Cancer occurs as a result of mutations, or abnormal changes, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells and keeping them healthy the cells in our bodies replace themselves through an orderly process of cell growth: healthy new cells take over as old ones die out. But over time, mutations can ―turn on‖ certain genes and ―turn off‖ others in a cell. That changed cell gains the ability to keep dividing without control or order, producing more cells just like it and forming a tumor.
A tumor can be benign (not dangerous to health) or malignant (has the potential to be dangerous. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Left unchecked, malignant cells eventually can spread beyond the original tumor to other parts of the body.
The term ―breast cancer‖ refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast.
Usually breast cancer either begins in the cells of the lobules, which are the milk-producing glands, or the ducts, the passages that drain milk from the lobules to the nipple. Less commonly, breast cancer can begin in the stromal tissues, which include the fatty and fibrous connective tissues of the breast. Over time, cancer cells can invade nearby healthy breast tissue and make their way into the underarm lymph nodes,(lymph nodes are : small organs that filter out foreign substances in the body). If cancer cells get into the lymph nodes, they then have a pathway into other parts of the body.
Stage 0 :Cancer cells remain inside the breast duct, without invasion into normal adjacent breast tissue. Stage IA :The tumor measures up to 2 cm AND the cancer has not spread outside the breast; no lymph nodes are involved. Stage IB :There is no tumor in the breast; instead, small groups of cancer cells -- larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters – are found in the lymph nodes OR there is a tumor in the breast that is no larger than 2 centimeters, and there are small groups of cancer cells – larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than 2 millimeters – in the lymph nodes. Stage IIA: No tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer cells are found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm) OR the tumor measures 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes OR the tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
Stage IIB: The tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes OR the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes .Stage IIIA: No tumor is found in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are sticking together or to other structures, or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone OR the tumor is any size. Cancer has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, which are sticking together or to other structures, or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone.
Stage IIIB: The tumor may be any size and has spread to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast AND may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone. Stage IIIC: There may either be no sign of cancer in the breast or a tumor may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast AND the cancer has spread to lymph nodes either above or below the collarbone AND the cancer may have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone. Stage IV: The cancer has spread — or metastasized — to other parts of the body.
A ―risk factor‖ is anything that increases your risk of developing breast cancer. Many of the most important risk factors for breast cancer are beyond your control, such as age, family history, and medical history. However, there are some risk factors you can control, such as weight, physical activity, and alcohol consumption.
Being overweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, especially for women after menopause. Fat tissue is theWeight body‘s main source of estrogen after menopause, when the ovaries stop producing the hormone. Having more fat tissue means having higher estrogen levels, which can increase breast cancer risk. studies show that eating a lot of red and/or processed meats is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. ADiet. low-fat diet rich in fruits and vegetables is generally recommended.
Evidence is growing that exercise can reduce breast cancer risk. The American Cancer Society recommends engaging inExercise 45-60 minutes of physical exercise 5 or more days a week. Alcohol can limit your liver‘s ability toAlcohol consumption control blood levels of the hormone estrogen, which in turn can increase risk
Gender. Being a woman is the most significant risk factor for developing breast cancer. Although men can get breast cancer, too, women‘s breast cells are constantly changing and growing, mainly due to the activity of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. This activity puts them at much greater risk for breast cancer. Age. Simply growing older is the second biggest risk factor for breast cancer. From age 30 to 39, the risk is 1 in 233, or .43%. That jumps to 1 in 27, or almost 4%, by the time you are in your 60s.
Race. White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than are African American women. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Pregnancy and breastfeeding. Pregnancy and breastfeeding reduce the overall number of menstrual cycles in a woman‘s lifetime, and this appears to reduce future breast cancer risk Family history of breast cancer. If you have a first-degree relative (mother, daughter, sister) who has had breast cancer, or you have multiple relatives affected by breast or ovarian Radiation therapy to the chest. Having radiation therapy to the chest area as a child or young adult as treatment for another cancer significantly increases breast cancer risk. The increase in risk seems to be highest if the radiation was given while the breasts were still developing (during the teen years).
High levels of estrogen (due to cirrhosis of the liver, for example) or estrogen-related drugs (such as for prostate cancer) Exposure to radiation Over age 60 High alcohol consumption Obesity Inherited gene mutations Family history of breast cancer
Treatment plans for breast cancer are developed based on a several factors.1- The type and stage of the cancer,2-the sensitivity of the cancer to certain hormones3-the medical history of the patient
The World Health Organisation [WHO] related that two components of early detection have been shown to improve cancer mortality:1- Education, which in turn helps people recognize early signs of cancer and seek prompt medical attention for symptoms.2-Screening programs, which are a great tool in helping identify early cancer or pre- cancer before signs are recognizable, including mammography for breast cancer.
