Listening Quiz - Syllabus
Chapter 4: Listening in          Interpersonal CommunicationHistory Repeats itself because no one listens the             ...
“We have two ears and onemouth so that we can listentwice as much as we speak.”
How we communicate
Consider your day!         You listen:         •At home         •At work         •At school         •With friends         ...
6 Forms of Nonlistening1)   Pseudolistening2)   Monopolizing3)   Selective listening4)   Defensive listening5)   Ambushing...
Forms of Nonlistening1. Pseudolistening• Pretending to listen• Happens when we are  bored, but want  to appear interestedI...
Forms of Nonlistening2. Monopolizing•Focusing on ourselvesInstead of listening to others.Tactics:•Conversation rerouting –...
Forms of Nonlistening3) Selective listeningFocusing on particular partsof a conversation.Examples:•If a professor says “th...
Forms of Nonlistening4) Defensive listeningPerceiving information as personal attacks,Criticism, or hostility in communica...
Forms of Nonlistening6) Literal listening – Listeningonly for the content andIgnoring the relationship level.•Power•Respon...
Forms of Nonlistening5) Ambushing•Literal listening carefully forpurpose of attacking a speaker.•This involves careful lis...
Listening to Succeed    We are a nation of poor listeners!                                 Immediately after              ...
Listening Professor Alton Barbour, University of Denver,                  conducted a country-wide survey of many industri...
The Importance of Listening                                 Listening can change lives:According to researcher Phyllis Kem...
Levels of Listening• Hearing – You comprehend the spoken word,  but do not often react. (half-listening)• Listening – Payi...
The Process of Listening Listening is a five stage process; the stages   overlap and are performed simultaneously1) Recei...
Types of Listening: HearingMost of us are all born with the ability to hear•   People who have hearing challenges receive ...
The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 1: Receiving or Attending – the physiological, passive process ofhearing vibrations ...
The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 1: Receiving  Determining factors:  1)The immediate importance of the stimulus – Do ...
The Process of                           Listening (cont.)Stage 2: Hearing (listening) Understanding - you learn what the ...
The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 3: Remembering – Retaining                             (Effectivecommunication depen...
The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 4: Evaluating – consciously orunconsciously judging the speakers message ormotives.•...
The Listening ProcessHow do we organize?•    We organize based by prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, scripts, a...
The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 5: Responding – giving immediate or delayed feedback tothe speaker on what you think...
Auding - Mindfulness                                                 BE HERE NOW                                          ...
Barriers to Effective Listening1. External obstacles  – Message overload – Too much information!    (Class information, em...
Barriers to Effective Listening2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our   own thoughts, feelings, and concerns.3. ...
Barriers to Effective Listening2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our   own thoughts, feelings, and concerns.3. ...
Barriers to Effective Listening3. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and  phrases that evoke a strong respons...
Barriers to Effective Listening5. Rehearsing a Response - This barrier is perhaps the most   difficult to overcome.• We sp...
Steps for being a more   Effective Listener        •   Stop        •   Look        •   Listen        •   Ask questions    ...
Steps for Being a more Effective                        Listener•   Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give...
Steps to Being a More Effective                      ListenerListen:• Listen for what another person is telling you• You m...
Steps to Being a More                       Effective ListenerAsk Questions:• Help others to focus by using questions that...
Steps to Being a More Effective                                                                 ListenerParaphrase Content...
Practice Paraphrasing• I think we’re seeing too much of each other• I really like communication, but what could I do with ...
Practice Paraphrasing• I think we’re seeing too much of each other (Do I hear you  saying that you want some more space or...
Guidelines for Effective Listening• Be mindful• Adapt listening appropriately
Listening – The “D” formula• DDOT – Don’t do other tasks (cleaning glasses,  shuffling papers, doodling – one brain proces...
Guidelines for Effective Listening•   Form an acronym – Chunking information1. Write the facts you need to remember.2. Und...
Create a story – Phonetic Alphabet
Review information in Syllabus     on listening in class.
