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“Hospital Management System"
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE
MASTER IN COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
MCA-LE (Session 2011-2013)
Under The Guidance:
Mr. SAVAAB ALI KHAN
Information is a valuable resource to an organization. Computer software
provides an efficient means of processing information, and HOSPITAL
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM are nowadays becoming increasingly common means
by which it is possible to store and retrieve information (regarding hospital) in an
effective manner. This book provides comprehensive coverage of fundamentals of
HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. This book is for those who wish a better
understanding of relational data modeling, its purpose, its nature, and the standards
used in creating relational data model. Relational databases are the most popular
database management systems in the world and are supported by a variety of
Majority of the practical tasks in industry require applying relatively not
complex algorithms to huge amounts of well-structured data. The efficiency
of the application depends on the quality of data organization. Advances in
database technology and processing offer opportunities for using information
flexibility and efficiently when data is organized and stored in relational structures.
The relational DBMS is a success in the commercial market place with
respect to business data processing and related applications. This success is
a result of cost effective application development combined with high data
consistency. The success has led to the use of relational DBMS technology in
other application environments requesting its traditional virtues, while at the
same time adding new requirements.
I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks and
deep gratitude towards Mr. SABAB ALI KHAN for his
valuable guidance and co-operation in starting this Project
successfully. Development of project like “HOSPITAL
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM” in JAVA is not a too much
difficult task but fairly a puzzle one.
This language teaches so much about database
programming and new version. This project is a part of
our MCA course. I have developed this project with the
help of Faculty members of my Institute MCMIT and as
such I am extremely grateful to all of them. I am obliged to
my project guide Mr. SABAB ALI KHAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS (with Page Numbers)
TYPE OF PROJECT
REQUIRMENT OF H/W & S/W
MODULES OF THE PROJECT
FUTURE SCOPE AND FURTHET ENHANCEMENT OF THE PROJECT
The goal of any system development is to develop and implement the system cost
effectively; user-friendly and most suited to the user’s analysis is the heart of
the process. Analysis is the study of the various operations performed by the system
and their relationship within and outside of the system. During analysis, data
collected on the files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system.
Different kinds of tools are used in analysis of which interview is common one.
The drawback of the existing system is that it is very difficult to retrieve data from
case files. It is difficult to handle the whole system manually and it is less accurate
and to keep the data in case files for future reference because it may get destroyed.
Moreover it is very difficult to retrieve data. Redundancy of data may occur and this
may lead to the inconsistency. The manual system is so time-consuming.
The proposed system is very easy to operate. Speed and accuracy are the main
advantages of proposed system. There is no redundancy of data. The data are
stored in the computer’s secondary memories like hard disk, etc. it can be easily
receive and used at any time. The proposed system will easily handle all the data
and the work done by the existing systems. The proposed systems eliminate the
drawbacks of the existing system to a great extent and it provides tight security to
Hospital Management System is powerful, flexible, and easy to use and is designed
and developed to deliver real conceivable benefits to hospitals and clinics and more
importantly it is backed by reliable and dependable of users
Hospital Management System is designed for multi specialty hospitals, to cover a wide
range of hospital administration and management processes. It is an integrated end-toend Hospital Management System that provides relevant information across the
hospital to support effective decision making for patient care, hospital administration
and critical financial accounting, in a seamless flow.
Hospital Management System is a software product suite designed to improve the
quality and management of clinical care and hospital health care management in the
areas of clinical process analysis and activity-based costing. Hospital Management
System enables you to develop your organization and improve its effectiveness and
quality of work. Managing the key processes efficiently is critical to the success of the
hospital helps you manage your processes.
TOOLS AND ENVIRONMENT USED
HARDWARE REQUIREMENT1. Pentium4 or Above
2. 256 MB RAM(MIN)
3. 1 GB RAM(MAX)
4. 20 GB Hard Disk(MIN)
5. 1.33 MHz speed(MIN)
6. 50 MB(for package itself)
7. Dot Matrix/HP Laser/HP/DeskJet/HP Inkjet Printer
8. Optical Mouse
9. 15’inch Color Monitor
WIN XP Operating System
WIN 7 Operating System
WIN Vista Operating System
Java is a new and popular language created by sun Microsystems. The best
news about java is that it is object oriented architecture, interpreted, robust,
secure, portable, high performance, multithreaded & dynamic language.
