The “Calorie
reduction as primary”
hypothesis
Jeff Lynch
What is the most basic principle of
weight gain?
1st Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU = Q - W
Body Fat

=

Food eaten

-

Energy Expended

The amount of energy stored within a
sy...
The facts of life
• Starting point
• You eat more and
exercise less
• You put on fat
• As a result your
metabolism becomes...
And here’s what happens
• You eat more and
exercise less
• You put on fat
• Your metabolism
becomes unhealthy
• You become...
st
1

Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU = Q - W
Body Fat

=

Food eaten

• Q and W must be independent
• A calorie is a calorie:
•...
Then
• You eat too much and
exercise too little
• You put on fat
• Your metabolism
becomes unhealthy
• You become ill
(met...
Metabolically healthy obese
• A healthy subset
– Similar metabolic health
to lean people
– Around 6%

• We don’t know why
...
The metabolically unhealthy
non-obese
Fatty liver
– Alcohol
– NAFLD
– Fructose (HFCS)
• Handled the same way as alcohol

•...
Clinically normal prediabetics

Beta cell dysfunction
–
–
–
–
–

Stage 1: Compensation
Stage 2: Stable increased blood glu...
What is metabolic disease?
Symptoms
• Obesity
– Abdominal

• Insulin resistance
– High blood sugar

• Dyslipidemia
• Infla...
More symptoms
• Sugar cravings
– Not relieved by eating
sweets

•
•
•
•
•

Fatigue after meals
Frequent urination
Increase...
If it isn’t caused by eating too much or
exercising too little then what is the
cause?
Metabolic disease is an autoimmune, chronic
inflammatory disorder involving a pathological
expression of the innate immune...
What causes it?

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Dietary toxins
Environmental toxins
Micronutrient deficiencies
Chronic stress
Altered gut ...
How inflammation causes metabolic
diseases
• Inflammation precedes metabolic disease
– 1/3 of Hep C patients get diabetes
...
How metabolic diseases cause
inflammation
• Fat tissue releases inflammatory cytokines
– Catabolic breakdown of fat
– Not ...
Hang on
How metabolic diseases cause
inflammation
• Fat tissue releases inflammatory cytokines
– Local catabolic breakdown of fat
...
And it’s not all about carbs
• Three types of fat
– Triglycerides
– FFAs
– Phospholipids

• Mitochondrial overspill
• Lipo...
So let’s add some of this…
•
•
•
•
•

Refined sugar
Dairy intolerance
Sweeteners
Processed fat
No fibre

• Healthier or si...
1st Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU = Q - W
Body Fat

=

Food eaten

-

Energy Expended

The amount of energy stored within a
sy...
Weight loss 101
A. Calorie Reduction
• Slower metabolic rate
• Increased hunger
• Reduced desire to
exercise
• Higher infl...
Encouraging Leanness
• Reversal to our natural
state does not need to
be forced, it just needs
to be allowed to
happen…
Remove toxins both internal and
external
Food toxins/intolerances
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Refined grains
Dairy
Eggs
Fructose
Tr...
Replace nutrients
• Fibre
• Vitamins
–D
– B12

• Minerals
– Zinc
– Magnesium

• Fats
– Omega 3

• Protein
Repair Lifestyle
• Train
– Apply

•
•
•
•

Sleep
Work/life balance
Caffeine
Meditate, Yoga etc.
Then all you need to consider with
calories is this:

Are you hungry?
Yes? Eat
No? Don’t
The "Calorie Reduction as Primary" Hypothesis
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The "Calorie Reduction as Primary" Hypothesis

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A brief outline of how inflammation is responsible for the obesity epidemic and the idea that reducing caloric intake to lose body fat and get healthier is flawed.

