The ingredients are usually oil or a fat like olive oil or egg yolks, and another liquid like water or broth. Acidic liquids like lemon juice help the process by changing the pH of the mixture. The liquids are combined very slowly, usually drop by drop, while beating vigorously, which suspends drops of liquid throughout each other. Bearnaise, hollandaise, and mayonnaise are examples of emulsified foods.
Culinary Knowledge Check
Bellwork:In the bellwork section of your binder, write three things you learned in last year’s Culinary Arts class. What skill or knowledge do you most want to gain out of this year’s class? Be prepared to share your response!
First Week of Culinary… Day 3 • Pre-Knowledge Check • CTSO Opportunities • Culinary Standards
Announcements:• Please have a three-ring binder and dividers by next class• FCCLA Elections: Monday during Conference• Culinary Handbook: Signature sheets due Friday• Jted paperwork MUST be turned in by the end of the week (Form, Birth Certificate, Immunization Records)
Objectives:• Students will be able to:• Demonstrate understanding of key culinary principals.• Identify student organization opportunities in advanced culinary art classes• Assess culinary standards and rate personal competencies.
Culinary Pre-Knowledge Check• Write on a separate sheet of paper.• Please do not share your answers, this is to assess your prior knowledge. You will be graded on your participation and effort, not on the number of correct answers.
1. What is a Sous Chef?“Under” Chef- Reports to the executive chef.Sous chefs supervise and sometimes assistother chefs in the kitchen. They may also fill infor the executive chef when necessary.
2. What is the abbreviation for pound? How many ounces are in apound? What is the abbreviation for cup? How many ounces are in a cup? • lb • 16 oz=1 lb •c • 8 oz=1 c
3. What does it mean to cross-train?• Provide work experience in a variety of tasks. Employees will have fairly separate functions in the kitchen, yet be trained in more than one of these positions making them more marketable to the foodservice operation
4. What is a POS?• Restaurant POS refers to point of sale (POS) software that runs on computers, usually touch screen terminals or wireless handheld devices. Restaurant POS systems assist businesses to track transactions in real time.• Typical restaurant POS software is able to print guest checks, print orders to kitchens and bars for preparation, process credit cards and other payment cards, and run reports. In addition, some systems implement wireless pagers and electronic signature capture devices.
5. Define bon appetit.• French term, good appetite• The phrase means, “Enjoy Your Meal”
6. Define upselling.• A technique for suggesting a larger size or better quality than the customer’s original order
7. What is a perishable product? Give an example.• Products that can spoil quickly, even when stored correctly• milk, bananas, raw meat, etc
8.What is the difference between clean and sanitized?• Clean is simply free of debris but sanitized is free of harmful bacteria
9. What is the danger zone?• A range of temperatures between 40 and 140 degrees where harmful bacteria can rapidly multiply
10. List the six nutrients.• Carbohydrates• Protein• Fats• Vitamins• Minerals• Water
11. What are the six food groups in the current USDA Food Guide Pyramid.• Grain Group• Fruit Group• Vegetable Group• Milk Group• Meat & Bean Group• Fats & Oils
12. What does HACCP stand for?• Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
13. What does FATTOM mean?• F.A.T.T.O.M. explains what allows foodborne pathogens to grow.• (Food Acidity Time Temperature Oxygen Moisture)
14. What is a toque?• a type of hat with a narrow brim or nobrim at all. Today the toque is known as the chef’s hat
15. Who is Marie-Antoine Careme?• a popular French chef, is credited with developing the current chef’s uniform.
16. Give an example of a food-borne illness• Salmonella• E. Coli• Botulism• Listeriosis• Trichinosis
17. What does FIFO stand for?• First In, First Out• FIFO is a system of rotation to ensure food used in the order it arrived to prevent waste and spoilage
19. How many tablespoons are in a stick of ?• 8 Tablespoons• 8 Tablespoons= ½ cup• 4 Tablespoons= ¼ cup4 sticks of butter= 1 lb
20. What is a ladle used for?• To portion liquids such as sauces and soups• It’s long handle enables you to reach to the bottom of a deep pot or pan.
21. What is a spec?• Specification• A written description of the products a foodservice operation needs to purchase
22. Give examples of food allergies.• Lactose Intolerant- Allergic to lactose in milk products• Peanuts• Wheat• Shellfish
23. What is Mirepoix?• A mix of coarsely chopped vegetables and herbs; typically carrots, onions, and celery• the foundation for Mirepoix is 50% Onion, 25% celery and 25% carrot
24. What is a stock?Liquids that form the foundation of sauces and soups. Simmering various combinations of bones, vegetables, and herbs extracts their flavors to create this foundation. Good stock makes wonderful sauces and soups!