With java, we can develop a single application i.e. immediately usable on multiple
platforms. Imagine the countless hours that will save by being able to develop a
single application usable on windows, UNIX & Macintosh system.
Java produces two program types’ application & Applet. Applications are
standard one & can be run directly from me command line. Applets requires on
external program to provide an interface to the user.
Java defines data as objects with methods that support the objects. Java is
purely objects. Java is purely object oriented & provides abstraction,
encapsulation, inheritance & polymorphism.
Even a very basic program has a class. Any code written is java is inside a class.
Java is tuned to the web, java programs can be built in java, that user’s resource
from any other computer.
Java is the both interpreted & compiled. The code is complied. The code is
compiled with a byte code i.e. binary & platform independent. When a program
has to execute the code is fetched into management & interpreted on the user’s
machines as on interpreted language, java has simple syntax.
When a piece of code is compiled all errors are listed together. A program is
executed only when all the errors have been rectified. An interpreter, on the other
hand, verifies the code & execution reaches the statement with an error is the
Compilation is the process of converting the code into a language that
the compiler understands machines language. When compiling a program using
a compiler, the compiler checks for syntactical (grammatical) errors. In code and
lists all the errors on the screen. The errors are rectified and the program is
recompiled to get the machine language code. Java compilers compile the code
to a byte code that is understood by the java environment.
Byte code is result of compiling a java program this code can be executed on
any platform. In other words due to the byte cod compilation processes an
interpretation by a browser, java programs can be executed on a variety of
hardware and software. The only requirement is that the system should have a
java enabled internet browser. A java compiler is written in java and the run time
environment, the interpreter is written in c. the java interpreter can execute java
code directly on any machine, on which java a interpreter has been installed.
A java program can run on any machine that has a java interpreter. The byte
code supports connection to multiple databases. Java code is portable. There
fore, other people can use programs that you write in java even if they have
different machines with different operating system.
Due to strong type checking done by java on the user’s machine any changes to
the program are tagged as errors and program will not execute, java is there
Java programs are comparable in speed to the programs written in other
compiler based languages like c and c++. Java is faster than other interpreter
based languages like basic sense it is compiled and interpreted.
Multithreading is the ability of an application to perform multiple task at same
time. For example, when you play game on your computer one task of the
program that is handle sound effects and another to handle screen display. A
single program accomplishes many tasks, simultaneously.
A java program can consists of many modules that are written by many
programmers. These modules may undergo many changes. Java makes
interconnections between modules and at the run time, which easily avoids the
problem caused by the change of the code used program. Java is thus dynamic.
A few types of java applications are listed below:
Applications that do not use graphical user interface (GUI)-they are similar
to traditional programs written in c and c++.
Applications using GUI. These applications are used in windows
Applets these programs run on a web page and require a java enabled
browser like internet explorer or Netscape navigator.
Packages-packages are collections of classes that can be shared by
applications and applets. They can similar to the libraries provided by other
language like c++. Java provides many packages like long and util.
ORACLE DATABASE:ORACLE is a database vendor that uses to design relational database.
A database management system, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data
and helps them transform the data into information. Oracle allows users to
create, update, and extract information from their databases. Compared to a
manual filing system, the biggest advantages to a computerized database
system are speed, accuracy, and accessibility. A database is a structured
collection of data. Data refers to the characteristics of people, things, and events.
Oracle stores each data item in its own field. In Oracle, the fields relating to a
particular person, thing, or event are bundled together to form a single, complete
unit of data, called a record (it can also be referred to as a row or an occurrence).
Each record is made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record can have
the same field name.
During an Oracle database design project, the analysis of our
Business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest.
If your business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or
change the definition of existing fields.
Oracle stores records relating to each other in a table. A table is easily visualized
as a tabular arrangement of data, not unlike a spreadsheet, consisting of vertical
columns and horizontal rows. A table consists of a number of records. The field
names of each record in the table are the same, although the field values may
differ. Each field occupies one column and each record occupies one row. Each
record is a unique entry and is Independent of any other record in the table. After
the analysis of the business requirements, the database design team defines the
necessary tables. Different tables are created for the various groups of
information Related tables are grouped together to form a database.