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  • What is the most important principle of weight gain?It’s calories isn’t it? It’s what the whole weight loss industry is based around. It’s all about avoiding calories to reduce the amount of energy going in. After all it makes sense, if you reduce the amount of energy in and maintain or increase the amount of energy out then you will reduce the amount of energy stored. In the body stored energy is largely fat, but there are other stores of energy. Your whole body is combustible fuel, your bones can be digested and so can your brain!In this seminar I will present my argument that calorie reduction is not the most important consideration for weight/fat loss
  • This is one of the most basic laws of physics. As far as we know it is true and it applies to everything in the universe, even the body. I don’t disagree with this at all. I would be extremely stupid if I did.I don’t apply Heisenburg’s uncertainty principle to my lunch when I’m aiming my cutlery, and in the same way I don’t apply the first law of thermodynamics to weight loss.
  • Here’s what happens.Crap theory doesn’t take into account any unconscious regulation. It assumes that the only way you can become overweight is either sloth and gluttony (or a combination of both). It doesn’t acknowledge hormonal influences, gut health, illness, or your resting metabolic rate
  • When you have to much fat mass you lose insulin sensitivity, and therefore you put on weight
  • Healthy response to high blood sugarThey are not at higher risk of developing T2DM or heart disease but are still at higher risk of cancer and all cause mortality
  • Up until recently, type 1 and type 2 diabetes were seen as distinct entities. It was understood that type 1 diabetes (or insulin-dependent diabetes) was caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, leading to decreased insulin production, whereas type 2 diabetes was caused by insulin resistance of the liver, muscle and fat cells.However, recent research has demonstrated that the line separating these two conditions may be much blurrier than previously thought. It is now known that type 1 diabetes, which normally begins in childhood, may slowly develop later in life. This form is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) or more informally as type 1.5 diabetes.
  • Let’s start from the top, what actually is metabolic diseaseMetabolicdiseases is a lifestyle disease, which is caused predominantly by the lifestyle you lead. It’s all that’s left when you take away the threat of bacteria and viruses as a cause of death. It is the final hurdle to living healthily until the end of your life, and dying a ‘natural death’.
  • The treatment in most cases is to reduce the calories and the fat, because it follows logically that if you want to reduce the amount of fat in your body you should reduce the amount of fat that you put in. This approach has clearly been a dismal failure. Diabetes is not a simple maths equation do to overexposure to sugarsDiabetes can be reversedNormal is not healthyYou can still get all metabolic diseases if you are not obese
  • Up until relatively recently, fat was considered an inert tissue with no biological activity. The idea was that it was just, well, there. It didn’t do much other than store excess energy.We now know, however, that fat tissue is a metabolically active endocrine organ that secretes hormones and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. The metabolic activity of fat is the key to understanding its role in diabesity.
  • Up until relatively recently, fat was considered an inert tissue with no biological activity. The idea was that it was just, well, there. It didn’t do much other than store excess energy.We now know, however, that fat tissue is a metabolically active endocrine organ that secretes hormones and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. The metabolic activity of fat is the key to understanding its role in diabesity.
  • In healthy people, FFAs are burned in the mitochondria soon after release (lipolysis) from storage forms of fat (triglycerides and phospholipids). But in the diabese, inflammation, leptin resistance and oxidative damage impair the mitochondria’s ability to burn fats. The excess FFAs then “spill over” into non-fat tissue like the liver, pancreas and skeletal muscles. FFAs damage these metabolically active tissues because they don’t belong there. This is called lipotoxicity. Lipotoxicity has been shown in several studies to cause insulin resistance and increase the risk of T2DM.
  • I don’t disagree with this at all. I would be extremely stupid if I did but it requires a few assumptions to practically apply to obesity:Q and W must be independentIn practice q affects w. If you eat more food then your energy expenditure will increase. 2. W must be a single form of work. In practice W is EAT and NEAT. In practice NEAT affects EAT and vice versa. If Q stays the same and EAT increases then NEAT will decrease to adjust. 3. A calorie is a calorie: Q affects W depending on macros. Protein requires more NEAT than carbs and fat. 4. ΔU is unregulated
  • The "Calorie Reduction as Primary" Hypothesis