The End
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Speech121listening

  1. 1. Listening Quiz - Syllabus
  2. 2. Chapter 4: Listening in Interpersonal CommunicationHistory Repeats itself because no one listens the first time. ~ unknown Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self – confidence. ~ Robert Frost, Poet
  3. 3. “We have two ears and onemouth so that we can listentwice as much as we speak.”
  4. 4. How we communicate
  5. 5. Consider your day! You listen: •At home •At work •At school •With friends •With family Q: How much do you really hear? Professionals listen: •Doctors •Lawyers •Contractors •Management Q: How much do they really hear?
  6. 6. 6 Forms of Nonlistening1) Pseudolistening2) Monopolizing3) Selective listening4) Defensive listening5) Ambushing6) Literal listening
  7. 7. Forms of Nonlistening1. Pseudolistening• Pretending to listen• Happens when we are bored, but want to appear interestedIndicators:• Responses that don’t make sense• Confusion, when called upon in class• Asking to have some repeat what they said, or asking questions about informaiton that was given.
  8. 8. Forms of Nonlistening2. Monopolizing•Focusing on ourselvesInstead of listening to others.Tactics:•Conversation rerouting –Bringing conversation back to ourselves.•Interrupting – questions and challenges to speaker todivert conversation in another direction
  9. 9. Forms of Nonlistening3) Selective listeningFocusing on particular partsof a conversation.Examples:•If a professor says “this will be on the exam”•Things we aren’t interested in.•Ideas or information we don’t agree with or make usuneasy.•Information that is critical to us or our loved ones.
  10. 10. Forms of Nonlistening4) Defensive listeningPerceiving information as personal attacks,Criticism, or hostility in communication that isnot.•We read motives into whatever a person says•We perceive negative judgment in innocent comments•Other instances are over specific topics, vulnerable times, or having low self esteemTip: We can miss important information and can turn people offfrom being honest with us.
  11. 11. Forms of Nonlistening6) Literal listening – Listeningonly for the content andIgnoring the relationship level.•Power•Responsiveness•Liking between two people•We are insensitive to people’s feelings and ourconnection to them.
  12. 12. Forms of Nonlistening5) Ambushing•Literal listening carefully forpurpose of attacking a speaker.•This involves careful listening,unlike the other forms ofcommunication.•Intent to gather information to attack.
  13. 13. Listening to Succeed We are a nation of poor listeners! Immediately after hearing a message, most people retain 50% of content. Two months later most people remember 25% ofSperry Rand Corporation content.estimates that every year (if)100 million workers in the Interesting research,United States – made a $100 Nichols (University oferror because of a listening Minnesota) found 95%mistake, The cost to United out of 100% males betterStates = $1 billion. listeners than females.
  14. 14. Listening Professor Alton Barbour, University of Denver, conducted a country-wide survey of many industries “Listening Habits That Irritate Me.”1. The other person interrupts me when I talk.2. The other person doesnt’t look at me when I talk, so I am not sure if he or she is listening.3. The other person talks down to me.4. The other person does distracting things when talking to me (texting, picking fingernails, cleaning glasses, fidgeting with pencils, looking at watch, etc.)Other:?
  15. 15. The Importance of Listening Listening can change lives:According to researcher Phyllis Kemp in an article “Are youListening?”•Sensitive listening can change your life and those around you.•You will be respected by teachers, co-workers, and your parents,bosses, and more!People who are listened to are:•Less likely to get upset when there is a problem or conflict.•Can become more mature, more democratic, more open topersonal experience and less defensive. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Levels of Listening• Hearing – You comprehend the spoken word, but do not often react. (half-listening)• Listening – Paying attention in more detail– interpreting what you hear.• Auding or Mindfulness – Highest level of listening (involves one or more avenues of thought.)
