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3 1 water notes
 

3 1 water notes

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    3 1 water notes 3 1 water notes Presentation Transcript

    • The Nature of Molecules
      Water Notes
    • Big Ideas:
      Living Systems are made up of 5 types of molecule
      a. Water
      b. Carbohydrates
      c. Lipids
      d. Proteins
      e. Nucleic Acid
      Sugars/Starches
      All help to maintain HOMEOSTASIS
      Fats
      DNA & RNA
    • 2. Organisms are made up of different arrangements of these molecules, giving all life a biochemical framework.
    • II. Inorganic vs. Organic
      Living systems can be categorized into inorganic and organic molecules.
      1. INORGANIC:
      molecules containing 1 or no carbon atoms
      Ex: H2O, CO2, NaCl
    • 2. ORGANIC:
      molecules containing 2 or more carbon atoms
      Ex: hydrocarbons (fuels like methane), Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
    • III. Chemistry of Water
      Essentials:
      Most CELLS are surrounded by water and cells themselves are about 70-95% water
      The abundance of water is the major reason Earth is habitable and essential for all living things.
    • B. 6 Characteristics of WATER:
      Structure:
      • Water contains 2 HYDROGEN atoms and 1 OXYGEN atom
      Attached by COVALENT bonds
      Chemical Formula = H2O
      Structural Formula=
      O
      H H
    • 2. Polarity:
      What demo/activity demonstrated polarity?
      • Water has slightly POSITIVE and NEGATIVE ends
      • Ex: Electrons in water molecules spend more time near the oxygen side than the hydrogen side, creating partially charged ends.
    • Lewis Structure of Water:
      Lone pairs of electrons
      (-)
      Covalent bond…shared electron between H and O
      (+)
      (+)
    • 3. Bond Type:
      What demo/activity demonstrated bonds in water molecules?
      • Water is bonded together by COVALENT BONDS: which is the sharing of valence electrons
    • Two types of covalent bonds:
      Nonpolar Covalent:
      Share electrons EQUALLY
      even distribution means no charge
      Ex:
      H2 Gas
      Cl2
    • b. Polar Covalent:
      Share electrons UNEQUALY
      causes a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other
      Ex. H2O HCl
    • So…Why does water “stick” to itself and to other objects?
      Zero Gravity Water Balloons
    • 4. Creates Hydrogen Bonds:
      What demo/activity demonstrated hydrogen bonds?
      • Water can bond with other WATER molecules or other POLAR molecules
      • Form hydrogen bonds: which are WEAK ATTRACTIONS between molecules.
    • Hydrogen bonding is the cause of
      ADHESION
      COHESION
      CAPILLARY
      ACTION
      SURFACE
      TENSION
      • Rule: Usually form between H, F, O, N
      **This property is what orders other molecules into a higher level of structural organization. Ex: Cell membrane, DNA, Proteins
    • Hydrogen bonding song
    • 5. Relationship to other molecules
      What activity/demo does this fit with?
      • HYDROPHILLIC: Water loving
      Ex: Water molecules attract other polar molecules
      • HYDROPHOBIC: Water “fearing”
      Ex: water molecules repel non polar molecules – do not form hydrogen bonds
    • **Keep in mind that large molecules may have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties!
    • 6. Make Chemical Reactions Happen:
      • Water is NEEDED for chemical reactions within the body
      • Most reactions take place in AQUEOUS solutions…”in water”
      • Water is a UNIVERSAL SOLVENT and due to its polar properties it has the ability to break apart or combine molecules
    • a. Dehydration Synthesis: Loss of water molecule resulting in a combination of molecules.
    • b. Hydrolysis: Addition of a water molecule results in the breaking apart of molecules.