Energy efficient planning in towns of kmc
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Energy efficient planning in towns of kmc

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Human activities are closely dependent on the usage of several forms and sources of energy to perform work. Energy is essential to maintain every form of life and every society. Adequate and ...

Human activities are closely dependent on the usage of several forms and sources of energy to perform work. Energy is essential to maintain every form of life and every society. Adequate and consistent availability of usable energy sources is one of the prerequisites for social, economic, technological and environmental development of a country. It is related to sustainable development as a source of environmental stress, as a principal motor of macroeconomic growth, and as a prerequisite for meeting basic human needs

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Energy efficient planning in towns of kmc Energy efficient planning in towns of kmc Presentation Transcript

  • Final Draft Thesis Presentation on “ENERGY EFFICIENT PLANNING IN TOWNS OF KMC” Supervised By: Prof. Dr. Sudarshan R. Tiwari Co-supervised By: Associate Prof. Sushil B. Bajracharya Presented By: Sarita Maharjan 068/MSU/214 3rd October, 2013
  • Need for the Study Population Growth Increase in Urbanization Increase in Energy Consumption Increase in CO2 emissions Need to Build Energy Efficient City CBS, 2011     Population growth rate is 1.40 % per year in urban, the growth rate is 3.38% per year Population living in urban areas 17% By 2030 – about 50% of population –urban. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Importance of the Study  Fuel imports absorb ¼ of Nepal’s foreign exchange earnings.  Decline of non-agriculture sector due to shortage of energy supply. Objective of the Study     To develop energy efficient planning approaches for town To seek integrated approach of land use & transportation for energy efficiency To identify energy efficient alternative solutions that will provide choices for energy decisions To give multiple solutions for awareness to society about energy efficiency and importance of energy in every aspect of life Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Methodology Degree of Problem Definition Research Paradigms Research Strategy Data Type Data Collection methods/ tools Explanatory Research; research attempt to make an explanation on ‘Why’ Positivism/ Post Positivism paradigm and Constructivism paradigm. Case Study Positivism/ Post Positivism – quantitative data Constructivism paradigm – qualitative data Document reviews, field observation & questionnaire survey Data Analysis Summary of data- Google doc online, Analysis of the questionnaire - MS Excel Findings from document reviews & field observation analyzed descriptively Write up Findings & Conclusions Findings & conclusion are summarized. Identify the feasible solution for towns in Nepal. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • LITERATURE REVIEW Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Energy Efficiency     Efficient energy use "Using less energy to provide the same service" (http://eetd.lbl.gov/ee/). A way of managing and restraining the growth in energy consumption. offers a powerful and cost-effective tool for achieving a sustainable energy future. The Benefits of Energy Efficiency:  Reduces customer energy bills.  Gives customers greater control over energy costs.  Performs at a lower cost than new energy supply from new power plants in many cases.  Reduces air pollution and greenhouse gases.  Can create jobs and improve state economies. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Link between GDP and Energy Consumption Figure : Growth in world energy consumption and growth Figure : Growth in world energy consumption and growth in world real GDP in world real GDP (Source: http://ourfiniteworld.com/2011/11/15/is-it-really(Source: http://ourfiniteworld.com/2011/11/15/is-it-reallypossible-to-decouple-gdp-growth-from-energy-growth/, possible-to-decouple-gdp-growth-from-energy-growth/, 2011) 2011) Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Energy Consumption in Cities Figure : Energy consumption in selected cities in Highselected Asian Cities income Cities (Source: UN-HABITAT, 2008) (Source: UN-HABITAT, 2008) Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Energy Scenario in Nepal  Energy consumption pattern Energy use per capita in Nepal is 33.84 kg of oil equivalent (http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/). Table : Total Energy Consumption by Various Fuel Types and Years (Unit in 000 GJ) (Source: WECS 2010) Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Existing Land Use Patterns of KMC Map : Land use map 2008 of KMC (Source: http://www.kathmandu.gov.np/Page_Landuse+System_1084) Table : land use 2008 of KMC (Source: Suwal, 2009) Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Freiburg: Eco-city Of Germany Urban Village Project: Eco-city Of Oakland Cape Town Solar City Movement In India Chandigarh: Solar City Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Study Area: Ward No. 13 of KMC Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Study Area: Ward No. 13 of KMC… General Information Ward No. 15 Syuchatar VDC Bishnumati River This ward comprises 213.3 hectares of land. Ward No. 14 Census 2001 Total population: 29721 Total number of HHs: 6429 Males: 16209 Females: 13512 Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Study Area: Ward No. 13 of KMC Rationale of Selection of Study Area  WECS,2010Residential consumes more energy (89.1%) followed by transport (5.2%) in Nepal.  