  17. 17. The Process of Listening Listening is a five stage process; the stages overlap and are performed simultaneously1) Receiving (Hearing or Attending)2) Understanding (Listening, learning and deciphering meaning) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Types of Listening: HearingMost of us are all born with the ability to hear• People who have hearing challenges receive messages visually through writing, lip reading, and American Sign Language (ASL). Before ASL there was Helen Keller Sign Language.
  19. 19. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 1: Receiving or Attending – the physiological, passive process ofhearing vibrations around you. (External and internal stimuli compete forour attention. )• Hearing is being aware of sound generated by the environment.• Listening is understanding - a skill which allows us to interpret those sounds that create meaning.Scenarios:• A baby crying.• Breaks squealing from a car.• A police siren.• Or a crash in the kitchen.Listening: Based on the type of cry from the baby, or the length of the siren, or sound of the crash in the kitchen – all might mean there is trouble, which has meaning to us. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 1: Receiving Determining factors: 1)The immediate importance of the stimulus – Do we attend or filter it out (baby crying, police siren, someone chocking) 2)Our related experiences (we hear what we expect to hear and filter out most of the rest.) 3)Emotional state (can adversely effective selection of stimuli ) fill in. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 2: Hearing (listening) Understanding - you learn what the speaker’sthoughts and emotions mean•Listening involves thinking – molding ideas we hear into language symbols.Four kinds of thinking when putting together aural messages.•Concept formation – integrating many concepts in the listening process.•Problem solving - manipulate symbols of thought and feeling to reach a certaingoal (such as listening in economics)•Creative thinking – Unconsciously rearrange language and thought into symbolsand use imagery to achieve goals•Reasoning – Directing thought to according to set of well defined logic (Replacecareless listening habits with productive techniques.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 3: Remembering – Retaining (Effectivecommunication depends on this.)Important: You remember not what was said, but what youremember was said.Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive – You constructmessage that makes sense to your.Short term memory - is the storage of data for a few secondsLong term memory – stores the data for hours, days, years oreven a lifetime. (this is not part of the listening process, but theresult of perceptive listening.) Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 4: Evaluating – consciously orunconsciously judging the speakers message ormotives.•Often we impose our meanings onto others(correcting, arguing or telling them how theyfeel.) “Good listeners stay out of the other’s way” so they can learn what others think and feel.” ~ Listening expert, Robert Bolton Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. The Listening ProcessHow do we organize?• We organize based by prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, scripts, and schemata.We select meaning by how we select and organize communication – Perceptions should be tentative and open to revision.As we listen, we decide how to categorize:1) Which prototype (who does the speaker closely resemble.) a good friend, person in trouble, student, teacher, etc.2) Then we apply the personal constructs to define more detail (are they upset or calm, open to advice or closed to it.)3) Based on the construct of others, we apply stereotypes (how has this person reacted in the past. Or how this situation similar to others) that predict what they will do.4) We then apply the script (how the interaction should proceed, including how we should act.)5) Lastly, the schemata organize help us figure out how to respond to others.• A psychology concept developed by Piaget, describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior. It can also be described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information.• Schemata influence attention and the absorption of new knowledge: people are more likely to notice things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting contradictions to the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of contradictory information.
  25. 25. The Process of Listening (cont.)Stage 5: Responding – giving immediate or delayed feedback tothe speaker on what you think and how you feel about themessage•Transitional process in which we simultaneously listen andspeak.Signs of responses include:•Eye contact•Nodding•Attentive posture,•Smiling,•Asking questions to invite more interaction. Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. Auding - Mindfulness BE HERE NOW •We don’t let our thoughts drift. •We do not focus on our feelings and responses. •We put away electronic devices and or stop any activities that can get in the way. “The present moment is filled with joy andhappiness. If you are attentive, you will see it” •We fully tune in (without imposing our ideas, judgments, biases, ― Thich Nhat Hanh, Peace Is Every Step: stereotypes, prejudices, values, The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life and feelings) •It’s a choice to be mindful
  27. 27. Barriers to Effective Listening1. External obstacles – Message overload – Too much information! (Class information, emails, text message, voice mail, work) We have to screen or prioritize – Message complexity – Complex messages, topics (science, economics, math classes. Technical words, complex sentences with idioms or slang expressions.)
