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Chapter four Relating to others in groups. Only slides 1 to 49

Chapter four Relating to others in groups. Only slides 1 to 49

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Speech151chapter42013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Who are you? Who? Who? A student “I am” Poem I am Daffy Duck, Mr. Magoo, Hong Kong Phooey, Foghorn Leghorn, and other cartoons. I am Tae Kwon Do, basketball, the batting cages, a soccer family, and the gym. I am a wonderful family, close and loving and incredibly supportive. I am films based on true stories and documentaries. I am the History Channel, CNN, ESPN, BRAVO, and Home Team Sports. I am a passion for educating and facilitating, personal development and making change.
  • 2. Self Concept Development People influence who you think you are: •Parents •Your name •Teachers, relatives, and religious leaders effect your self concept •People you respect or look up
  • 3. Our self concept is determined by: •Gender •Sexual Orientation •Culture •Roles •Status •Power
  • 4. Your concept of self = roles •Self concept determines roles in life and in groups •What are your expectations for your role. Do you want to lead? Follow? Not join? •The perceptions others have of their/you position in the group •Your behavior can determine the roles you play and/or assigned, elected, or given based on power, status, etc.
  • 5. Group Affiliation Influences Self - Concept • College (ASU, Clubs, Honor Society) • Sports Teams • Religion • Political party • Civic and social organizations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 6. Being a male or female has shaped your self concept and how you communicate. Q: How are some ways being male or female has shaped your self image or how you communicate? •The way we dress •How we act •Dating rules •How society as a whole treats males/females •Your self concept •How the media represents gender •The roles we play (traditional or nontraditional) Note: Diverse groups – different viewpoint of what the roles of men and women should be.
  • 7. Research on Gender women • Communicate • To connect with, support, and achieve closeness men • Communicate • To accomplish a task • To assert their individuality Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 8. Gender Stereotypes - Males Stereotypes commonly used by individuals, media, and other organizations: •Aggressive •No emotions •Loud •Bad cooks •Messy •Athletic •Math and science oriented •Bad communicators Q: How many of you can relate to this? Q: Any truth to these terms?
  • 9. Gender Stereotypes - Females Stereotypes commonly used by individuals, media, and other organizations: •Submissive •Emotional •Good cooks •Neat/Clean •Clumsy •Artsy •Housewife •Want children •Good communicators Q: How many of you can relate to this? Q: Any truth to these terms?
  • 10. Popular Stereotypes in the business world concerning women managers. Women are not as committed to their careers as men Reality: 1/3 of women take a leave of absence; almost 2/3 took leave of absence for less than 6 months: 82% for maternity; More men took leave of absence than women Women will not work longer hours Reality: Women average 56 hours per week; as do men Women lack quantitative skills Reality: 23% of women are in finance, as 27% of men are in finance Women are warmer and more nurturing than men Reality: “Concern for people” was cited important by 33 percent of men and only 18% of the women
  • 11. Culture of Origin Culture fosters different beliefs and attitudes about: •Communication •Status •Nonverbal behavior •Interpersonal dynamics Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 12. Definition of Culture ~ Samovar and Porter A deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relationships, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving.
  • 13. Diversity Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 14. What are Cultural Differences? “We are all created equal, but we are individuals.” Other: • Individualistic cultures • Collectivistic cultures • Concept of time • Age • Group membership • Different historical experiences • Different customs • Ways of dressing • Different viewpoints of the universe • Difference between Eastern and Western religions
  • 15. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity The United States has become the most diverse society on the face of the earth. •There are 215 nations in the world, and every one of them has someone living in the United States •New York City has over 170 distinct ethnic communities •More than 32 million people in the U.S. speak a language other than English at home •By the 2050, people of European descent will become the minority in the United States
  • 16. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity in Teams – LAVC LAVC is a diverse campus: Gender: 49% Male 51% Female Ethnicity: 51% Hispanic 20% White 13% Asian 7% African-American 5% American Indian/Other Non-White Data: LAVC Office of Research and Planning
  • 17. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity - LAVC Primary Language: 59.5 % English 18.4% Spanish 8.9% Armenian 3.3% Russian 5.0% Other 2.0% Tagalog (Filipino) 1.5% Farsi 0.3% Chinese Languages 0.8% Korean 0.3% Japanese Data: LAVC Office of Research and Planning
  • 18. Understanding and Appreciating Cultural Diversity - LAVC Age: 32% - 20 to 24 24% - 25 to 34 21% - Under 20 19% - 35 to 54 4% - 55 and over Data: LAVC Office of Research and Planning
  • 19. Diversity of Roles in Small Groups Roles: sets of shared expectations about who should do what under a given set of circumstances. Role Differentiation: Variety of roles can develop as group members interact. The three categories: 1. Task roles: Help groups accomplish tasks 2. Group Building/Maintenance - Help create group structure/Influence how a group will accomplish their given task 3. Individual roles: Benefit the individual, but not the group
  • 20. Diversity of Roles in Small Groups • Predictable communication patterns help define the role you are playing in a group • Your role can change in different groups • Roles may overlap • You are not guaranteed the same role in every group you join. • Each role you play is created by a communication process between you and the group
  • 21. Role Ambiguity: The role assigned to an individual by the group or organization may be a source of problems. R o le A m b ig u it y L a c k o f c la r it y r e g a r d in g d u t ie s , r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s , a n d / o r a u t h o r it y May be due to the complexity of the job Often exhibited by less capable, shy, or inexperienced group members Example: Mission Statement Workgroup
  • 22. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Building and Maintenance Roles • Encourager – Praise, understanding, acceptance • Harmonizer – Mediates disagreements • Compromiser – Brings group together through compromise • Gatekeeper & expediter – Moderates who and for how long group members talk • Standard setter – Sets standards and goals • Group observer – Keeps progress of group goals/direction • Follower – Serves as an audience – goes along with group ideas and decisions.