UN Habitat, 2008- transport consumes more energy followed by building in KTM. CITY CENTRE  Inhabitants of Ward No. 13 are seemed to be pursuing energy inefficient way of life.  Contains mix type of income group Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • FINDINGS OF FIELD DATA ANALYSIS Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Findings of Field Observation Land use pattern Stone Spout Chagal Saraswoti marga Balkumari Tahachal Tankeshwor Ganodaya Kalimati Old Kalimati Kuleshwor Kalanki Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Findings of Field Observation… Land use pattern… Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Findings of Field Observation… Public Transportation System Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Findings of Field Observation… Public Transportation System… Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Questionnaire Form Energy 13 of KMC  250 HHs in the 24 toles/ lanes of Ward No.Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions 1. How do people perceive energy efficiency? o From literature- energy experts perceive energy potentials, whereas ordinary people see homes, appliances and normal ways of doing things o From field data- only 3.6% have right idea of EE, 20% have no idea, mojority of people(18.8%) perceive it as a economic benefit, 18.8% have no idea, people perceive EE can be achieve in home by using CFL , people perceive EE is responsibility of government Understanding of benefit of energy Understanding of Energy Efficiency Responsibilitysave energy at home for energy efficiency 1.Activities toefficiency F, 20 D, 19.2 D, 8.8 C, 16.8 C, 10 E, 6.4 D,E, 0.8 D, 3.6 C,E, 0.8 C,D, 1.2 C, 8 B,E, B,E, 2 0.4 B,C, B,C, 0.4 2.8 A,C, 2.4 Using less energy Economic benefit Environmental benefit energy Avoid unnecessary C A, 27.2 C A, 30 A, 38.4 B, 21.2 A,B, B, 8.8 B, 16.4 9.6 A A B B E, 8.8 E, 18.8 Legend Legend D E D A,B,5.2 A,B, 1.6 A,B,C, 0.8 A,C, 1.6 A,B,D, 0.4 A,B,E, 0.4 A,D, 0.4 A,B,E, 0.4 A,E, A,C, 2.4 1.2 Legend use A Government Productivity/quality of life Use of low energy equipment/ B Society All appliances C No idea Individual affecting the Energy use withoutperson level of service D All E Avoid unnecessary transport use E No idea for walkable distance F No idea Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions 1. What is the energy scenario of domestic use and in community in Kathmandu? o From literature- Residnetial sector consumes largest share of electricity, LP Gas is increasing as a cooking fuel in urban areas, petroleum product highly consumed in community by transport sector then in domestic use, use of RE is zero in Nepal Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions 2. What is the energy scenario of domestic use and in community in Kathmandu? o From field data- electricity is highest in demand followed by LP Gas in domestic use; consumption of petroleum product is dominant then electricity at community , use of RE-less(26%) in domestic use & in community use –zero Use of Gas(%) Use of LP Electricity(%) Use of Renewable/ non energy intesive Way(%) Use of Petroleum Product(%) Energy in Domestic use- Petroleum Product Renewable/Non Energy Intensive Way use- LP Gas Energy in Domestic Petroleum product Energy Intensive Way Renewable/Non Energy in Domestic use- Electricity Energy Electicitydomestic Use LP Gas 89% scenario of Highest 89% Energy scenario of domestic Use Highest 89% 89% 67% 67% 67% 67%67% 67% 67% 53% 53% 53% 53% 42% 53% 53% 53% 42% 42% 89% 30% 67% 67% 67% 18% 12% 42% 11% 7% 0% 10% 0% 53% 53% 1% 0% 53% 2% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 42% 30% 16% 10% 2% 1%12% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0%5%0% 2% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Energy scenario ofof domestic Use Energy scenario ofdomestic Use Energy scenario domestic Use Petroleum Electricity LP Gas product Use for cooking 30% Use for cooking Renewable/Non 67% Use for cooking 1% water heating for shower 18% Energy Intensive Use for water heating for shower 53% Use for water heating for shower 11% Drinking water purify-municipal water Way 7% Drinking water purify-municipal water 30% purify-municipal 0% Drinkingcooking water purify-jar water water 10% Use for 0% Drinking water purify-jar water 10% Pump for water purify-jar water water 89% Drinkingwater heating for 0% Use for Pump for water 0% 16% Backup during Load shedding 42% Pump for water 0% showerduring Load shedding Backup 1% Backup during Load shedding 12% Drinking water purify53% municipal water Drinking water purify-jar water Pump for water Domestic activities Domesticactivities Domestic activities Backup during Load shedding 67% 5% 12% Domestic activities Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions… 3. How does planning contribute in alleviating the problem of energy? From literature- integration of transport & land use, mixed land use, Ecocity planning, various land use decisions Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions… 4. How does transportation planning help in resolving the problem of energy? From literature- directed transport networks, sustainable transport system- TOD, Integrated rapid transit system, non-motorized transport, mass transit, improved vehicle technology, smart card, on-demand transportation system, mobility sharing, park and ride, better traffic flow, pricing policy Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions… 5. How have energy efficient approach been applied to planning of towns? From literature local experiences- resource efficient mixed landuse, courtyard system planning, use of thermal mass, less energy intensive material & waste management system PRINGGA now 'pi', 'ping', etc. DULA now 'dol' DULA now 'dol' Gvala: settlement