Evidentiality in Philippine English and Filipino Newspaper Editorials<br />Dr. Danilo T. Dayag<br />De La Salle University...
Introduction<br />The use of evidence is a critical issue in contrastive rhetoric (CR).<br />Kaplan (2001) noted the cross...
Matalene (1985) and Tsao (1983) (cited in Connor, 1996) have shown Chinese students writing in English:<br />make constant...
Dayag (2004) found out that English-language broadsheets in the Phil. present propositions counted as CLAIM than DATA.<br ...
Statement of the problem:<br />What are the sources of information or data (evidence) found in Phil. English and Filipino ...
3. How do Phil. English and Filipino editorials compare in terms of presenting evidence in newspaper editorials?<br />4. H...
Conceptual Framework<br />The study is based on the notion of evidentiality, a semantic qualificational category.<br />Evi...
Broad view of evidentials (Dendale & Tamsmowski, 2001):<br />source of information; <br />degree of precision or truth or ...
Narrow view of evidentials (Mushin, 2001):<br />restricts evidential meaning to specification of types of source of inform...
Plungian’s (2001) Taxonomy of evidentials:<br />   I. Direct<br />A. visual (observed directly)<br />B. non-visual (percei...
Plungian’s (2001) Taxonomy:<br />II.  Indirect<br />	A. reflected<br /> 1. inferentials (observed and interpreted)<br />  ...
Classification of Quotatives (De Haan, 2001)<br />direct quotations<br />reported speech<br />second-hand information<br /...
Methodology<br />Data<br />Data were taken from one-month issue (September 21-October 19, 2002) of three leading English-m...
English-medium newspapers:<br />Philippine Daily Inquirer (PDI)<br />Philippine Star (PS)<br />The Manila Times (TMT)<br /...
Methodology<br />II. Data Analysis and Coding<br />adopted the Plungian (2001) taxonomy<br />modified the definition of th...
Extract 1:<br />(1) Military authorities have blamed the Abu Sayyaf for the explosion that killed two Filipino civilians a...
2. Second hand information includes statistical data or figures.<br />Extract 2:<br />(2) Sa 2003, ang budget parasa SUCs ...
III. Research Procedure<br />1. Collection of newspaper editorials;<br />    2. Chunking into sentences (unit of analysis)...
IV. Results and Discussion<br />Direct evidence in Newspaper Editorials <br />
Sometimes, the recount is given in what appears to be an objective, unbiased and straightforward manner, such as the extra...
Extract 3:<br />(1) Another bomb went off in Zamboanga City last night, even as authorities were investigating the explosi...
The editorial continues to give a recount of the event and then proceeds to make a claim on the current issue.<br />Extrac...
Recount appears with an expression that conveys the author’s evaluation, albeit subtle, of the topic of the discourse.<br ...
Shows writer’s position on the issue:<br />Extract 6:<br />… (14) Umaalingasawangumano’y overpriced na Pres. DiosdadoMacap...
B. Indirect Evidence in Newspaper Evidentials<br />Reflected Evidence<br />
Extract 7: (all inferentials)<br />(1) Walatalagangpatutunguhangmaganda an gating bansa kung puropulitikanalamangangnasaut...
Position of inferentials:<br />no fixed part in the texts where inferentials showed more often<br />other texts start with...
Extract 9:<br />(1) Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes was the country’s top general when the Estrada administration successfu...
2. Mediated Evidence in Newspaper Editorials<br />
Reported speech<br />Extract 10:<br />(1) Gen. Roy Kyamko, the commander of Solcom, complains that the media are “unbalanc...
Reported speech in Filipino<br />Extract 11:<br />(1) KailangandawhumingingtawadangPilipinassa Malaysia dahilsamabilisnapa...
Direct quotations<br />…(11) “We shall increase penalties on failures to provide information on a timely and accurate basi...
PS and Ab did not use a single direct quotation.<br />It shows limited use of strategy.<br />Phil. newspapers would rather...
Second-hand information<br />Extract 13:<br />(16) The entire boulevard is 5.5 – km. long. (17) JDLC built only 2.3 km, co...
Position of quotatives<br />no fixed, predictable pattern<br />may appear in the beginning, middle or end<br />
Some insights:<br />I. Phil. English and Filipino newspaper editorials have more similarities than differences.<br />   A....
