The Feminist Movement can be divided into three theoretical “waves ”
First Wave Feminism dealt with legal or officially mandated inequalities toward women
(18th through early 20th century)
Second Wave Feminism dealt generally with unofficial, social and cultural inequalities or injustices against women
Third Wave Feminism deals with less structured feminist initiatives, and serves as a catch-all for contemporary gender inequalities that were left unaddressed within second wave feminism
First Wave Feminism (18th through early 20th Century)
First Wave Feminism
-Until the early 20th century, the role of the woman was generally as a secondary citizen within a male dominated culture.
-During WWI, women began to emerge from their roles within the household, and began to fill job positions while men served as soldiers, creating some advancement for women’s civil equality.
-Susan B. Anthony was a civil rights leader who actively played a crucial role within the Women’s Rights Movement, helping to introduce women’s suffrage into the United States
-Anthony also strongly advocated marital equality, and stated that a woman should be allowed to refuse sex with her husband. (At this time, there was still no legal action available to women against rape.)
-Women in the US finally gained the right to vote in 1920 (1919 in Canada.)
During the 1950’s, women recognize their frustration with inequality as their assumed role as housewives, and with injustices in the work force, in terms of pay and job positions.
During the 1960’s birth control pills are made available, and sexual liberation becomes predominant.
Marital rape becomes prohibited, and divorce laws are generally adopted.
Also during the 1960’s many universities and colleges adopted coeducation, formerly, strictly gender segregated.
“ Bra Burning”era, Women’s rights protests
-Simone De Beauvoir was a pioneering feminist, who wrote “The Second Sex”, in terms of women being perceived as the “Other” within a patriarchal society. This notion of the Woman as the “Other” was a myth perpetuated by men as Women had the ability to get pregnant, lactate, and menstruate, and is generally an invalid excuse to deem woman as a lesser being, or “second sex”.
Essentially, Third Wave Feminism is an all-encompassing postmodern Feminist movement that strives to address issues not resolved by the First and Second waves.
Movement began during the early 1990’s, as a resurgence of equality-motivated Feminism following Post-Feminism of the late 1980’s.
Post Feminism arose from the notions that Feminism was “man-hating”, sexist and gynocentric. Post Feminist theory concluded that Feminists promoted and demanded preferential treatment of women, and arose from the portrayal of females as victims.
Third wave feminism aims to incorporate a variety of equality-related ideologies, including;
queer theory, anti racism, womanism, transnationalism, and LGBT issues, which are vital to third wave feminism, promoting the freedom of women and other marginalized identities from patriarchal oppression.
Some of the topics of protest and promotion within Third Wave Feminism:
Social activism; sex positivity, reproductive rights, such as contraception and abortion, were publicized, as the Woman’s right to choose became a hot topic.
The reclaiming of derogatory female terms (ie. bitch, cunt, whore) all vital to the Third Wave.
The woman’s role within antiquated Power dynamics have been reclaimed, for example, Pornography and Sex Trade work has been reconsidered, as these types of work have been deemed by Second Wave Feminism as destructive to women, but now reclaimed as empowering.
Marilyn Minter Mira Schor Cindy Sherman Elizabeth Peyton Judy Chicago Feminist Artists Ana Mendieta Carolee Schneemann Guerilla Girls Ghada Amer Tracey Emin Nancy Spero Frida Kahlo Kara Walker Hannah Wilke Martha Rosler
Further Feminist Culture (Books, Blogs, Films) Feminist Books: Wet by Mira Schor The Bloody Chamber by Angela Carter The Second Sex by Simone De Beauvoir Feminist Blogs: bitchmagazine.org/blog http://thefbomb.org / http://feministing.com/ Feminist Films and Productions: The Vagina Monologues Thelma and Louise The Stepford Wives Semiotics of the Kitchen Itty Bitty Titty Committee Working Girls
Questions How do you feel about categorizing artists who are women as “women artists”? Do you feel that this marginalizes females in the contemporary art world? Can a man be a feminist?
Domestic abuse, also known as spousal abuse, occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person. Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence.
Domestic violence and abuse are used for one purpose and one purpose only: to gain and maintain total control over you. An abuser doesn’t “play fair.” Abusers use fear, guilt, shame, and intimidation to wear you down and keep you under their thumb. Your abuser may also threaten you, hurt you, or hurt those around you.
Domestic violence and abuse do not discriminate. It happens among heterosexual couples and in same-sex partnerships. It occurs within all age ranges, ethnic backgrounds, and financial levels. And while women are more commonly victimized, men are also abused—especially verbally and emotionally.
-Domestic abuse often escalates from threats and verbal abuse to physical violence and even murder. And while physical injury may be the most obvious danger, the emotional and psychological consequences of domestic abuse are also severe
During the 1960s, the women's liberation movement began drawing attention to violence committed against women, and the battered women's movement began to form.
At its core was the outrage of women who argued that individual cases of violence against women in the home added up to an enormous and unacceptable social problem.
By the end of the 1970s, statistics proved that isolated cases of abuse were part of a shocking national problem. Victims became more visible; so, too, did the inadequacy of society's response. The battered women's movement emerged.
Estimates show that 248 of every 1,000 females and 76 of every 1,000 males are victims of physical assault and/or rape committed by their spouses.