25. Define reduction• The process of evaporating part of a stock’s water through simmering or boiling• Example: A glaze is a stock that is reduced and concentrated
26. What is a thickening agent?An ingredient, such as cornstarch, that adds body to the sauce
27. What is a coulis?Pronounced koo-Lee, coulis is a sauce made from fruit or vegetable puree
28. What is a roux?Pronounced roo, a roux is a cooked mixture made from equal parts of fat and flour by weight
29. Explain the differences between measuring: liquid, dry, solid, weight, and volume• Liquids are measured in a glass or other transparent material and at eye level. Examples: water, milk, juice• Solids are measured in graduated measuring cups as well and are sometimes packed to take the form of the measure. Examples: Brown sugar, peanut butter, sour cream, honey• Weight- measure amount using an electric or balance scale• Volume- measure the amount of space that an ingredient fills
30. What is gazpacho?• Pronounced gahz-PAH-choh, gazpacho is a cold Spanish soup commonly served in warm weather
31. What is meant by “clarify”The process of removing impurities from a liquidsuch as melted butter, meat stock, or vegetablestock. This is usually accomplished by skimmingthe surface of the liquid as it is heated
32. What are barquettes?Pronounced bahr-KEHTS, barquettes are boat-shaped pastry shells that can contain a savoryfilling when served as an appetizer or a sweetfilling when served as a dessert.
33. What is a baguette?pronounced bae’get, a baguette is a long thin loafof French bread that is commonly made from basiclean dough and is distinguishable by itslength, crisp crust, and slits that enable the properexpansion of gases
34. Explain sensory perceptionSensory perception is how a person’seyes, nose, mouth, and skin detect and evaluatethe environment. Sensory perception improvesyour ability to taste
35. What sensory properties of food affect how people perceive food?color and appearance, flavor, and texture
36. We use four out of five sense organs to detect sensory properties. What are they?• Taste buds• Nose• Skin• Eyes
37. What are the four basic tastes?• Sweet• Salty• Sour• Bitter• Savory (stimulating and full of flavor) is sometimes included
38. What is a Maître D?a dining-room attendant who is in charge of the waiters and the seating of customersMaitre D is also the trademark name for a Point of Sale (POS) system
39. What is Soupe du jour?“soup of the day”Soupe du jour is the soup featured by restaurant on a given day
40. Define Tartarea preparation of finely chopped raw meat or fish optionally with seasonings and sauces
41. Why are sharp knivesconsidered safer than dull knives? With knives, it’s all about control.A dull knife is more likely to slip rather than cut. (think about cutting a firm, slippery object such as an apple. When the smooth edge of a knife is applied to the slick surface, one of two things will happen: either the blade will skid along the surface or it will cut into the flesh of the apple. Once the knife has slipped, it’s a matter of luck & reflexes where the sharp end goes) A sharp knife requires much less pressure to cut into an item. When combined with a reduced tendency to slip, this gives greater control over the blade.
42. t/f: a sharp knife applied directly to yourskin will cause more damage than a dull knife. True!!!A sharp knife is safer than a dull one; when used correctly, you are less likely to have an injury with a sharp knife.So, keep your knives sharp, practice safe cutting techniques, and your chances of injury in the kitchen will drop significantly
44. Why is it important to cut foods in uniform pieces? If the food is the cut into pieces of equal size, they cook evenly Also, Uniform sizes also make the finished product more visually appealing
45. Why does chopping onions make you cry?When you cut an onion, you break cells, releasing their contents. Amino acid sulfoxides form sulfenic acids. Enzymes that were kept separate now are free to mix with the sulfenic acids to produce propanethiol s- oxide, a volatile sulfer compound that wafts upward toward your eyes. This gas reacts with the water in your tears to form sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid burns, stimulating your eyes to release more tears to wash the irritant away.
46. What is a garde manger?• Pronounced gahrd-mohn-zhay, the pantry chef is responsible for preparing cold food items. These items may include salads, cold meats and cheeses, and cold sauces http://culinarytmarts.about.com/od/glossary /g/Garde-Manger.h
47. Define Emulsify • Emulsify means combining two liquids together which normally dont mix easily. • Examples: oil or a fat like olive oil or egg yolks, and another liquid like water or broth • Acidic liquids like lemon juice help the process by changing the pH of the mixture. • The liquids are combined very slowly while beating vigorously • This suspends drops of liquid throughout each other • Bearnaise, hollandaise, and mayonnaise are examples of emulsified foods.http://video.about.com/culinaryarts/How-to-Make-Vinaigrette.htm
Culinary Standards• Review the culinary standards and decide which level of expertise best describes your knowledge of the standard:• E: Expert• U: Understand• N: Novice
Coming Up Next…• Equipment Review & Kitchen Setup• Kitchen Safety & Sanitation• Food Safety• Preparing to Cater• Preparing to Compete• Hors d’oeuvres & Appetizers
Closure: Ticket Out The Door• What does the acronym CTSO stand for?• What does the acronym FCCLA stand for?• What does the acronym CCAP stand for?• What aspect of FCCLA or CCAP is of the most interest to you?