   C. There is a difference in the use of quotatives.<br /> 1. Reported speech is most extensively used in English than in...
II. There is no predictable pattern in the discourse position of evidentials in the Phil. newspaper editorials.<br />
The use of certain evidential types over others and the lack of irregularity in the discourse position of evidentials – ad...
A plausible explanation involves the influence of English (L2) on writing in L1 (Filipino).<br />Casual observation points...
The explicit teaching of L1 conventions in classes may partly account for the similarities between Phil. English and Filip...
RECOMMENDATIONS:<br />further investigation on whether this is a case of transfer of strategies from L1 to L2 or not<br />...
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Evidentiality in Philippine English and Filipino Newspaper Editorials by Dr. Danilo T. Dayag

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  1. 1. Evidentiality in Philippine English and Filipino Newspaper Editorials<br />Dr. Danilo T. Dayag<br />De La Salle University-Manila<br />December 2004<br />TORREON, RACHELLE I.<br />Reporter<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />The use of evidence is a critical issue in contrastive rhetoric (CR).<br />Kaplan (2001) noted the cross-cultural underpinnings of what count as evidence.<br />
  3. 3. Matalene (1985) and Tsao (1983) (cited in Connor, 1996) have shown Chinese students writing in English:<br />make constant reference to their history and tradition<br />de-emphasize personal opinions in keeping with Confucian teachings. <br />
  4. 4. Dayag (2004) found out that English-language broadsheets in the Phil. present propositions counted as CLAIM than DATA.<br />Date in argumentative texts should also be described in terms of the types of information source.<br />
  5. 5. Statement of the problem:<br />What are the sources of information or data (evidence) found in Phil. English and Filipino newspaper editorials?<br />How are these sources classified?<br />
  6. 6. 3. How do Phil. English and Filipino editorials compare in terms of presenting evidence in newspaper editorials?<br />4. How are the sources of information (evidentials) in the editorials arranged vis-à-vis the discourse structure of the texts?<br />
  7. 7. Conceptual Framework<br />The study is based on the notion of evidentiality, a semantic qualificational category.<br />Evidential semantics could be broad or narrow (Chafe, 1986).<br />
  8. 8. Broad view of evidentials (Dendale & Tamsmowski, 2001):<br />source of information; <br />degree of precision or truth or appropriateness of a category or label;<br />degree of probability of the truth; and<br />expectations concerning the probability of the statement<br />
  9. 9. Narrow view of evidentials (Mushin, 2001):<br />restricts evidential meaning to specification of types of source of information; and<br />says little else about the epistemological relationship of the information to the speaker.<br />*The study is limited to the narrow approach to evidentiality.<br />
  10. 10. Plungian’s (2001) Taxonomy of evidentials:<br /> I. Direct<br />A. visual (observed directly)<br />B. non-visual (perceived directly but not visually)<br /> 1. sensoric (human senses)<br /> 2. endophoric(intentions, desires, etc.)<br />
  11. 11. Plungian’s (2001) Taxonomy:<br />II. Indirect<br /> A. reflected<br /> 1. inferentials (observed and interpreted)<br /> 2. presumptives (simply known)<br /> B. mediated (quotatives)<br />
  12. 12. Classification of Quotatives (De Haan, 2001)<br />direct quotations<br />reported speech<br />second-hand information<br />common knowledge information<br />
  13. 13. Methodology<br />Data<br />Data were taken from one-month issue (September 21-October 19, 2002) of three leading English-medium and three major morning tabloids in the Philippines (180 editorials).<br />
  14. 14. English-medium newspapers:<br />Philippine Daily Inquirer (PDI)<br />Philippine Star (PS)<br />The Manila Times (TMT)<br />Morning tabloids:<br />Abante (Ab)<br />Kabayan (Kab)<br />Ang Pilipino Star Ngayon (APSN)<br />
  15. 15. Methodology<br />II. Data Analysis and Coding<br />adopted the Plungian (2001) taxonomy<br />modified the definition of the types of evidentials<br /> 1. Non-visual direct evidence includes a recount of current events.<br />