Canadian research suggests 51% of women experience at least one episode of violence after the age of 16
A 1999 survey reported that 8% of women married or in common-law unions had experienced violence from their partners within the previous 5 years and were abused more severely and repeatedly than men
Spousal violence makes up the single largest category of convictions involving violent offences in non-specialized adult courts in Canada over the five-year period 1997/98 to 2001/02. Over 90% of offenders were male.
Women are more likely to suffer abuse during pregnancy and following childbirth, following relationship termination, during partner intoxication, and following other stressful life events
One to two women are murdered by a current or former partner each week in Canada.
Physical and sexual abuse costs Canada over $4 billion each year (factoring into account social services, criminal justice, lost employment days and health care interventions).
Correctional Programs National Family Violence Prevention Programs
The Correctional Service of Canada's (CSC) National Family Violence Prevention Programs are primarily focused on male offenders who have been abusive in their intimate relationships with female partners or ex-partners.
Two programs are delivered nationally; the High Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (HIFVPP) and the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP).
Offenders are referred to the programs based on their risk level and demonstrated pattern of violence.
Domestic violence is becoming less tolerated throughout Canada is taking action and emphasizing more prevention programs Evaluation of the High and Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Programs
In 2004, the BC Institute against Family Violence conducted a comprehensive two-year evaluation of the Moderate and High Intensity Family Violence Prevention Programs.
There were a number of converging indicators that the Moderate and High Intensity Family Violence Prevention Programs are achieving the goals of reducing violence and abusive attitudes/behaviors.
Realizing what an abusive relationship is and seek help Do you?
• feel afraid of your partner much of the time? • avoid certain topics out of fear of angering your partner? • feel that you can’t do anything right for your partner? • believe that you deserve to be hurt or mistreated? • wonder if you’re the one who is crazy? • feel emotionally numb or helpless?
Does your partner? Does your partner: • have a bad and unpredictable temper? • hurt you, or threaten to hurt or kill you? • threaten to take your children away or harm them? • threaten to commit suicide if you leave? • force you to have sex? • destroy your belongings?
Follows the story of Sam, who lost his sister as a result of DV, as he discovers the realities of DV through personal interviews with survivors, politicians, DV advocates, and others affected by the issue on a regular basis.
"Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America"
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =7v2LmM_FO-U
is a new documentary film about domestic abuse. The film offers a probing and intimate exploration of the troubling persistence of violence against women in America.
Girl Traumatically Injured By Domestic Violence Yet Still Maintains a High Self Esteem
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =O6E7PYC7YnU part 1 http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = PnXgWUYGKOM part2 http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =YjYfeO8dNBY part 3
On June 27th, 1969, frequently considered the first moment in American history where the homosexual minority fought back against government policies, the Stonewall Riots were the beginnings of the gay rights movement.
They took place at the Stonewall Inn, a bar owned by the mafia.
Most establishments didn’t welcome out gay persons, and establishments that had openly gay patrons were usually bars.
Police raids on such bars were a common occurrence, but that night the patrons of Stonewall had had enough and they started a riot in the streets. This riot became the catalyst for many activist events, and within 6 months two LGBT activist groups were formed in New York – Gay Liberation Front and Gay Activists Alliance - and three newspapers were created to address the issues of the gay community – Gay, Gay Power and Come Out!
In June 28th, 1970, on Christopher Street Liberation Day, marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots and was the location of the very first gay pride march. The following year Pride marches occurred in cities such as Boston, Dallas, London and Paris. The year after that even more cities began to participate in the marches.
A decade later, in San Francisco, 1979, the White Night riots occurred due to the lenient sentencing of Dan White, who murdered the San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Harvey Milk and was convicted of voluntary manslaughter, the lightest possible conviction that he could have been granted for his actions. Due to long standing conflicts with the San Francisco Police, the gay community had even more issues with Dan White being a former police officer. Demonstrations began peacefully in the city’s Castro district, but after it arrived at city hall the march quickly became violent.
After the riot had been broken up (with injury on both the SFPD’s side and the rioters), the SFPD began to raid gay bars in the Castro, making arrests and beating the patrons in police gear. Following that night, the gay rights leaders refused to apologize for property damage and other events that had occurred, this definite show of strength from the community led to a gain in political power and the re-election Dianne Feistein, mayor, who appointed a gay-friendly chief of police..
In October 7th, 1998, a student at Wyoming University, Mathew Shepherd was tortured and then brutally murdered. Shortly after midnight, outside of a lounge in Laramie, Wyoming, Mathew Shepherd accepted a ride in a car from two men, Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson. Mathew admitted to being gay, and because of that he was then robbed; pistol whipped, tortured and then was tied to a fence in the countryside, left to die. He was discovered alive, but due to the extent of his injuries, he died in intensive care.
Based on the assumption that Mathew Shepherd was targeted due to his sexual orientation, the murder led to a new request on a change in legislation that would address hate crimes based of sexual orientation, which was not covered under United States federal law or Wyoming state law, as crimes regarding orientation were not prosecutable as hate crimes.
Despite these hostile attitudes, “justified” physical abuse and the murders the LGBT community endured at its infancy (and even now), the community has grown bolder and strong with the need to protect themselves legally and physically. Most recent in these victories, and unfortunately an achievement that came at the cost of Mathew Shepherd’s life and acknowledgement of the abuse that society frequently turns a blind eye towards, The Mathew Shepherd act was adopted as an amendment on July 15th, 2009 and was passed by the Senate on October 22nd, 2009 and was signed into law on October 28th.
This act is another step forward to protecting the rights of individuals who are abused on basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, but they have unfortunately have come at a cost.