3 1 water notes
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  • 1. The Nature of Molecules
    Water Notes
  • 2. Big Ideas:
    Living Systems are made up of 5 types of molecule
    a. Water
    b. Carbohydrates
    c. Lipids
    d. Proteins
    e. Nucleic Acid
    Sugars/Starches
    All help to maintain HOMEOSTASIS
    Fats
    DNA & RNA
  • 3. 2. Organisms are made up of different arrangements of these molecules, giving all life a biochemical framework.
  • 4. II. Inorganic vs. Organic
    Living systems can be categorized into inorganic and organic molecules.
    1. INORGANIC:
    molecules containing 1 or no carbon atoms
    Ex: H2O, CO2, NaCl
  • 5. 2. ORGANIC:
    molecules containing 2 or more carbon atoms
    Ex: hydrocarbons (fuels like methane), Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  • 6. III. Chemistry of Water
    Essentials:
    Most CELLS are surrounded by water and cells themselves are about 70-95% water
    The abundance of water is the major reason Earth is habitable and essential for all living things.
  • 7. B. 6 Characteristics of WATER:
    Structure:
    • Water contains 2 HYDROGEN atoms and 1 OXYGEN atom
    Attached by COVALENT bonds
    Chemical Formula = H2O
    Structural Formula=
    O
    H H
  • 8. 2. Polarity:
    What demo/activity demonstrated polarity?
    • Water has slightly POSITIVE and NEGATIVE ends
    • 9. Ex: Electrons in water molecules spend more time near the oxygen side than the hydrogen side, creating partially charged ends.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Lewis Structure of Water:
    Lone pairs of electrons
    (-)
    Covalent bond…shared electron between H and O
    (+)
    (+)
  • 13. 3. Bond Type:
    What demo/activity demonstrated bonds in water molecules?
    • Water is bonded together by COVALENT BONDS: which is the sharing of valence electrons
  • Two types of covalent bonds:
    Nonpolar Covalent:
    Share electrons EQUALLY
    even distribution means no charge
    Ex:
    H2 Gas
    Cl2
  • 14. b. Polar Covalent:
    Share electrons UNEQUALY
    causes a negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other
    Ex. H2O HCl
  • 15. So…Why does water “stick” to itself and to other objects?
    Zero Gravity Water Balloons
  • 16. 4. Creates Hydrogen Bonds:
    What demo/activity demonstrated hydrogen bonds?
    • Water can bond with other WATER molecules or other POLAR molecules
    • 17. Form hydrogen bonds: which are WEAK ATTRACTIONS between molecules.
  • Hydrogen bonding is the cause of
    ADHESION
    COHESION
    CAPILLARY
    ACTION
    SURFACE
    TENSION
  • 18.
    • Rule: Usually form between H, F, O, N
    **This property is what orders other molecules into a higher level of structural organization. Ex: Cell membrane, DNA, Proteins
  • 19. Hydrogen bonding song
  • 20. 5. Relationship to other molecules
    What activity/demo does this fit with?
    • HYDROPHILLIC: Water loving
    Ex: Water molecules attract other polar molecules
  • 21.
    • HYDROPHOBIC: Water “fearing”
    Ex: water molecules repel non polar molecules – do not form hydrogen bonds
  • 22. **Keep in mind that large molecules may have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties!
  • 23. 6. Make Chemical Reactions Happen:
    • Water is NEEDED for chemical reactions within the body
    • 24. Most reactions take place in AQUEOUS solutions…”in water”
    • Water is a UNIVERSAL SOLVENT and due to its polar properties it has the ability to break apart or combine molecules
  • a. Dehydration Synthesis: Loss of water molecule resulting in a combination of molecules.
  • 25. b. Hydrolysis: Addition of a water molecule results in the breaking apart of molecules.