  • 23. Group Task Roles •Initiator – contributor – New ideas or approaches to solving problems •Information seeker – Asks for clarification, facts to help group •Information giver – Brings data, examples, research etc. to group •Opinion giver – Offers beliefs or opinions about ideas •Elaborator – Uses experiences guide the group on particular direction •Coordinator – Tries to clarify ideas, direction, etc. •Orienteer – Attempts to summarize what has happened, where to go. •Evaluator-critic – Judges information and conclusions made by group •Energizer – Tries to motivate the group •Procedural – Helps group to achieve its goals by doing errands •Recorder – Writes down suggestions, ideas, and records
  • 24. Individual Roles (Self-oriented roles) Negative roles you bring to the group • Aggressor: Deflates other’s status, and takes credit for other’s ideas • Blocker: Generally negative and stubborn for no apparent reason • Recognition seeker: Seeks spotlight by boasting • Self-confessor: Uses group to report his or her personal feelings • Playboy/girl: General lack of involvement and interest • Dominator: Attempts to assert his or her authority by manipulation • Help-seeker: Attempts to evoke sympathy • Special interest: Speaks for special group that may benefit them Individual roles create disruptions, and can often break a group a part.
  • 25. Review Questions True or False Group members rarely assume more than one role in a group meeting. True or False The blocker, aggressor, recognition seeker and the confessor are examples of roles that are good for the group. True or False Culture can influence self concept True or False The gatekeeper encourages one person to talk for the entire group meeting.
  • 26. Individual Roles: Hidden Agenda’s Hidden Agendas: Personal goals of group members that are not revealed openly and that can interfere with group development and accomplishments. • Almost everyone has a “hidden” agenda, some involve having interpersonal needs met, or want to be associated with the group because of the status, but don’t really care about the group goal, or someone may be spying on the group to get information • Or others, who have specific “goals” they want to accomplish that might enhance their power, status, or pocket book Example: Such as an advisory board who need to determine the best use of $100,000 dollars. Seven members who will help divide the money, with their own desires of where the money will go. You will do this exercise after this presentation; There are two parts: The roles of each individual which influence their decisions, but there is other part “the hidden agenda that only that person will know that will influence their decision.
  • 27. Review Questions •True or False Group members often get ‘stuck’ in a role. True or False The blocker, aggressor, recognition seeker and the confessor are examples of maintenance roles. True or False The three types of group roles discussed are task roles, maintenance roles and gender roles.
  • 28. Communicating in Small Groups Trust Q:Q: How many of you have a basic trust toward otherHow many of you have a basic trust toward other humans? Why? Why not?humans? Why? Why not? Often we make assumptions about the trustworthinessOften we make assumptions about the trustworthiness of others based on bias, past experiences, culture,of others based on bias, past experiences, culture, religion, race, sexreligion, race, sex ““Assumptions are the termites of aAssumptions are the termites of a relationships”relationships” ~ Henry Winkler…Actor~ Henry Winkler…Actor
  • 29. Identifying Group Norms- Required elements of part of research for group presentation • As roles of group are established and recognized….norms emerge • Norms are rules or standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group. • They establish expectations of how group members should behave. • Norms reduce some of the uncertainty that occurs when people congregate. • Norms will be different for each group • Norms are created over time as the group meets
  • 30. How do Norms Develop? •People develop norms in new groups based on past ones •People look to these norms to guide their behavior in new groups •Norms develop because of what happens in the group process and the past norms people bring
  • 31. Identifying Group Norms 1.How do group members dress? (Dressy, casual, do uniforms, special casual day) 2. What are the group member’s attitude toward time? (Do meetings begin and end on time; Come and leave work) 3. What type of language is used by most group members (Formal? Is swearing acceptable? ) 4. Do group members use humor to relieve tension? 5. Do group member formally address the group leader? (Department Chair, President, Vice- President, Mr. Ms. or Mrs. reserved for the leader?)