› Primary Treatments LumpectomyDuring a lumpectomy, the surgeon remove the tumor and a small margin around it. A lumpectomy is usually effective on small tumors. This way they can be removed without involving too much surrounding tissue. Mastectomy1- A simple mastectomy (also called ―partial mastectomy) involves removing all of the breast tissue. That includes skin, fatty tissue, lobules, and ducts2- A radical mastectomy (also called ―total mastectomy‖) also removes the chest wall muscles and the surrounding lymph nodes in the armpit.
Adjuvant Therapy Treatment Neoadjuvant therapy treatments are used before surgery to shrink large tumors and make the surgery easier. Adjuvant therapy treatments are applied after the surgery to help with recovery. Both are intended to increase long-term, disease-free survival rates. These therapies may include:Biological or targeted therapyChemotherapyHormone therapyRadiation, a local adjuvant therapy
Planning Your Treatment Chemotherapy. Radiation Therapy Hormonal Therapy Therapies .Complementary & Holistic Medicine Drugs for Treatment and Risk Reduction
http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/nbcA program for early education f-programs/beyond-the-shock about breast cancer Beyond the shock is a program with all the information you need about breast cancer http://www.nationalbreastcancer.o rg/nbcf-programs/breast-cancer- Make your plan edp Make the early detection plan helping people how to diagnose the case themselves
One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Each year it is estimated that over 220,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer and more than 40,000 will die. Although breast cancer in men is rare, an estimated 2,150 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and approximately 410 will die each year.
Mammography is the process of using low- energy-X-rays to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or microcalcifications.
―Cancer can take my breast and rob me of a summer but it cant take my spirit. Ive learned that no matter how bad life gets, I am the only one who can control my attitude and I will not let cancer take that away from me.‖ Katie Adams . A T,A in university of Ottawa What was your diagnosis? Stage 2 Breast Cancer How did you find out you were sick? What led to your diagnosis? I found a lump and told my doctor about it. From there, there was a lot of imaging done but because of my age, it was assumed that I did not have cancer. Two months before my diagnosis, I was told, ―You dont have cancer‖ by a surgeon. Finally, seven months after telling my doctor about my lump, a biopsy was done and it came back positive.
What was the toughest part of your challenge? Chemo was pretty tough but I think the transition between treatment and finding your ―new normal‖ has been the hardest for me. I think a lot of time people assume that when youre done treatment, youre done cancer and if youve ever had cancer, you know that is not the case. Im trying to get back to the life I knew but trying to incorporate cancer into that life. What really motivated you to keep going while you were sick? I knew that other women needed to be helped so I knew if I was strong, it would give other women strength. I also had such a fantastic support system that picked me up when I was down and it made it easier to be strong when so many people believed in me. What are your thoughts and feelings about your illness now? How have they changed since before your diagnosis? I realize now that having cancer isnt a death sentence and as I mentioned before, you become an expert about (in my case) breast cancer. I knew virtually nothing compared to what I know now. Now, when I hear ―breast cancer‖ I have a physical reaction to it. Rather than just hearing the words, I feel the pain.
What year was it? What was your age at the time? 2011/26 What were your first thoughts when diagnosed? Disbelief, I thought they had the wrong file. I was obviously numb for a few days, too. What did your treatment consist of? I had two surgeries (a mastectomy and nine months later, I had the second part of my reconstruction) and six rounds of chemo. Now I am on a hormone inhibitor for the next five years that will slow the growth of cancer if there were any cells that survived surgery and chemo.
‗I was losing my hair because of the chemo and that affected me greatly. One day I decided that I was going to take control and I totally shaved my head. It‘s a difficult thing to explain, but it felt like I was taking control for once.Andrew Hartling How did you find out you were sick? What led to the diagnosis? I noticed a small bump under my right nipple. Being a typical man, I ignored it for a while but ended up seeing my family doctor in December 2010. I was told it was probably nothing but I should have some tests done to make sure. I was sent for an ultrasound and a mammogram. Being a man and being sent for a mammogram is quite an experience. The results came back and I was told they still weren‘t quite sure so I was scheduled for a biopsy. It was about a week later the doctor called me and told me my diagnosis was Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. I was very confused about what I was being told and I had to ask him to confirm if that meant I had cancer. He was very sympatric as he explained to me I had breast cancer. I was at a loss for words and simply thanked the doctor and hung up on him.
