Is The Simpsons a send-up of the twee American family sitcoms that came before it, or is it a send-up of American life? … and to what is the distinction between representation and ‘real’ life anyway?
Postmodern culture proposes a world of signifiers without signifieds
Are previous dominant paradigms – realism and modernism – no longer adequate explanations or representations of the world?
Realism … a commitment to show things as they really are…
Realism … set of stylistic, aesthetic and narrative conventions…
Modernism … making the world look strange … making you look again Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937
Modernism disillusionment with modernism modernism becomes just another part of the art establishment it loses its ability to shock becomes associated with elite tastes Post
Postmodernism … a revolt against cultural elitism challenges the distinction between ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture
elevate the everyday to the category of art Andy Warhol, 32 Campbell’s Soup Cans , 1962
Peter Blake, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (cover), 1967 Pop Art
collapse of the distinction between high and low culture collapse in the grand narratives politics religion science
Grand narratives (or metanarratives) according to Jean-Francois Lyotard… … established universal principles … lay privileged claims to ‘truth’ and ‘authenticity … crisis in the status of human knowledge in Western societies
… crisis in the status of human knowledge in Western societies Arts and culture … how do represent and give expression to a world if there is no truth or authenticity? Politics … what do ‘freedom’, ‘democracy’, ‘progressive’ mean? Education
Jean Baudrillard ...it is no longer possible to separate the cultural from the economic
images, representations, feelings - are just as likely to be part of economic life at material goods
… we live in an environment saturated with media images… Simulacrum identitical copies without an original Hyperrealism substitution of images for the ‘real’ thing
‘ It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology), but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real.’
‘ It is no longer a question of a false representation of reality (ideology), but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real .’
Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism: or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism , 1991 … a culture of pastiche
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y3qxUqwrNDA … a world in which stylistic innovation is no longer possible, all that is left is to imitate dead styles, to speak through the masks and with the voices of the styles in the imaginary museum.
Pulp Fiction, Dir. Quentin Tarantino, 1994 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ik-RsDGPI5Y … the history of aesthetic styles displaces ‘real’ history