Every table in Oracle has a field or a combination of fields that uniquely identifies
each record in the table. This unique identifier is called the primary key, or simply
the key. The primary key provides the means to distinguish one record from all
the others in a table. It allows the user and the database system to identify,
locate, and refer to one particular record in the table. The database design team
determines the best candidate field for the primary key. Once a table has been
assigned a primary key, Oracle won't allow more than one record in the table with
the same value for the primary key. No two Employees can have the same ID
Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can be stored in
one table. Oracle makes it very easy to link the data in multiple tables. This is a
key feature of a relational database management system, or RDBMS. They store
data in two or more tables and enable us to define relationships between the
The link between the tables is based on one or more field values common to both
Remember that every table in ORACLE has a primary key a field or fields making
each record unique. When a field in one table matches the primary key of
another table, the field is referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key is a field or a
group of fields in one table whose values match those of the primary key of
another table. You can think of a foreign key as the primary key of a foreign
(INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE)
(INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE)
(INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE)
Testing is the most important aspect of any project. A web application becomes more
crucial since the information is to be viewed by thousands of users. It is essential for
developer to make sure that the web presentation work well from technical and well as
We have performed the module level testing and content verification before going for
integrity and usability testing.
WHITE BOX TESTING
White box testing called glass box testing, is a test case design method that uses the
control structure to derive test cases. Using white box testing methods the software
engineer can derive test cases that
Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been exercised
Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides
Execute all loops at their operational bounds
Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity
A reasonable question might be imposed at this juncture: “why spend time and energy
worrying about (and testing) logical minutiae when we might better expend effort
ensuring that program requirements have been met?
Stated another way, why don’t we spend all of our energy on black box tests?
The answer lies in nature of software defects.
Logical errors and incorrect assumptions are inversely proportional to the probability
that a program path will be executed.
Errors tend to creep into our work when we design and implement
Function, conditions, or control that is out of mainstream. Everyday
Processing tends to be well understood while “special case” processing tends to fall into
We often believe that a logical path is not likely to be executed when, infect it may be
executed on regular basis.
The logical flow of a program is sometimes counterintuitive, meaning that our
unconscious assumptions about flow of control and data may lead us to make design
errors that are uncovered only once path testing commences.
Typographical errors are random.
When a program is translated into programming language source code, it is likely that
some typing errors will occur. Many will be uncovered by syntax and type checking
mechanisms, but others may go undetected until testing begins. It is as likely that a typo
will exist on mainstream path.
Each of these provides an argument for conducting white box tests. Black box testing is
far more likely to uncover them.
BLACK BOX TESTING
Black box testing also called “behavioral testing”, focuses on the functional requirements
for a program. Black box testing is not an alternative to white box techniques. Rather it is
a complimentary approach that is likely to uncover a different class of errors than white
Black box testing attempts to find errors in the following categories:
Incorrect or missing functions.
Errors in data stream or external database access.
Behavioral or performance errors
Initializations or termination errors
Unlike white box testing, which is performed early in the testing process, black box
testing tends to be applied during later stages of testing. Black box testing purposely
disregards control structure; attention is focused on the information domain. Test are
designed to answer the following questionsHow is functional validity tested?
How is system behavior and performance tested?
What classes of input will make good test cases?
Is the system particularly sensitive to certain input values?
By applying black box techniques we derive a set of test cases that satisfy the following
criteriaTest cases that reduce by a count that is greater than one, the number of additional test
cases that must be designed to achieve reasonable testing and
Test cases that tell us something about the presence or absence of classes of errors,
rather than an error associated only with the specific test at hand.
About E-R Diagram:
The entity –relationship (E-R) data model is
based on a perception of real world which consist of basic objects called entities
and relationship among these objects. The E-R model was introduced by P.P.
Chen. Chen introduced not only E-R model but also a corresponding
E-R diagram is used to represent the entities and their relationship to other
entities. It uses some symbols to represent the objects of E-R diagram.
Entity is an object which has its own existence and can be distinguish
from other objects. Entity is represented by a set of attributes. An entity is any
object, place, person, concept or activity about which an enterprise records data.