  16. 16. Extract 1:<br />(1) Military authorities have blamed the Abu Sayyaf for the explosion that killed two Filipino civilians and an American soldier in Zamboanga City last Wednesday. (2) The blast was the most audacious action so far attributed to the Abu Sayyaf after its flamboyant spokesperson, Abu Sabaya, was reported killed by special forces last June in a fight off the coast of Zamboanga del Norte. (3) The bombing followed a call by Abu Sayyaf leader, KhadaffyJanjalani, on “all believers in the oneness of Allah” to attack both foreign and domestic enemies of Islam and their property… (PDI – 10/5)<br />
  17. 17. 2. Second hand information includes statistical data or figures.<br />Extract 2:<br />(2) Sa 2003, ang budget parasa SUCs ay P16.8 bilyonlamang. (3) Sa halagangito, mapupuntasa UP Dilimanang P4.3 bilyon. (4) At angmatitira ay paghahati-hatianng 111 institusyon.<br />3. No inter-rater/coder was employed to counter-check the coding of data (limitation).<br />
  18. 18. III. Research Procedure<br />1. Collection of newspaper editorials;<br /> 2. Chunking into sentences (unit of analysis);<br /> 3. Coding of evidentials; and<br /> 4. Comparing and contrasting Phil. English and Filipino newspaper editorials<br />
  19. 19. IV. Results and Discussion<br />Direct evidence in Newspaper Editorials <br />
  20. 20. Sometimes, the recount is given in what appears to be an objective, unbiased and straightforward manner, such as the extract below:<br />
  21. 21. Extract 3:<br />(1) Another bomb went off in Zamboanga City last night, even as authorities were investigating the explosion that killed at least three persons ad wounded about 25 others Wednesday night. (2) The first bomb went off several meters away from the headquarters of the military’s Southern Command in a karaoke bar known to be frequented by Philippine soldiers and American Green Berets who are undertaking humanitarian missions in nearby Basilan province. (3) Among the dead were an American commando and the rider of a motorcycle that had carried the bomb…(PS – 10/4)<br />
  22. 22. The editorial continues to give a recount of the event and then proceeds to make a claim on the current issue.<br />Extract 4:<br />(1) Kahapon ay binisitasiPangulong GMA ngmgaprominenteng Chinese business tycoons sabansa. (2) Halos araw-arawyata ay dinadagsangmgabisita and Pangulosakayangresidensya. (3) Medyonagkakaiba-ibalangang intension angkanyangmgabisita. (4) At dahilmganegosyante and palace vistorskahapon, asahannanatinnanegosyo at ekonomiyaangkanilang nagging agenda. (5) Nagbigaynamanngkanilang “vote of confidence” and mgaTaipans, katawagansa Chinese businessmen… (Ab / 9-21)<br />
  23. 23. Recount appears with an expression that conveys the author’s evaluation, albeit subtle, of the topic of the discourse.<br />Extract 5:<br />… (9) These journalists grew up during the heyday of CheGuevarra, Mao Zedong and Jose Maria Sison. (10) That they have not stopped believing in an ideology that very clearly is empty, testifies to the enduring attraction of reductionism. (11) Marxism, Leninism, and Maoism have a compelling simplicity. (12) There are exploiters and exploited. (13) The exploited are more numerous. (14) In time, they will overcome their exploiters in a revolution. (15) This is the ironic logic of history… (PS /10-11)<br />
  24. 24. Shows writer’s position on the issue:<br />Extract 6:<br />… (14) Umaalingasawangumano’y overpriced na Pres. DiosdadoMacapagal Blvd. (PDMB) nanagkakahalagang P600 milyon. (15) Maramingnakakaladkadnapangalan at ipinag-utosnani Mrs. Arroyo angpag-iimbestigasanasabing scam. (16) Ang Presidential Anti-Graft Commission ang mag-iimbestiganito. (17) Naglutanganangsamu’tsaringakusasyonsamgaopisyalng PEA. (18) Talamakangkatiwaliansa PEA nsakabilangpagbabantangPresidente ay hindinamanpalanatitinag… (APSN/ 10-2)<br />
  25. 25. B. Indirect Evidence in Newspaper Evidentials<br />Reflected Evidence<br />
  26. 26. Extract 7: (all inferentials)<br />(1) Walatalagangpatutunguhangmaganda an gating bansa kung puropulitikanalamangangnasautakngmganamumunosagobyerno. (2) Sa halipkasinanakatutoknghustosamgaproyekto at programangmakatutulong at kapaki-pakinabangsamamamayan ay nababahiranitongpulitika. (3) Nawawalaangsinseridadnamapaunladangbayandahillaging may nakapailalimnainteressabawathakbangna Gawain. (4) Gaya ngmganangyayarinagyon. (5) Malayo pa angeleksyonnagaganapinsa 2004 ay maugongnaangpamumulutika… (Ab, Sept.30)<br />