  • 32. NORMS CAN TAKE DIFFERENT FORMS • Team norms that are unique to that group • Team norms may involve certain rituals Example: Animal Rights Group Monthly meetings, protests, educational fairs, ads, campaigns. If members missed there commitment was questioned. Members wore nor ate animal products. Q: What are you norms?
  • 33. Why Are Norms Established? • Norms facilitate group survival • Norms increase the predictability of members’ behaviors • Norms allow members to express the central values of the group (to clarify and reinforce reasons for belonging)
  • 34. NORMS CAN TAKE DIFFERENT FORMS Ways of speaking: Example: Groups of friends; have certain slang words they that share, special symbols or codes that only they understand: gang graffiti, pig Latin, etc. Example: Animal Rights group Refereed to the rest of the non-vegetarian world as “meat- eaters” “animal slayers” also used terms such as vegan, humane, non-humane, use quotes from Gandhi and other
  • 35. Occupy Wall street – General Assembly
  • 36. Why are Norms Established? Norms allow members to express the central values of the group (to clarify and reinforce reasons for belonging): •One reason for joining a group is the distinctiveness of that group. •People join groups they perceive to be special. •Group members wish to see those behaviors which express the distinctiveness of the group encouraged. •Members that diminish, discount, or ignore the norms will be punished.
  • 37. Why do People Conform? 1. Norms cause us to feel, think, and act in ways that are consistent with our group’s standards. •These norms describe what behavior should not be performed in any social setting •When individuals make judgments in groups, their judgments tend to converge over time as norms develop American Flag - Events of 9-11 motivated people to join others by putting flags in front yard, on cars, store windows. Still prevalent today.
  • 38. Why do People Conform? 2. Influence takes place whenever we look to others for information. •In a group, the majority is influential because we assume a large amount of people can’t be wrong •On the other hand, a minority is influential because it prompts us to reevaluate our position Famous Anthropologist, Margaret Mead - “Never underestimate the ability of small group to elicit change.”
  • 39. Why do People Conform? 3. Interpersonal influence includes persuasion, bargains, promise, and even rejection. •Groups can be persuasive: Offer rewards/affection/ punishment for members in group that follow/or do not follow the group norms. •Group can reject nonconformists, people who don’t follow group norms, or those that are weaker are generally less liked. Might be shunned or cut off from communication. The reason: Cults, white supremacy groups, animal rights groups, extremist, such as terrorists groups are so effective.
  • 40. Conformity to Group Norms Depends on: • Culture • The individual characteristics of group members • The status of individual • The clarity of the norms and the certainty of punishment for breaking it • The number of people who already conform to the norm • The quality of interpersonal relationships in the group • The sense of group identification that members have developed
  • 41. REVIEW QUESTIONS True or False Norms decrease the predictability of members’ behaviors True or False In a group, the majority is influential because we assume a large amount of people can’t be wrong Multiple – Choice According to Abraham Maslow, the trusting person makes choices in life referred to as: A. self-actualized choices B. fear choices C. intelligent choices D. growth choices E. A and C
  • 42. High Status Members • talk more • communicate more often • have influence • abide by norms – Until they find they can get away with not abiding. • less likely ignored • do not complain about responsibilities • serve as leaders • address entire group
  • 43. Low Status Members •Direct conversation to high-status than low-status members (body often face high status members) •Communicate more positive messages to high-status members (Don’t kill the messenger) •Are more likely to have their comments ignored (Even if they have good ideas) •Communicate more irrelevant information (gossip and social information) •Talk to high-status members as a substitute for climbing the social heirachy in the group (Feel more important by association, even if they don’t have “real” status.)
  • 44. Five power bases – Your power base in a group is the sum of the resources that you can use to control or influence others. Type of Power: •Legitimate - elected - Being elected, or selected to lead •Referent-attractive - Being well liked •Expert- knowledge - A member’s knowledge and information •Reward-rewards behaviors - Providing rewards for desired behavior •Coercive-punishment - The ability to punish another
  • 45. Review Questions True or False High-status group members usually totally disregard group norms True or False Low –status members communicate less positive messages to high-status members True or False Legitimate power is derived from forcing others to give up the power and give it to you.
