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O.b session 5

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  • 1. Foundations of Group Behavior Session: 05
  • 2. Defining and Classifying GroupsGroup(s)Two or more individuals interacting andinterdependent, who have come togetherto achieve particular objectives.Formal Group Informal GroupA designated work A group that is neithergroup defined by the formally structured noworganization’s structure. organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 3. Defining and Classifying Groups(cont’d)Command Group Task GroupA group composed of Those working togetherthe individuals who to complete a job or task.report directly to agiven manager.Interest Group Friendship GroupThose working together Those brought togetherto attain a specific because they share oneobjective with which or more commoneach is concerned. characteristics.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 4. Why People Join Groups • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement E X H I B I T 8–1Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 5. The Five-Stage Model of GroupDevelopmentForming StageThe first stage in group development, characterizedby much uncertainty.Storming StageThe second stage in groupdevelopment, characterized by intragroup conflict.Norming StageThe third stage in groupdevelopment, characterizedby close relationships andcohesiveness.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 6. …Group Development (cont’d)Performing StageThe fourth stage in group development, when thegroup is fully functional.Adjourning StageThe final stage in groupdevelopment for temporarygroups, characterized byconcern with wrapping upactivities rather thanperformance.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 7. Stages of Group DevelopmentE X H I B I T 8–2 Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 8. An Alternative Model: TemporaryGroups with Deadlines Punctuated- Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go Sequence of actions: through transitions between inertia and 1. Setting group direction activity. 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 9. The Punctuated-EquilibriumModel E X H I B I T 8–3Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 10. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)Role(s)A set of expected behavior patterns attributed tosomeone occupying a given position in a social unit.Role IdentityCertain attitudes and behaviorsconsistent with a role.Role PerceptionAn individual’s view of how he or sheis supposed to act in a given situation.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 11. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)Role ExpectationsHow others believe a personshould act in a given situation.Psychological ContractAn unwritten agreement that setsout what management expects fromthe employee and vice versa.Role ConflictA situation in which an individual is confronted bydivergent role expectations.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 12. Group Structure - NormsNormsAcceptable standards of behavior within a groupthat are shared by the group’s members. Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources normsDeveloped by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 13. The Hawthorne Studies A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932. Research Conclusions:  Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related.  Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior.  Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output.  Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, andDeveloped by: M.Salman Azhar security.
  • 14. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)ConformityAdjusting one’s behavior to alignwith the norms of the group.Reference GroupsImportant groups to whichindividuals belong or hopeto belong and with whosenorms individuals are likelyto conform.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 15. Examples of Cards Used in Asch’sStudy E X H I B I T 8–4Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 16. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)Deviant Workplace BehaviorAntisocial actions by organizational membersthat intentionally violate established norms andresult in negative consequences for theorganization, its members, or both.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 17. Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkersSource: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: E X H I B I T 8–5 Developed by: M.Salman AzharA Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal, April 1995, p. 565.
  • 18. Group Structure - StatusStatusA socially defined position or rank given to groups orgroup members by others. Group Norms Group Member Status Equity Status CultureDeveloped by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 19. Group Structure - Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.Performance Other conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Developed by: M.Salman Azhar Size Group
  • 20. Group Structure - CompositionGroup DemographyThe degree to which members of a group share acommon demographic attribute, such asage, sex, race, educational level, or length of servicein the organization, and the impact of this attributeon turnover.CohortsIndividuals who, as part ofa group, hold a commonattribute.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 21. Group Structure - CohesivenessCohesivenessDegree to which group members are attracted toeach other and are motivated to stay in the group. Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 22. Relationship Between GroupCohesiveness, PerformanceNorms, and Productivity E X H I B I T 8–6 Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 23. S. Adams, Build a Better Life by Stealing Office Supplies (Kansas City MO: Andrews &McMeal, 1991), p. 31. Dilbert reprinted with permission of United Features Syndicate, Inc. E X H I B I T 8–7 Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 24. Group Tasks Decision-making  Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks.  Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.  Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 25. Group Decision Making Strengths  Weaknesses  More complete  More time consuming information (slower)  Increased diversity of  Increased pressure to views conform  Higher quality of  Domination by one or decisions (more a few members accuracy)  Ambiguous  Increased acceptance responsibility of solutionsDeveloped by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 26. Group Decision Making (cont’d)GroupthinkPhenomenon in which the norm for consensusoverrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courseof action.GroupshiftA change in decision risk between the group’sdecision and the individual decision that memberwithin the group would make; can be either towardconservatism or greater risk.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 27. Symptoms Of The GroupthinkPhenomenon Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority. Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 28. Group Decision-MakingTechniquesInteracting GroupsTypical groups, in which the members interact witheach other face-to-face.Nominal Group TechniqueA group decision-making method in which individualmembers meet face-to-face to pool their judgmentsin a systematic but independent fashion.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 29. Group Decision-MakingTechniquesBrainstormingAn idea-generation process that specificallyencourages any and all alternatives, whilewithholding any criticism of those alternatives.Electronic MeetingA meeting in which membersinteract on computers, allowingfor anonymity of comments andaggregation of votes.Developed by: M.Salman Azhar
  • 30. Evaluating Group Effectiveness TYPE OF GROUPEffectiveness Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal ElectronicNumber and quality of ideas Low Moderate High HighSocial pressure High Low Moderate LowMoney costs Low Low Low HighSpeed Moderate Moderate Moderate ModerateTask orientation Low High High HighPotential for interpersonal conflict High Low Moderate LowCommitment to solution High Not applicable Moderate ModerateDevelopment of High High Moderate Lowgroup cohesiveness E X H I B I T 8–8 Developed by: M.Salman Azhar