about İraq and
Geography of Iraq
Iraq is located in the Middle
East, between Iran, Saudi
Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Turke
y, and Kuwait.
Iraq has a total area of
438,317 square kilometers
and the capital is Baghdad.
There is a northern
along the Iranian and
and south of the Iranian
border is a marsh land
Iraq mainly has plain
lands and deserts.
- Summer temperatures average above 40 °C
for most of the country and frequently exceed
48 °C (especially in the southern part).
- Winter temperatures infrequently exceed 21
°C with maximums roughly 15 to 19 °C and
night-time drops to 2 to 5 °C .
- In the northern part the temperature
decreases even more with an average of 10°C
and it even reaches negative degrees in nighttime.
In 16th century the Ottoman Empire ruled the region
until the British took over during World War I.
Iraq began as a British Kingdom, which was again
occupied by the British during World War II.
A revolution took place in 1958, the government was
then unstable for some time until Saddam Hussein took
over as leader of the Ba'th party in 1979.
Hussein had a totalitarian military rule over Iraq until
2003 when the United States military invaded Iraq on
grounds of weapons of mass destruction and took over
Hussein was executed in December 2006.
The United States and its allies had control of Iraq until
2010 when they pulled out in September leaving behind
50,000 troops until December 2011.
- Iraq has been known to the west
by the Greek as 'Mesopotamia'
(Land between the rivers)
- The region between the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers is often referred
to as the cradle of civilization and
the birthplace for invention of
writing, law and the wheel.
–It located in the center of city.
–It was made for nearly 6000 years BC.
–Its height is above 30m & 2500m radius.
–There are more than 400 houses inside citadel.
–Now it is reserved as a historical place & includes
(museum, café, library, craft shop and restaurant).
The official languages are Arabic and Kurdish.
Muslims make up
97% of the
Shiite Muslims at
60% and Sunni
Muslims at 32%
Iraq's main export is crude oil
they export 1.91 million barrels
Iraq was the world’s 12th
largest oil producer in 2009
and has the world’s fourth
largest proven petroleum
reserves after Saudi
Arabia, Canada, and Iran.
Erbil named among 2014 Arab Tourism Capital
Erbil has been appointed the 2014 tourism capital by the
Arab Council of Tourism.
During the council’s conference in Cairo last month, four
cities -- Beirut, Taif, Sharjah and Erbil -- competed to win
the title of tourism capital for the year 2014.
ENGLISH VILLAGE IN
The Arab Council of
Tourism has several
to win the tourism
capital title. For
example, Erbil had to
present 40 different
activities that it will
host throughout the
4 million tourists will
come to Erbil by 2014.
Education System in Northern Iraq
- Two year pre-school (optional).
- Before it was 6 years primary and 3
years secondary .
- Now both levels are regarded as
one 9-year level.
- 3 years high school.
- And 4-6 years university.
Language in Education
Languages taught in school:
- And Turkish (in some private colleges)
Language of Education
In local schools subjects other
than languages are taught in
However, In private schools and
colleges language of education is
In high school student can choose
- Literature and
- Vocational school
This branch emphasizes on scientific
math, biology, chemistry, and
physics , along with three languages
English, Arabic, and Kurdish.
Students in literature study limited
math and no other science subjects.
Instead they emphasize on Kurdish
and Arabic literature, geography
history and other social sciences.
- Students are accepted to university
according to their grade that they
accomplish in the baccalaureate exam in
the last year of high school.
- Medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy accept
students with highest marks respectively.
- Engineering and law come next.
- Students with lower marks can enroll to
–There are 12 public universities & 10 private universities.
–Five of the private universities are foreign universities which are :
Lebanese French university
British Royal University
Universities that have IT branch:
University of Selahaddin
University of Suleymaniye
University of Kurdistan
University of Duhok
University of Koya