  • 46. Self Disclosure Why am I afraid to tell you who I am? You may not like who I am. John Powell - Five predictable levels thatJohn Powell - Five predictable levels that individuals and groups go through:individuals and groups go through: Lowest toLowest to highest form of communication.highest form of communication. •Level 5:Level 5: Cliché CommunicationCliché Communication: People do: People do things that initiate conversation. Smiling;things that initiate conversation. Smiling; making eye contact; sayingmaking eye contact; saying “Hi” “Nice to see“Hi” “Nice to see you.”you.” Example:Example: Dog walks (Looks like ChristmasDog walks (Looks like Christmas morning; is your dog taking you for a walk),morning; is your dog taking you for a walk), contact with professors, neighbors.contact with professors, neighbors. •Level 4:Level 4: Facts and biographical informationFacts and biographical information:: Relationship or conversation moves beyondRelationship or conversation moves beyond the cliché. Nonthreatening information, such asthe cliché. Nonthreatening information, such as your name, hometown, or occupation.your name, hometown, or occupation.
  • 47. Self Disclosure • Level 3:Level 3: Personal attitudes andPersonal attitudes and ideas:ideas: Once you are comfortableOnce you are comfortable and/or more time is spent, you thenand/or more time is spent, you then respond to various ideas andrespond to various ideas and issues, noting where you agree andissues, noting where you agree and disagree with others.disagree with others. • Level 2:Level 2: Personal feelingsPersonal feelings. Talking. Talking about your personal feelings; andabout your personal feelings; and sharing how you feel about others;sharing how you feel about others; (Politics, religion, relationship(Politics, religion, relationship status, etc. )status, etc. ) This level really makes oneThis level really makes one vulnerable.vulnerable.
  • 48. Communicating in Small Groups- Self- Disclosure Level 1: Peak Communication.Level 1: Peak Communication. People seldomPeople seldom reach this level. People do not have a fear ofreach this level. People do not have a fear of rejection and are not afraid to reveal ideas,rejection and are not afraid to reveal ideas, opinions, feelings, and not afraid to have to agreeopinions, feelings, and not afraid to have to agree or disagree.or disagree. Are not afraid to sayAre not afraid to say “no.”“no.” ““ If you risk nothing, then you riskIf you risk nothing, then you risk everything.”everything.” Geena Davis - ActorGeena Davis - Actor
  • 49. Communicating in Small Groups Self-Disclosure •The more open you are aboutThe more open you are about yourself: the more you solicityourself: the more you solicit feedback from others.feedback from others. •The more you explore yourselfThe more you explore yourself through interaction with others; thethrough interaction with others; the healthier and happier we become.healthier and happier we become. •More openness and happy groupMore openness and happy group members make for a moremembers make for a more productive group/team.productive group/team.
  • 50. Communicating in Small Groups - Trust According toAccording to Psychologist JulianPsychologist Julian B. Rotter, trust is:B. Rotter, trust is: ““a generalizeda generalized expectancy; that theexpectancy; that the word, the promise, theword, the promise, the verbal or writtenverbal or written statement of anotherstatement of another individual or group canindividual or group can be relied upon”be relied upon”
  • 51. Communicating in Small Groups - Trust • To trust, you need to have degree of confidence.To trust, you need to have degree of confidence. • Shy people are less trusting, as they have a problemShy people are less trusting, as they have a problem with self-esteem.with self-esteem. Abraham Maslow:Abraham Maslow: Maslow discussed there areMaslow discussed there are twotwo motivating factors for choices in our life.motivating factors for choices in our life. 1.1.Growth choices:Growth choices: People who trust themselves makePeople who trust themselves make “growth” choices (Self-actualized; living life to its full“growth” choices (Self-actualized; living life to its full potential)potential) 2.2.Fear choices:Fear choices: Non-trusting people, make choices out ofNon-trusting people, make choices out of fear and misunderstanding, and therefore learn littlefear and misunderstanding, and therefore learn little about themselves.about themselves.
  • 52. Chapter 4 Review Questions True or FalseTrue or False According the author John Powell, the highest level of self-According the author John Powell, the highest level of self- disclosure is clique communication.disclosure is clique communication. True or FalseTrue or False The more you reveal about yourself , the less effective theThe more you reveal about yourself , the less effective the group that you work with will be.group that you work with will be. True of FalseTrue of False Powel discusses peak communication as a level ofPowel discusses peak communication as a level of communication where people do not have a fear ofcommunication where people do not have a fear of rejection and are not afraid to reveal ideas, and opinions,rejection and are not afraid to reveal ideas, and opinions, feelings.feelings.
  • 53. Cultural Differences 1. Individualism (Low - context cultures)  Individualist cultures value the individual over group  Power, achievement and hedonism  Responsible for self and immediate family  Stand out from the crowd  National concerns trump others  When individualist countries invade, occupy, or are part of a national coalition such as NATO -- changes may take place with-in a collectivist culture.