What were your first thoughts when diagnosed? I was very scared and confused. My first instinct was that I needed information and I researched the Internet. There really wasn‘t a lot of information on men‘s breast cancer, but I did find an inspirational story of a gentleman from England who fought breast cancer and completely recovered. I have read his story at least 100 times. What is your current medical status? I am currently cancer-free but undergoing chemo and radiation treatments as a precaution to prevent reoccurrence. What is the toughest part of your challenge? The toughest part is putting my life on hold for so long. There are so many things that have changed in the last months and it is overwhelming sometimes. What are your thoughts and feelings about your illness now? How have they changed since before your diagnosis? It‘s hard to explain but I was so secretive and private about my diagnosis for the first months. I didn‘t tell anyone I had cancer, much less breast cancer. People around me knew I something was going on but only my closest circle of friends knew the truth. It‘s been five months now since my first diagnosis and my attitude has changed. I want to talk about what is happening to me and ask for help when I need it.It took me quite a while to figure out that I couldn‘t fight cancer by myself.
Common Misconception Eating fatty foods causes breast cancer. Reality Check! Research studies have not been able to prove that there is clearly a direct correlation between the fat content in food and the dangerous factors that lead to all forms of Breast Cancer, however it has been proven to be a risk factor increasing the chances of Breast Cancer in post-menopausal women. Common Misconception Breast cancer is a fatal disease that kills all patients. Reality Check! There has been a noticeable increase in the number of women diagnosed with Breast Cancer each year, but the mortality rate is significantly decreasing. Some reasons for this phenomenon comprise the enhanced availability and nature of resources for treatment and early detection of tumors through both Breast Self-examination and various technologies including X-Ray Mammography.
Common Misconception Breast Cancer is a contagious disease since it can occur in families with many members affected over time or many women can be diagnosed in single communities at the same time. Reality Check! Breast Cancer is not passed from person to person like an infectious disease. Contagiousness has nothing to do with genetic mutations or inheritance patterns of disease Common Misconception Finding an unnatural lump on the breasts means that a woman has Breast Cancer. Reality Check! While you are undergoing a Breast-Self-examination if unnatural lumps, infections, or any irregularities are detected, you should immediately consult a specialist doctor. It is possible that detected irregularities are not cancerous, however it is only a specialist doctor that can identify and determine its nature.. Common Misconception Breast cancer is a disease that is only found in women and not in men. Reality Check! Statistics in the United States of America have proven that women are only more susceptible to the disease than men, where for every 135 cases of Breast Cancer in women, one man is diagnosed. Men should also take a proactive approach to their Breast health to encourage early detection and curability if irregularities are present
BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION What am I looking for when I do a breast self-exam? You are looking for a lump or change that stands out as different from the rest of your breast tissue. If you discover a lump or other change in your breast, either during breast self examination or by chance, you should examine the other breast. If both breasts feel the same, the lumpiness is probably normal.
. How often should I do a self-exam?A breast self-exam is recommended every month a few days afteryour period ends. During this time, your breasts are less tender orswollen. It is important to do your breast self-exam at the sametime during your menstrual cycle.
MAMMOGRAMWhat is a mammogramph and why should I have one?the process of using low-energy-X-rays to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or microcalcifications You simply stand in front of an x-ray machine. Your breast is placed between two plastic plates to flatten it. This helps in getting a more clear picture and subsequently a more accurate diagnosis. A mammogram takes only a few seconds.
A small group of 24 founding members, Egyptians and expatriates concerned with the high incidence of breast cancer and the lack of related support services in. they are a driving force to bring breast cancer awareness, education, and services to Egyptian women.BCFE Goals: 1. Build a culturally sensitive physical and emotional support system to enhance the quality of life for women with breast cancer and their families. 2. Collect a body of statistics to support research and promote enlightened care. 3. Facilitate access to affordable and high quality professional diagnostic treatment, and rehabilitative services for women in all economic strata. 4. Educate the public about breast cancer, the importance of early detection, and eradicate the stigma attached to having breast cancer.33 Kasr El Aini Street, Suite 25, Floor 7, Fom El Khalig- Cairo 1141Tel: (202) 23682 431/2Mobile: 010 3491104