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The Sullivan Campaign
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  • 1. The Sullivan Campaign 1779 - ?? Pennsylvania/New York By Rachel Shirley
  • 2. Goal
    • To eliminate Iroquois forces in New York
    • John Sullivan was chosen to lead campaign
      • Other officers:
        • James Clinton
        • William Maxwell
        • Edward Hand
    • "we have it in our power to carry war into their country."
  • 3. Sullivan’s Men
    • 4 brigades
      • 4,500 men
    • Marksmen
    • Familiar with Indian strategies
    • Men from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Virginia, New York, and Pennsylvania
  • 4. The Plan
  • 5. Issues
    • Parts of the journey, the army would be cut off from supply lines
      • Had to become self sufficient
    • Speed was essential in their plan
      • Washington ordered him to proceed without all his requested supplies
        • Other parts of the army suffered, too; Sullivan had to think realistically
  • 6. The Journey
    • Sullivan reached Easton in early May
    • Setbacks:
      • Their original path was impassable; had to cut themselves a path through the woods
      • The longer the men were idle, the more supplies was used
  • 7. Washington’s Ideas
    • “Total destruction and devastation”
    • Burn and destroy; capture hostages
    • No peace offer
    • “Our future security,” Washington wrote, would rest on the “Terror” inflicted upon them.
    • Sullivan should act aggressively and let his men charge in a loose/dispersed way
  • 8. The Journey (cont.)
    • Wyoming road cleared in June
      • Left from Easton to Wyoming to more supplies
    • Colonel John Butler (Loyalist leader)
      • Knew of the Continental’s coming, but was unable to do anything about it
    • Sullivan in Wyoming
      • Acquired hundreds of pack horses/beef cows
  • 9. The Journey (cont.)
    • July- Sullivan still had not left Wyoming base
      • Complained about lack of supplies, and soon lack of support
      • Penn. broke their promise to supply hundreds militia
        • Made Sullivan even moodier
          • Began denying locals help, replying with sarcasm
    • Washington wrote a letter, explaining the importance of speed in this mission
      • By the time the letter arrived, the army had left for Tioga
  • 10. On the Move
    • Army well guarded, made there way up Susquehanna River
      • Reached Tioga in August without incident
    • Attacked Chemung (Iroquois Village) at night
      • Found it deserted, looted/burned it
    • Sullivan sent men to meet Clinton (who was in Iroquois territory)
      • Iroquois attacked Sullivan’s men while waiting
  • 11. On the Move (cont.)
    • Left Tioga August 26
      • Efficiency of travaling formation impressed the British
        • John Butler- “the best of the Continental Troops commanded by the most active of the Rebel Generals”
          • John planned to ambush them before they got too close
    • One advantage to the late campaign
      • The harvest would be ready, so they plundered fields for food
  • 12. Newtown
    • Butler tried to ambush
      • Scout realized the ambush and warned the rest of the army
      • Fierce fighting left Sullivan the victor
        • Plundered Newtown
    • Sullivan continued attacking towns
  • 13. Catherine’s Town
    • Another night march through rough, muddy terrain
      • “Had the savages availed themselves to this opportunity,” one officer realized, “it might have proven very fatal to us.”
    • The town was abandoned
  • 14. On the Move (cont.)
    • Continued storming towns
      • Found many deserted
        • Canadasaga being the largest
    • Began wondering how much further they had to go
      • Goal: to destroy the largest town, Genesee Castle
  • 15. Boyd’s Blunder
    • Boyd and his men were sent to scout Genesee
      • Became lost, attacked a town above Genesee before reaching Genesee
    • Said that they would wait
      • Became impatient and headed to main force
    • Fell into an ambush, almost wiping them out
      • Sullivan came just in time
    • Boyd saved the army from a potentially costly ambush
  • 16. Genesee
    • Arrived at Genesee
      • Deserted, but found Boyd’s mutilated body
      • Sullivan’s men destroyed that town “with great cheerfulness”
      • Indians demoralized, retreated to Fort Niagara
    • Sulivan returned to Honeaye and “Fort Cummings” in September
  • 17. Conclusion
    • Sullivan divided forces to cover more ground
      • Destroying more villages
    • Army together once more and headed back to Wyoming
    • Expedition = outstanding success
      • Marking Sullivan’s most successful campaign
        • And his last
          • He resigned because of deteriorating health and a wish to be with his family (Congress didn’t mind)
  • 18. Bibliography
    • Pictures
    • http://wennawoods.com/users/wennawoods-cgi/listpage.cgi?cat =newyork&store=books
    • http://freepages.books.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cayuga/1779/map.jpg
    • Sources
    • &quot;Revolutionary War Campaigns: Sullivan's Campaign.&quot; The American Revolutionary War . Genealogy Inc, 19 Sep 2010. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <http://www.myrevolutionarywar.com/campaigns/1779-sullivan.htm>.
    • Adamiak, Stanley J. &quot;The 1779 Sullivan Campaign.&quot; Archiving Early America . Archiving Early America, n.d. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/1998/sullivan.html>.
    • &quot;Sullivan Expedition.&quot; Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 31 Aug 2010. Web. 15 Sep 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sullivan_Expedition>.