  • 54. Cultural Differences (cont.) 1. Collectivist Cultures (High – context cultures)  Collectivist cultures value the group over the individual  Benevolence, tradition and conformity  Responsible for entire group  Take pride in similarity to other group members  Economy (China) can run like that of a Individualist Culture, but the values and beliefs within the people will often reflect the Collectivist Culture Representative Cultures: South American, African, Southern European, Arab and Asian Thought: The values and beliefs may change based on different leadership within the countries. Examples: Venezuela when Hugo Chavez won election in 1999. Now Nicolas Maduro. Indonesia President is opening country to world leaders and visiting other countries'
  • 55. Multiculturalism - Handout • Read • Questions: 1)Which parts of the depiction of the world surprised you? Why? 2)Do you feel differently about your place in the world after reading it? How? 3)What sterotypes about your own culture are you aware of? How accurate are they? Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 56. Religious or Spiritual Orientation As the United States has become more diverse culturally, it is also becoming more diverse religiously. •The traditional mix of Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism is being enriched by growing numbers of Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and others. •Nationwide there are more than 1,100 houses of worship for Muslims, 1,500 for Buddhists, and 400 for Hindus. •There is also great diversity within different faiths. You cannot not make assumptions about where any one stands on religious matters. •Many people are agnostics (Aren’t sure there is a God or not) or atheists (Don’t believe in a traditional sense of the word “God” ) •Others don’t identify with organized religion and consider themselves spiritual. “We are not human beings having a spiritual experience. We are spiritual beings having a human experience.”
  • 57. Race and Ethnicity – An Aspect of Identity • Most of us have a very diverse back ground. • Cablinasian – A term made up byTiger Woods – It is a portmanteau (combination of two or more words) of Ca ucasian, Black, American-Indian, and Asian, which is his ethnic make-up of a quarter Chinese, a quarter Thai, a quarter Black, an eighth Native American and an eighth Dutch. Q: How do you look at your race and ethnicity? Any special terms you use?
  • 58. What is diversity? • The state or fact of being different; unlikeness, different perceptions, expectations, ideas, etc. • Looking at and encouraging an environment where people are valued and recognized. • Diversity is about different the many cultures and subcultures
  • 59. Diversity – “We are all created equal, but we are individuals” •Our country is a country of immigrants…except for the Native American population •Many people have come here by choice •Others, such as the peoples from Africa and other countries, who were brought to the US for slavery, were not here by choice, and was a very dark time in our history •Each group of diverse people have contributed to the greatness of our nation •However, each group has not always been valued. Their labor, their art, their votes have been used and abused without adequate compensation. •The discussion today is not about focusing on these challenges, as diversity is not always understood or appreciated.
  • 60. Diversity Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 61. What are Cultural Differences? To be effective leaders and members in multicultural groups, it is necessary to understand and be sensitive to cultural differences. • Individualistic cultures • Collectivistic cultures • Gender • Race • Ethnic background • Concept of time • Religious orientation • Age • Group membership • Sub-cultures DEEP CULTURE • Different historical experiences • Different customs • Ways of dressing • Nonverbal communication • Ways of communicating • Different viewpoints of the universe • Difference between Eastern and Western religions
  • 62. Culture – Take home assignment Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved  Enculturation – How you learn the culture of your birth  Ethnic identity – A commitment to the beliefs and philosophy of your culture  Acculturation – The process of learning the rules and norms of a culture that you move to
  • 63. Culture- Take home assignment Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved  Relevance of a cultural perspective  Demographic changes  Sensitivity to cultural differences  Economic and political interdependence  Spread of technology  IPC is culture specific and understanding differences is important to successful communication. Aim of a cultural perspective
  • 64. Cultural Differences - Textbook • Individualist Cultures & Collectivist Cultures • High-and Low-Context Cultures • Power Distance • Masculine and Feminine Cultures • High-Ambiguity-Tolerant and Low – Ambiguity-Tolerant Cultures • Long-and Short-term Orientation • Indulgence and Restraint
  • 65. Cultural Differences Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Individualist vs. collectivist orientation – Cultures differ in the way in which they promote individualist and Collectivist thinking, behavior, and goals Individualist cultures value the individual over group  Power, achievement and hedonism  Responsible for self and immediate family  Stand out from the crowd  National concerns trump others  When individualist countries invade, occupy, or are part of a national coalition such as NATO changes may take place with- in a collectivist culture. Representative Cultures: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Canada, New Zealand, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, and Sweden. Thought: Teams have played a major role in U.S. success and history (NASA, Genome Project, the Military, Businesses such as Pixar and
  • 66. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Individualist vs. collectivist orientation Collectivist cultures value the group over the individual  Benevolence, tradition and conformity  Responsible for entire group  Take pride in similarity to other group members  Economy (China) can run like that of a Individualist Culture, but the values and beliefs within the people will often reflect the Collectivist Culture Representative Cultures: Guatemala, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, Columbia, Indonesia, China, Costa Rica, and Peru  Thought: The values and beliefs may change based on different leadership within the countries. Examples: Venezuela when Hugo Chavez won election in 1999.