extent in dula TALA now also 'tala' Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Answers to the Research Questions… 5. How have energy efficient approach been applied to planning of towns? international experiences• Integrated transport- land use,  Influence of Land Use on Energy Efficiency • Sustainable transportation system,  Influence of Mixed Land Use on Energy Efficiency • Mixed land use,  Influence of Transportation on Energy Efficiency • Compact form,  Influence of Water on Energy Efficiency • Improvement of urban planning,  Influence of Behaviour and Lifestyle on Energy Efficiency • Improvement of urban infrastructure and basic services, • Solar city concept, • Ecocity concept, • LEED Certification, • LBC Certification, • Energy Positive Buildings & neighborhoods, Building Retrofits, • High-efficiency techniques and appliances, • Development right transfer programme and behaviour change interventions through awareness Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town Made at community level, domestic level, policy level and for awareness to the people about energy efficiency. At Community Level Bicycle Sharing System According to Friedberg case study Temp o Bus Micro Van Wal k walk & ride Institutio nal vehicle Bicycle Privat e car Private Bike Transport use for work 3 5 0 35 11 0 0 0 46 Transport use for Market 0 0 0 74 3 0 0 0 18 Transport use for Study 3 3 3 28 6 34 0 0 22 Transport use for Entertainment 8 6 11 6 37 0 0 2 30 Transport use for Others 17 9 9 4 34 0 0 1 26 Total 31 23 23 147 91 34 0 3 142  to suppress the excessive private motorbike use and to promote the use of public transport.  From field dat:  Private vechicle use highley for work  Less use of public transport  Bicycel use zero Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Automated Key Bicycle Sharing Stations in Ward No. 13 Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Automated Key Bicycle Sharing Stations in KMC Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Community Level Smart Solar Street Lighting System According to case study of cape town and solar city movement in india  adjust their brightness as needed  autonomy Auto on / off  solve the problems of no light, insufficient light & lack of management in the town.  Advantages: no consumption of grid power, no electricity charge, no need of power supply facilities, no pollution, easy-installation and one-time investment long-time payback. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Smart Solar Street Lighting System in Ward No. 13 Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Community Level Solar City Programme According to case study of solar city movement in india and Chandigarh  to initiate renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measure in town  grid connected system offer to transfer excess power to the grid while power can be drawn from the grid in case of shortage  reduce the electricity demand in town.  government buildings be the first priority for PV development as case study of India Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Solar City Programme in Ward No. 13 Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Community Level Improvement of Urban Planning  connected pavements/ sidewalk  easy road crossings  safe and attractive pathways with street lighting  bicycle paths and bicycle parking spaces  improved landscaping  availability of green spaces, parks Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Community Level Mixed land use development  in this modern day, only proximate market places can’t satisfy the concept of mixed land use.  incorporate the facilities that are in demand; according to the change in behaviour and lifestyle of people Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Community Level Improvement in Quality of Water Energy scenario of domestic Use Electricity Use for cooking 30% Use for water heating for shower 18%  both municipal water and jar water supply system should Drinking water purify-jar water 10% Pump for water 89% incorporate the appropriate Backup during Load shedding 42% purification system at the main Energy scenario of domestic boil Min. useful energy required toUse drinking water supply 3.09 & 3.08 - 3.17, point; as mass purification system requires less GJ/household/year in Mountains, LP Gas Terai respectively Hills & Use for cooking 67% (energy Practical Action Nepal, 2009). Source: than done in individual Use for water heating for shower 53% households. Drinking water purify-municipal water 30% Drinking water purify-municipal water Drinking water purify-jar water Pump for water Backup during Load shedding 7% 10% 0% 1% Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Household Level Energy Responsive Buildings most of the metropolitan area is covered with lots of residential developments. building sector accounts for the major energy share of energy consumption  From the literature of traditional settlement pattern of KTM and case study of Cape Town  include optimization overall layout, orientation of building and integration of passive techniques.  use light and fresh air efficiently in order to reduce energy demands for heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation.  The building envelope (wall, floor, roof and fenestration) need to integrate with building service functions such as heating, cooling, natural ventilation, sufficient daylighting and energy storage. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Household Level Energy scenario of domestic Use Rain Water Harvesting and Recharging Aquifer Building use Yes No Total Yes % No% Residential 50 104 154 47.16 72.22 Commercial 12 15 27 11.32 10.42 Mixed 44 25 69 41.50 Use for cooking Use for water heating for shower Drinking water purify-municipal water Drinking water purify-jar water Pump for water Backup during Load shedding 17.36 At municipal level and commercial water suppliers Electricity 30% 18% 7% 10% 89% 42% 100 sq. m. plot area can yield 128,800 liters of water in KTM (ENPHO). (6429 X128,800)= 828 ML  RWH lowers demand of municipal as well as commercial water reduction in water demand reduction in energy needed for pumping for raw water extraction and pumping for distribution of water At household level reduction in water demand electricity consumption reduce pumping for water save Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Household Level Rain Water Harvesting and Recharging Aquifer…  If a household have water extraction/ storage well then it should also have recharge well.  Recharge of well/ aquifer - by discharge of rainwater & waste water from bathroom sinks, bath tub shower drains, and clothes washing equipment drains.  integrate the pervious surfaces on lawn, parking lot and walkways  Also part of improving urban planning and enhancing renewable source of energy Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Household Level Use of Renewable Energy By installing these systems, it is possible to generate own energy that promotes less use of electricity and fuel, reducing carbon footprint as well as energy bills. Energy scenario of domestic Use Renewable/Non Energy Intensive Way Use for cooking 0% Use for water heating for shower 16% Drinking water purify-municipal water 53% Drinking water purify-jar water 67% Pump for water Backup during Load shedding 5% 12% Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Household Level Electricity uses inside dwelling S.N. Use of Energy Efficient Appliances and Methods Overall, by substituting appliances each family had a potential saving of 348 kWh/year per family; 10.4% of total electricity consumption (Francisco Ferreira, 2009);  Use of CFLs or LED lights  Purchase energy-efficient appliances & products.  Replace aging appliances with newer energy efficient ENERGY STAR models.  Turn off the television, computer, fan and lights or lamps when not in use.  Use task lighting whenever possible instead of brightly lighting an entire room.  Control outdoor lights with sensor timers so they stay off during the day.  Replace a gas cooking appliance with a unit with an automatic system.  Cook with small appliances. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description % Cooking TV Refrigerator Computer Fan Oven Heater 44.4 98.4 51.6 62.0 85.2 22.8 41.2 8 Washing Machine 13.2 9 Vacuum Cleaner 26.4 10 AC 11 Other Electronic goods 3.2 10.8 12 For Shower 18.0 13 Water Purify 6.0 14 Water pump 88.8 15 Backup during load shedding 50.4 Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Policy Level Encourage use of Public Transportation System  encourage smart public transportation system Providing monthly bus cards, semester cards, employed cards, student cards etc in discount cost  Management of transportation system planning of integrated route networks, provision of mass transit, punctual service, safety and security as well as good manner of drive and conductor.  Bus stops should linked up with the non motorized transport system  operating public transportation even at late night hours  start again the trolly bus system and integrate with all the smart systems Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Policy Level Encourage Reduction in Electricity Consumption by Renewable Energy Use of Renewable source of source Barriers to install renewable energy of energy  provide incentives  promote and support entrepreneurship in the renewable energies industry.  high rise apartments, commercial and industrial buildings should generate minimum 15% of the electricity by installing renewable source of energy. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Policy Level Encourage Development of Energy Responsive Building emphasize on a framework of technical and performance provisions for energy efficiency in new and existing buildings. An incentive on construction materials Revise Bye-laws include rainwater harvesting system pervious pavement/ surfaces to some mandated percent as according to ground coverage area. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… At Policy Level Other Policies       Encourage smart solar street lighting system and traffic lighting Incentives on CFL and LED lights Higher the price of other energy intensive lights or increase tax to such lights Incentives on electric vehicles and provide attractive tax free schemes Penalize the tall buildings for casting shadows on neighboring building Homogenize the price of products, education fees and other service charges so that it encourage people to use services that are available at proximate. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • Recommendation for Management of Energy Efficient Operation in Town… Awareness Promotion By Inspiration and Education Programmes  Variety of inspiration and education programmes for different occupation groups.  Provide educational materials about the energy and energy efficiency - to share successful solutions and to motivate others to make change.  focus on behaviour change interventions. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC
  • conclusion  Energy demand can’t stop  Energy Efficiency - using less energy; but also means generating energy  Energy Efficiency - increases energy security & reduces energy consumption per capita  Applying the recommendations to KMC- 40% of energy can be saved  energy use in Nepal -economically not cost effective, environmentally not friendly; & principally not sustainable. Energy Efficiency of Planning in Towns of KMC