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Post-Stroke Depression:
A Nurses Guide
Presented by Rachel Lambert
Objectives
RN will  understand the prevalence, roadblocks and importance of identifying PSD
RN will be able to identify th...
Who does PSD affect?
1 out of every 3 post-stroke patients
Largely under-reported
If not treated PSD can affect
Rehabilita...
Effect of PSD on Recovery
Depression may jeopardize a patient’s ability to meet functional goals and to reintegrate into s...
Risk Factors for Post Stroke Depression
Female gender 
Age 60 or younger 
Divorced 
Alcoholism 
Non-fluent aphasia 
Having...
Types of Post-Stroke Depression
Major Depressive Disorder
Dysthymic Reactive Depression
Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder
At least one cardinal symptom :
low mood or diminished interest in almos...
Major Depression
Incidence and Recovery
Etiology
Effect on Brain Function
Suicidal Ideation
Dysthymic  Depression
Prevalence
Duration of two years
Response to treatment
Antidepressants
Risk of double depression
Sign and Symptoms of PSD
Significant lack of energy
Lack of motivation
Problems concentrating
Difficulty finding enjoyment...
Why does PSD often go undiagnosed?
Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath of stroke
Stroke sym...
Stroke Impairments
What are some tools to Identify PSD?
Self –report scales
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
http://www.servier.com/App_D...
Timing of Evaluation
    Evaluation should occur the first month following a  stroke
    Patients should be monitored at r...
Onset of PSD
Occurs in all phases of stroke recovery
Peak  incidence and severity of depression occur between 6 months and...
Apathy vs. Depression
Apathy is a motivational disorder that can occur in the presence or absence of depression
Apathy ass...
Crying Behaviors
Identifying distinctions among crying behaviors is an important aspect of assessing post-stroke  
 RN mus...
Treatment
Treatments that have been proven to be effective include: 
Antidepressant medications
Behavioral therapy 
Altern...
Selective Serotonin reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
First line medication choice
Dosage/Side Effects/ Drug Interactions
Prozac...
Tricyclic and Teracyclic Antidepressants
 Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions
TCA’s
Elavil
Pamelor
Ludiomil
Novel Antidepressants
Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions
Wellbutrin
Effexor
Remeron
MAOI Inhibitors
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions
Nardil
Marplan
Parnate
Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive therapy
 thoughts lead to moods
Problem-solving therapy
mental health professionals meet with...
Alternative Therapy
Utilizing pre-existing coping techniques
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Music Therapy
Ac...
RN’s Role
A multidisciplinary health team is essential in PSD screening, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and prevention o...
Nursing Considerations
A post-stroke patient may need spiritual support, counseling with a provider who has experience wit...
Nursing Considerations
If the patient is intubated and unable to speak, identify alternative methods of communication
Revi...
Desired outcome
  An empowered patient able to participate in their recovery process!
References
Brodaty, H  Sachdev, P Withall A, Altendorf, A Valenzuela , MJ Lorentz, L. “Frequency and clinical, neuropsycho...
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Post stroke depression

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Post Stroke Depression- RN's role in identifying, screening for and educating patients on treatments available to combat PSD.

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Transcript of "Post stroke depression"