  • 67. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 2. High- vs. low-context cultures – differ in the extent in which information is made explicit (clear) or assumed to be in the context or in the persons communication. High-context cultures assume information is known by everyone  Information is implied (past experiences, assumptions, shared experiences.) rather than stated up front  Places high emphasis on personal relationships and oral agreements  Saving face (avoiding disagreements, arguments, or embarrassment over mistakes, etc.)  In business, take time before making decisions, signing contracts, etc. Example: Navajo Reservation and spay/neuter plan Cultural representatives: Japanese, Arabic, Latin America, Thai, Korean, Apache, and Mexican
  • 68. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 2. High- vs. low-context cultures Low-context cultures value up front and direct communication (Usually individualist cultures)  Information is stated explicitly and up front  Places less emphasis on relationships  Get down to business, little small talk or getting to know each other.  Written contracts with clear details crucial  Use argument to make a point – not afraid to criticize in public
  • 69. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3. Power distance cultures High- power-distance refers to how power is distributed in society. Power is concentrated in the hands of few – while the ordinary citizens have little power.  Highest power distance countries: Malaysia, Slovakia, Guatemala, Panama, the Philippines, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Suriname and Mexico.  U.S. ranks 59th on the list.
  • 70. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3. Power distance cultures Low- power-distance cultures have little gap between people who have power and people who don’t.  Minimal distance between those with power and those without  Power is distributed throughout the citizenry Ten countries with low – power: Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand, Switzerland, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Great Britain. Examples: • In India (high power) friendship and marriage are expected to take place within cultural class • In Sweden (low power) people pick based on personalty, appearance, etc.
  • 71. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Masculine vs. feminine cultures – describes a culture’s attitude toward gender roles (in this case on based on stereo types) but reflecting commonly held beliefs of rest of the world. • Masculine cultures value aggressiveness, material success, strength, emphasizes traditional gender roles. • Achievement vs. nurturing Top 10 Countries: Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy, Switzerland, Mexico, Ireland, Jamaca, Great Britian and Germany.
  • 72. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Masculine vs. feminine cultures – describes a culture’s focus on achievement vs. nurturing • Feminine cultures value modesty, relationships, quality of life, tenderness. • More likely to use compromise, and negotiate conflict. Top 10 countries: (Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark, Costa Rica, Yugoslavia, Finland, Chile, Portugal, and Thailand.) Organizations can be seen as being masculine and feminine. • Masculine stress the bottom line, competiveness, and aggressiveness. • Feminine are less competitive and aggressive.
  • 73. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. High-Ambiguity (uncertainty of meaning or intention) and Low-Ambiguity cultures. High-ambiguity tolerant cultures feel comfortable or can have a high tolerance for ambiguous or uncertain situations  Require minimal communication rules and  Like those who don’t follow the rules and encourage different approaches Q: Would this be true in sports? Business? The Military? Close personal relationships? Cultures: Singapore, Jamaica, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Great Britain, Malaysia, India, Philippines; and U.S. ranks 11th .
  • 74. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. Ambiguity tolerant cultures Low-ambiguity tolerant cultures feel uncomfortable or can have a low tolerance for ambiguous or uncertain situations  Create strict rules for communicating  Create highly structured and ritualized interactions  Uncertainty is seen as threatening and should be fought. Low tolerance countries: Greece, Portugal, Guatemala, Uruguay, Belgium, Malta, Russia, El Salvador, Poland and Japan.
  • 75. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 6. Short term and long term orientation cultures Short term orientation cultures spend resources on present goals and want quick results (Puerto Rico, Ghana, Egypt, Trinidad, Iran, Morocco, Colombia, Nigeria at the top of list.) Long term orientation cultures focus on future rewards (South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, China, Ukraine, Germany at the top of the list.) U.S. ranks 69th out of 93 – Making less long term.
  • 76. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7. Indulgence and restraint cultures – defines life along two dimensions Life control - freedom freedom to do as you please or to have control over your life Leisure - how much leisure time or fun time you have
  • 77. Cultural Differences (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7. Indulgence and restraint cultures Indulgence cultures have high life control and high leisure; are generally happy Restraint cultures have low life control and low leisure; are generally unhappy
  • 78. Q: How can these differences in approach affect the politics, economy, culture in these countries? Q: How can these difference in approach affect the classroom, business, personal relationship in the U.S.? Positive? Negative? Why? Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 79. Obstacles to Effective Diversity We all know that we should accept and respect diversity, but we sometimes get sidetracked because of poor training. Prejudice: Means judging in advance - making an evaluation before you’ve gathered or considered all the relevant information. Reasons: The way people were raised, dislike a person’s personality trait, or are fearful, angry, or jealous. Problems: Prejudice is most likely to influence our opinions of people who are different from us -- this can be a great hindrance for a diverse team.
