Polymer
  • 14. 2. Hydrolysis Reaction: “to break”
    • Reverse of dehydration
    • 15. ADDITION of WATER to break a larger molecule apart into smaller monomer units
    Big Polymer Small Monomers
  • 16. Hydrolysis Reaction
    Polymer
    Monomers