  1. 1. Post-Stroke Depression: A Nurses Guide Presented by Rachel Lambert
  2. 2. Objectives RN will understand the prevalence, roadblocks and importance of identifying PSD RN will be able to identify the risk factors and signs and symptoms of PSD RN will be familiar with the assessment tools used in identifying PSD RN will be familiar with treatments to combat PSD
  3. 3. Who does PSD affect? 1 out of every 3 post-stroke patients Largely under-reported If not treated PSD can affect Rehabilitation Recovery Quality of Life Caregiver health Survival Health Care System
  4. 4. Effect of PSD on Recovery Depression may jeopardize a patient’s ability to meet functional goals and to reintegrate into society The incidence of complications (e.g., skin breakdown, urinary tract infections), hospital length of stay, and medical costs expenses may all increase because of depression. PSD has been linked with higher mortality rate
  5. 5. Risk Factors for Post Stroke Depression Female gender Age 60 or younger Divorced Alcoholism Non-fluent aphasia Having a major motor or cognitive deficit Nursing- home/Rehab placement Lack of Social Support
  6. 6. Types of Post-Stroke Depression Major Depressive Disorder Dysthymic Reactive Depression
  7. 7. Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder At least one cardinal symptom : low mood or diminished interest in almost all activities plus three or four cluster symptoms for a minimum total of five symptoms. Both the cluster and cardinal symptoms should be present for at least 2 weeks and denote a change from a previous functioning condition.
  8. 8. Major Depression Incidence and Recovery Etiology Effect on Brain Function Suicidal Ideation
  9. 9. Dysthymic Depression Prevalence Duration of two years Response to treatment Antidepressants Risk of double depression
  10. 10. Sign and Symptoms of PSD Significant lack of energy Lack of motivation Problems concentrating Difficulty finding enjoyment in anything Sleep disturbances
  11. 11. Why does PSD often go undiagnosed? Diagnosis of PSD is challenging in the acute and chronic aftermath of stroke Stroke symptoms can mask depression symptoms making it hard to distinguish the root of the impairments a patient is experiencing
  12. 12. Stroke Impairments
  13. 13. What are some tools to Identify PSD? Self –report scales Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression http://www.servier.com/App_Download/Neurosciences/Echelles/HDRS.pdf Beck Depression Inventory http://www.ibogaine.desk.nl/graphics/3639b1c_23.pdf Objective Data Scales: Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) Signs of Depression Scale (SDSS)
  14. 14. Timing of Evaluation Evaluation should occur the first month following a stroke Patients should be monitored at regular intervals, depending on risk factors and presenting symptoms Families should be included in the evaluation process
  15. 15. Onset of PSD Occurs in all phases of stroke recovery Peak incidence and severity of depression occur between 6 months and 2 years after stroke
  16. 16. Apathy vs. Depression Apathy is a motivational disorder that can occur in the presence or absence of depression Apathy associated with attention and processing Speed deficits Depression associated with memory and executive function issues By understanding the differences, the proper intervention can be determined
  17. 17. Crying Behaviors Identifying distinctions among crying behaviors is an important aspect of assessing post-stroke RN must be able to distinguish crying that's congruent with a mood of sadness from other crying behaviors Pathologic crying , Emotionalism, Catastrophic Reactions
  18. 18. Treatment Treatments that have been proven to be effective include: Antidepressant medications Behavioral therapy Alternative therapy
  19. 19. Selective Serotonin reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) First line medication choice Dosage/Side Effects/ Drug Interactions Prozac Zoloft Paxil
  20. 20. Tricyclic and Teracyclic Antidepressants Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions TCA’s Elavil Pamelor Ludiomil
  21. 21. Novel Antidepressants Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions Wellbutrin Effexor Remeron
  22. 22. MAOI Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Dosage/Side Effects/Drug Interactions Nardil Marplan Parnate
  23. 23. Behavioral Therapy Cognitive therapy thoughts lead to moods Problem-solving therapy mental health professionals meet with stroke survivors to facilitate awareness of problems and help develop solutions Psychosocial behavioral intervention stroke survivors are provided with opportunities to interact with educational materials and interventionists
  24. 24. Alternative Therapy Utilizing pre-existing coping techniques Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Music Therapy Acupuncture
  25. 25. RN’s Role A multidisciplinary health team is essential in PSD screening, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and prevention of potential complications. RN plays an important role in Identifying risk factors Effectively Screening Patients Educating patients and their families on treatment options to combat PSD
  26. 26. Nursing Considerations A post-stroke patient may need spiritual support, counseling with a provider who has experience with the diagnoses, and support groups Providing resources including printed materials, websites, and organizations is helpful for the patient and family members Assess the patient’s and family’s perception of the diagnoses, and coping mechanisms
  27. 27. Nursing Considerations If the patient is intubated and unable to speak, identify alternative methods of communication Review prescribed medications (antidepressants) with patient and /or family members e.g. side effects and dosages Encourage patient and family to prioritize needs and learn to accept help
  28. 28. Desired outcome An empowered patient able to participate in their recovery process!
  29. 29. References Brodaty, H Sachdev, P Withall A, Altendorf, A Valenzuela , MJ Lorentz, L. “Frequency and clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates of apathy following stroke - the Sydney Stroke Study.” Psychol. Med. 35(12), 1707-1716 (2005). “Depression Trumps Recovery “-Excerpted and adapted from "Depression Trumps Recovery," appearing in Stroke Connection Magazine September/October 2003. (Science update May2008) http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/EmotionalBehavioralChallenges/Depression-Trumps-Recovery_UCM_309731_Article.jsp Fralick-Ball, Susan. “Post-stroke depression: early assessment and interventions can promote optimal recovery.” ADVANCE Newsmagazineshttp://occupational-therapy.advanceweb.com/features/articles/post-stroke-depression.aspx?CP=2 Gaete, J and Bogousslavsky, J. "Post-stroke depression." Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 8.1 2008 Jan: 75-92. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 Jan. 2011. Hackett, M. L., et. al. “Management of Depression after Stroke; A Systematic Review of Pharmacologic Therapies.“ Stroke; 2005 May;36:1092-1097. Lökk, Johan Delbari, A . “Management of depression in elderly stroke patients .“ Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2010:6 539–549 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2938303/pdf/ndt-6-539.pdf Melrose, Sheley PhD, RN. ”How to uncover post-stroke depression.” Nursing Made Incredibly Easy! 2010 July/Aug; 8 (4):31 - 37. Mitchell ,PH Veith, RC Becker, KJ Buzaitis, A Cain, KC Fruin,M et al. “Brief psychosocial-behavioral intervention with antidepressant reduces poststroke depression significantly more than usual care with antidepressant: living well with stroke: randomized, controlled trial.” Stroke 2009;40:3073-8. Paolucci, Stefano. “Epidemiology and treatment of post-stroke depression.” Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment. 2008 February; 4(1): 145–154. Published online 2008 February. PMCID: PMC2515899 Stradling, Dana RN, BSN, CNRN. September 25, 2009 .“Stroke and depression: continuing education course for the RN.”Published online 2009 September . http://dynamicnursingeducation.com/class.php?class_id=129
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