  • 80. Obstacles to Effective Diversity Stereotypes: Is a belief that certain groups of people tend to have distinct characteristics. In other words, it’s an assumption that belonging to a certain group will make a person look, think, or act in a particular way. • You may think you’re free from stereotypes, but you’re not. • We all rely on stereotypes everyday. It helps to reduce uncertainty, but isn’t always positive.
  • 81. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Psychologist Kenneth Kays identified the “seven deadly isms” that damage relationships and teamwork at school, in organizations, and around the world • Sexism • Elitism • Racism • Favoritism • Ageism • Individualism • Chauvinism Plus: • Ethnocentrism • Monoculturism
  • 82. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two • Sexism: Set of attitudes and behaviors towards people that judge or belittle them on the basis of their gender, or that perpetuates stereotypical assumptions about gender roles. • This term is most often used to refer to men’s attitudes toward women. But in recent years there has been increasing discussion of sexism towards men. • The term dates from the mid-1960s during the rise of women’s liberation movements in 1968-1969 • Sexism has a long history derived from patriarchal cultures in world (rule by fathers) Traditionally rights to property and nationality passed through the male line, with the result that women’s legal status was generally inferior to that of males • Until the 20th century, women had no voting rights, limited to property rights, and in most respects subject entirely to their fathers and husband.
  • 83. Examples of Sterotypes - Gender Common Gender Sterotypes used by individuals, media, and other organizations Women: • Submissive • Emotional • Quiet • Neat/Clean • Clumsy (Movies) • Artsy • Housewife • Child rearing • Good communicators
  • 84. Examples of Sterotypes - Gender Common Gender Sterotypes used by individuals, media, and other organizations Men: • Aggressive • No emotions • Loud • Messy • Athletic • Math and Science Oriented • CEO • Bad communicators Q: How many of you can relate to this? Q: Any truth to these terms?
  • 85. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Elitism: the belief that society should be governed by a select group of gifted and highly educated individuals Or Pride in the awareness of being one of an elite group. Adjective or noun: Elitist How practiced: • Private clubs • Status • Money (Executive pay vs. salaried and hourly employees) • Power Position (Political positions, Advisor to elected officials) • Privilege (Family born into, inherited title) Q: Problems that can occur as a result of elitism?
  • 86. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Racism: Definition according to the Queen’s University: Queens’ University believes in the necessity of providing safeguards for its members against all forms of impermissible discrimination, including racism and racial harassment. By racism we mean the negative valuing and discriminatory treatment of individuals on the basis of their race which is used to include all race-related grounds; race, ancestry, place of origin, color, ethnic origin, citizenship and creed. A creed is a statement of belief, in
  • 87. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Racism: Q: How do you know if someone or something is racists? • Sometimes it can be hard to recognize racism, especially if you’re not the target • The problem is some people are deliberately racist while others might behave in a racist manner without meaning to hurt other people • Ins the same way, some systems or rules or organizations might discriminate against some groups or people either deliberately or without intending to
  • 88. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Racism: Examples: Q: Have you ever experienced or done any of the following? • Made fun of clothes, food, or physical appearance of people from other cultures • Told jokes directed against people from a particular culture • Used insulting language about particular cultural groups • Made fun of people’s accents or names • Favored students form some backgrounds more than others • Expected students from some cultures or linguistic groups to do better or worse than others • Not respected people’s different religious beliefs • The list goes on and on……
  • 89. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Racism: Student who experience racism might: • Be afraid to go to school • Have trouble concentrating • Shave trouble making friends • Fall behind in schoolwork • Do not speak their first language for fear of being teased or picked on • Reject their own culture and parental values • Do not speak English for fear of being teased or picked on • Be confused about their identity
  • 90. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Racism: What can you do? • If you are physically threatened call campus police or tell instructor • Call a friend, call or call the • Keep a record of all incidents the dates, times, locations and witnesses • If you are a member of a union, you may wish to call the union rep • Formally lodge a complaint • Be aware of your actions and their effects • Start a group or organization to shed light on racism • Be pro-active: • Anti-Racism means to: - Be sensitive to other’s feelings - Actively listen to what others are saying - Educate yourself about other cultures - Keep judgments silent
  • 91. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Favoritism: • The favoring of one person or group over others with equal claim • The state of being favorite • The bestowal of patronage in consideration of relationship; rather than merit or of legal claim A sub-group of Favoritism: Nepotism Favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power Q: How many of you have been the precipitant of favoritism? How did it feel? Q: How many of you have been the victim of favoritism or nepotism? How did it feel?