    1. 1. The “Calorie reduction as primary” hypothesis Jeff Lynch
    2. 2. What is the most basic principle of weight gain?
    3. 3. 1st Law of Thermodynamics ΔU = Q - W Body Fat = Food eaten - Energy Expended The amount of energy stored within a system is equal to the amount of energy put in minus the energy expended
    4. 4. The facts of life • Starting point • You eat more and exercise less • You put on fat • As a result your metabolism becomes unhealthy • Then you become ill (metabolic diseases)
    5. 5. And here’s what happens • You eat more and exercise less • You put on fat • Your metabolism becomes unhealthy • You become ill (metabolic diseases)
    6. 6. st 1 Law of Thermodynamics ΔU = Q - W Body Fat = Food eaten • Q and W must be independent • A calorie is a calorie: • ΔU is unregulated • Q and W are under conscious control - Energy Expended
    7. 7. Then • You eat too much and exercise too little • You put on fat • Your metabolism becomes unhealthy • You become ill (metabolic diseases)
    8. 8. Metabolically healthy obese • A healthy subset – Similar metabolic health to lean people – Around 6% • We don’t know why they exist – Fat distribution – Genetics…? • They still have higher mortality
    9. 9. The metabolically unhealthy non-obese Fatty liver – Alcohol – NAFLD – Fructose (HFCS) • Handled the same way as alcohol • Genetics/Race – Lean Indian mean 3-4 time higher incidence of NAFLD and inflammation • Autoimmunity – Type 1.5 DM – ¼ lean diabetics produce the same antibodies found in T1DM. • Stress – Chronically elevated blood sugar
    10. 10. Clinically normal prediabetics Beta cell dysfunction – – – – – Stage 1: Compensation Stage 2: Stable increased blood glucose Stage 3: Unstable decompensation Stage 4: Type 2 Diabetes Stage 5: Type 1 diabetes
    11. 11. What is metabolic disease? Symptoms • Obesity – Abdominal • Insulin resistance – High blood sugar • Dyslipidemia • Inflammation – IDDM? – NIDDM
    12. 12. More symptoms • Sugar cravings – Not relieved by eating sweets • • • • • Fatigue after meals Frequent urination Increased thirst Difficulty losing weight Sexual dysfunction
    13. 13. If it isn’t caused by eating too much or exercising too little then what is the cause?
    14. 14. Metabolic disease is an autoimmune, chronic inflammatory disorder involving a pathological expression of the innate immune system • Innate immune system – Non specific first line of defence • Inflammation – Response of the IIS to infection and trauma. • What causes it?
    15. 15. What causes it? • • • • • • • Dietary toxins Environmental toxins Micronutrient deficiencies Chronic stress Altered gut microbiota Sedentary lifestyle Genetics
    16. 16. How inflammation causes metabolic diseases • Inflammation precedes metabolic disease – 1/3 of Hep C patients get diabetes – Rheumatoid arthritis sufferers are at higher risk • Inflammatory proteins cause insulin resistance – Mice injected with inflammatory proteins develop insulin resistance – TNF-a causes insulin resistance • Inflammation in the brain causes leptin resistance • Inflammation in the gut leads to both leptin and insulin resistance
    17. 17. How metabolic diseases cause inflammation • Fat tissue releases inflammatory cytokines – Catabolic breakdown of fat – Not been selected against • Genetic up regulation of inflammatory pathways – Macrophages increase in number
    18. 18. Hang on
    19. 19. How metabolic diseases cause inflammation • Fat tissue releases inflammatory cytokines – Local catabolic breakdown of fat – Not been selected against • Genetic up regulation of inflammatory pathways – Increased number of macrophages
    20. 20. And it’s not all about carbs • Three types of fat – Triglycerides – FFAs – Phospholipids • Mitochondrial overspill • Lipotoxicity – Storing fat, the bad way
    21. 21. So let’s add some of this… • • • • • Refined sugar Dairy intolerance Sweeteners Processed fat No fibre • Healthier or sicker?
    22. 22. 1st Law of Thermodynamics ΔU = Q - W Body Fat = Food eaten - Energy Expended The amount of energy stored within a system is equal to the amount of energy put in minus the energy expended
    23. 23. Weight loss 101 A. Calorie Reduction • Slower metabolic rate • Increased hunger • Reduced desire to exercise • Higher inflammation B. Metabolic Overhaul • Higher metabolic rate • Healthier • Lower risk of disease • Fitter • Lower inflammation • Forcing thinness • Encouraging leanness
    24. 24. Encouraging Leanness • Reversal to our natural state does not need to be forced, it just needs to be allowed to happen…
    25. 25. Remove toxins both internal and external Food toxins/intolerances • • • • • • • • • Refined grains Dairy Eggs Fructose Trans-fats Sweeteners Chemical cosmetics Preservatives Alcohol
    26. 26. Replace nutrients • Fibre • Vitamins –D – B12 • Minerals – Zinc – Magnesium • Fats – Omega 3 • Protein
    27. 27. Repair Lifestyle • Train – Apply • • • • Sleep Work/life balance Caffeine Meditate, Yoga etc.
    28. 28. Then all you need to consider with calories is this: Are you hungry? Yes? Eat No? Don’t

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