While diagramming entity is named and represented by a rectangle.
Attributes are descriptive properties processed by each member of
an entity. Attributes are represented through ellipses, labeled with the name of
the property. The key attribute are underlined.
A relationship is an association among several entities. A
relationship defines the association of entity type relationship instance is an
association of entity instances. There are three types of relationship:
One to One relationship
One to Many relationships
Many to Many relationship
E-R Diagram Symbols
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
DFD (Data Flow Diagram):
Data Flow Diagram (abbreviated as DFD) was introduced by De
Marco(1978) and Gane and Sarson(1979),and is important tool used by
system analysts. A DFD models a system by using external entities from
which data flows to process which transform data and creates output data
flow which go to other process or external entities or data stores. Stored
data may also flow to processes as inputs.
The main merit of DFD is that it can provide an overview of
what data a system would processes, what transformations of data are
done, what data are stored and which stored data is used, and where the
result is flow.
Symbols Used In DFDs:
Four symbols are used in drawing DFDs. A circle is used to
depict a process. Process are numbered and given a name. The term
bubble is also sometimes used instead of circle.
Data flows are represented by a line with an arrow. Arrow shows the
direction of flow of data. The name of the data appears next to the line.
External entities are represented by rectangles, and are outside the system.
Entities supplying data are known as sources and those that consume data
are called sinks.
Data store is depicted by two lines. Data store stores data. If an arrow points
to the store, it indicates operation of writing in the store. If it points away from
the store, it indicates operation of reading from the store.
Data flow can take place between processes, from
A data store to a process,
A process to a data store
An external entity to a process, or
From a process to an external entity.
Data flow can’t take place between to a data stores or between two external
Represents Data Flow
Represents External Entity
Represents Data Store
MotifLookAndFeel mlf=new MotifLookAndFeel();
public static void main(String args)
desk d=new desk("
S E D H O S P I T A L M A N A G E M E N T S Y S T E M ");
public void menuCreation()
regi = new JMenuItem("New Patient Registration");
edit1 = new JMenuItem("Edit Patient detail");
exit= new JMenuItem("Exit ");
new_doc = new JMenuItem("New Doctor Entry ");
edit2 = new JMenuItem("Edit Doctor Detail ");
new_emp = new JMenuItem("New Employee Entry ");
edit3 = new JMenuItem("Edit Employee Detail ");
dio = new JMenuItem("Diagnosis ");
admit = new JMenuItem("Admission ");
dis = new JMenuItem("Discharge ");
report1 = new JMenuItem("Show Bill Detail ");
public admit(JDesktopPane d)
frame=new JInternalFrame("A D M I S S I O N E N T E R Y F O R
public class doctor extends JFrame implements ActionListener
JTextField id,name,add,city,phone,qualify,dept,doj ;
public doctor(JDesktopPane d)
frame=new JInternalFrame("N E W D O C T O R E N T E R Y F O
R M ",false,true,false,true);
JTextField id,name,add,sex,age,date ;
public patient(JDesktopPane d)
frame=new JInternalFrame("N E W P A T I E N T E N T E R Y F O
R M ",false,true,false,true);
//----------------JLabel lab1=new JLabel("Patient ID");
JLabel lab2=new JLabel("Name");
JLabel lab3=new JLabel("Sex");
JLabel lab4=new JLabel("Age");
JLabel lab5=new JLabel("Address ");
JLabel lab6=new JLabel("Date");
FUTURE SCOPE & ENHANCEMENT OF
Due to the limited amount of resources and time, we are planning to restrict our
project to demo for now, but later on it can be extended to the whole as live project.
It’s a fact that the maintenance costs generally exceed the development costs. Clearly, if
we want to reduce the overall cost of software or achieve “global” optimality in terms of
cost rather than “local” optimality in terms of development cost only, the goal of
development should be reduce the maintenance effort. That is, one of the important
objectives of the development project should be to produce software that is easy to
maintain. And the process should be such that it ensures this maintainability.
software engineering: A practioner’s Approach BY Roger S. Pressman
System Analysis and Design: Elias M. AWAD
An introduction to data base system :
BIPIN C. DESAI