  • 92. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Favoritism: When you are on the receiving end of favoritism it feels good As a person not getting Favoritism: One feels left-out, unappreciated, angry, frustrated, loss of self-confidence Q: What do you think that person might do? As a nation: I didn’t have time to get research on this, but how do you think other countries feel about the NTR formally MFN? What can you do? • Don’t practice this yourself • If you work for an organization or boss that practices it report it to human resources • Talk with your instructor; if that doesn’t work • Report any teachers practicing it to their department chairs • Realize it does happen; and enjoy while you can ; or decide you won’t take favors from others (no matter how great they are…Do you think you could do that ?
  • 93. Aristotle said “Few things affect a person’s outlook more then his or her age.” • Each generation has more or less common values and experiences that set it apart from other generations • Yet, each generation has different approaches to life in their values, attitudes and beliefs etc. • In United States our Elders are not as appreciated as in other cultures. • Often when referring to our Elders we say the “old” teacher, person, etc. • Many in our culture are afraid of aging – Plastic surgery. Q: How can our Elders help us? Culture Differences - Age
  • 94. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Ethnocentrism: Means literally to be centered on one’s own culture. • For example, to interpret the behavior in the light of one’s own values, attitudes, and so on. • Or making false assumptions about others’ way based on our own limited experience Example: Peace Corp workers in Belize When you think about your own experience with people from other ethnic groups and with attitudes expressed about relations with other countries, what examples come to your mind where may have imposed your own values and feelings about life on their experience?
  • 95. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Monoculturalism: Only knowing about one culture? The perils of monoculturalism: • A naïve ethnocentrism: I judge everything using my own culture as the measuring rod • Absolutisitc thinking: Things are not to be questioned: “My way or the highway?” • An embracing of naïve realism: Says that we can know things in the world directly without taking into account our uncertainties and doubts. We perceive things exactly as they are. • Lack of respect of other people’s way • The evaluation of customs and perspectives on the basis of one’s own culturally learned assumptions and values • The use of pejorative terms to describe customs different from one’s own
  • 96. The Seven Deadly “Isms” plus two Chauvinism: Aggressive or fanatical patriotism; enthusiastic devotion to a cause’ smug irrational belief in the superiority of one’s race, party, sex etc. •A cursory glance into the Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs reveals the basic antifeminism of proverbs •Magazines continue to abound with anti-feminism headlines of articles and advertisements •A plumbing business had a customer handout that read: Four Things a Women Should Know How to look like a girl How to act like a lady How to think like a man And how to work like a dog •There are some who believe that a well-know proverb “All men are created equal” should be in fact be called “All people are created equal” Q: Do you think that sexist language should be eliminated from the above proverb and just in general (In graduate school all paper had to be free of sexist language)
  • 97. Sexist Language Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Words that many think are sexist. •You Guys – Generic woprd to include males and females (pass out card) •The common man – The average person, ordinary people •Caveman – Cave dwellers •Mankind – people, human beings, humankind •Chairman – Chair person •Man the Booth – Attend to the booth (or Woman the Booth, if woman are going to attend to the booth) •Stewardess – flight attendant •Waitress/waiter – server, food server •Actor/Actress – Actor (???) In general, avoid using different words for men and women who perform the same job. •Fireman - "firefighter," •Post man - "postal worker" Most of the gender neutral terms are now widely accepted.
  • 98. Deadly “isms” Group Exercise • Handout and Explain
  • 99. Cross-Cultural Milestones Cultural awareness is more than just realizing that another culture is different from ours. It is learning to value the other culture. Q: So how do we get to this point?
  • 100. Principles for Effective Intercultural Communication Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1.Educate yourself 2.Recognize differences  Between yourself and the culturally different  Within the culturally different group  Differences in meaning
  • 101. Principles for Effective Intercultural Communication (cont.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3.Confront your stereotypes 4.Adjust your communication to the other person (accommodation) 5.Reduce your ethnocentrism
  • 102. Kwast’s Model of Culture View a culture (is to visualize) several successive layers or levels of understanding, as one (moves from observable behavior) into the real heart of culture; Values in a culture are not selected arbitrarily, but invariably reflect an underlying system of beliefs, At the very heart of any culture is its world view.. What culture looks like: • Behavior (Outside circle) seen as: What is done • Values (Inside Behavior) seen as: What is good or bad? • Beliefs (Inside values) seen as: What is true? • World view (inside beliefs) seen as: What is real?