  27. 27. Position of inferentials:<br />no fixed part in the texts where inferentials showed more often<br />other texts start with an inferential and then moved on to recount a recent event<br />In other editorials, inferentials showed up in the same paragraph where a non-visual evidential was found.<br />
  28. 28. Extract 9:<br />(1) Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes was the country’s top general when the Estrada administration successfully waged its “all-out-war” against the MILF in 2000. (2) Precisely, for that reason, he shouldn’t be calling the shots in the on-again, off-again peace talks with communist insurgents… (PDI/ 10-14)<br />non-visual<br />inferential<br />
  29. 29. 2. Mediated Evidence in Newspaper Editorials<br />
  30. 30. Reported speech<br />Extract 10:<br />(1) Gen. Roy Kyamko, the commander of Solcom, complains that the media are “unbalanced” in their reporting of the campaign against terrorists.(2) According to him, to read or hear the news, the terrorists have the upper hand. (3) Ka Roger, the spokesperson of the CPP/NPA, gets more play in the newspaper than, say, General Benjamin Defensor, the chief of staff of the Armed Forces.<br />
  31. 31. Reported speech in Filipino<br />Extract 11:<br />(1) KailangandawhumingingtawadangPilipinassa Malaysia dahilsamabilisnapag-aaakusana n i-rape nilaangisang 13-anyos naPilipina, sabini Malaysian Prime Minister MahatirMohamad. (2) Angni-rape napinangalanang “Angelica” ay hindinamanumanoPinaykundiisangMalaysian<br />
  32. 32. Direct quotations<br />…(11) “We shall increase penalties on failures to provide information on a timely and accurate basis to strengthen the resolve of listed firms to fully disclose materials needed by the market to make informed judgment,” he said with a touch of irony….<br />
  33. 33. PS and Ab did not use a single direct quotation.<br />It shows limited use of strategy.<br />Phil. newspapers would rather use other effective strategies such as reported speech and 2nd hand info.<br />
  34. 34. Second-hand information<br />Extract 13:<br />(16) The entire boulevard is 5.5 – km. long. (17) JDLC built only 2.3 km, covering both ends. (18) And how do the costs compared? (19) D.M. Wenceslao built a 1.8 – km. section for P102 million or P86,000 per linear meter. (20) SM built 1.4 km. at a cost of P77 million or P54,000 per linear meter. <br />
  35. 35. Position of quotatives<br />no fixed, predictable pattern<br />may appear in the beginning, middle or end<br />
  36. 36. Some insights:<br />I. Phil. English and Filipino newspaper editorials have more similarities than differences.<br /> A. They are similar in the frequent use of more non-visual type of direct evidence than the visual type.<br /> B. There is widespread use of inferentials in both newspaper editorials (evaluative nature of editorials).’<br />
  37. 37. C. There is a difference in the use of quotatives.<br /> 1. Reported speech is most extensively used in English than in its Filipino counterpart.<br /> 2. Direct quotation is not fully exploited in Filipino editorials, in contrast to the English-medium editorials.<br />
  38. 38. II. There is no predictable pattern in the discourse position of evidentials in the Phil. newspaper editorials.<br />
  39. 39. The use of certain evidential types over others and the lack of irregularity in the discourse position of evidentials – adopted by both types of editorials, may speak of rhetorical conventions shared by both.<br />
  40. 40. A plausible explanation involves the influence of English (L2) on writing in L1 (Filipino).<br />Casual observation points to widespread use of English in journalism classes in Phil. universities and colleges where conventions in L1 writing may also be taught.<br />
  41. 41. The explicit teaching of L1 conventions in classes may partly account for the similarities between Phil. English and Filipino editorials.<br />
  42. 42. RECOMMENDATIONS:<br />further investigation on whether this is a case of transfer of strategies from L1 to L2 or not<br /> more principled data collection procedure to control for discourse topic and other variables such as length of texts that may affect the analysis of data <br />
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