  28. 28. Barriers to Effective Listening2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, and concerns.3. Prejudging communicator or the communication:• You dislike or disagree with speaker• You anticipate what the person will say and then you tune them out.(Especially politicians who hold different views from our own)• You prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, sex or race.
  29. 29. Barriers to Effective Listening2. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, and concerns.3. Prejudging communicator or the communication:• You dislike or disagree with speaker• You anticipate what the person will say and then you tune them out.(Especially politicians who hold different views from our own)• You prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, sex or race.
  30. 30. Barriers to Effective Listening3. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and phrases that evoke a strong response, positive or negative. We often attack the other person or tune out. “You should,” “Liberal,” “Far Right,” “Family Values,” “Everyone or Everybody”What are your triggers?– Lack of effort – It is hard to listen (especially when noise and physiological conditions.)When this happens tell person you are tired, or want to discuss difficult topics later.4. Failure to adapt listening styles – Different skills for different people, situations, settings, etc.
  31. 31. Barriers to Effective Listening5. Rehearsing a Response - This barrier is perhaps the most difficult to overcome.• We spend time rehearsing what we will say before the other person is finished speaking.• One of the reasons is the Speech-rate-ratio: The difference between speech rate and thought rate.
  32. 32. Steps for being a more Effective Listener • Stop • Look • Listen • Ask questions • Paraphrase content • Paraphrase feelings
  33. 33. Steps for Being a more Effective Listener• Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give speaker full attention.• Be present - (eliminate self talk/intrapersonal communication)Look:• Listen to what isn’t being said as an additional component.• Look for nonverbal clues that will help you understand what the speaker is feeling.• The face provides the most important information about how the person is feeling. Body also communicates feelings and emotions.• The person’s voice quality, pitch, rate, volume, and use of silence also give information on how the person is feeling.
  34. 34. Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerListen:• Listen for what another person is telling you• You may not always agree with what the person is saying, but try to give them a chance to be heard• Match verbal with the nonverbal to decipher both the content and emotion of the person’s message (Incongruence – When nonverbal and verbal don’t match – past experience helps.)If a person you are talking with says “Im OK” but nonverbal doesn’t match… take an opportunity to learn more.
  35. 35. Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerAsk Questions:• Help others to focus by using questions that clarify perceptions. Four purposes of questions: 1. To obtain additional information 2. To find out how a person feels 3. To ask for clarification of a word or phrase 4. To verify your conclusion about the person’s meaning are feeling.Tip: Ask “How” not “Why” questions. “How do you feel about that?” vs. “Why do you feel that way?”Or “How did that happen?” vs. “Why did that happen.”
  36. 36. Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerParaphrase Content:• After the person is done talking (Don’t interrupt) Restate in your own words what you think the other person is saying. (Different from parroting)• The goal of active listening is understand both the feelings and the content of another person’s feelings.Paraphrase Feelings:• You could follow your paraphrase with a comment on feeling, such as “ I imagine you must be feeling ______(frustrated, confused, happy, sad, perplexed, etc.) Followed with “Is that true.”• Give the person a chance to respond to your paraphrase.• Slow down responses to match the speaker’s pace and processing of information. (Best way to connect with people is to match their use of words, and communication style)
  37. 37. Practice Paraphrasing• I think we’re seeing too much of each other• I really like communication, but what could I do with the major?• I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast• You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive home this weekend.
  38. 38. Practice Paraphrasing• I think we’re seeing too much of each other (Do I hear you saying that you want some more space or time for yourself?)• I really like communication, but what could I do with the major? (I get the sense that you are struggling with career choices now, is that right?”• I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast.(I hear some hesitancy about your relationship with Pat, yes?)• You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive home this weekend. (It seems like your car is very important to you right now.)
  39. 39. Guidelines for Effective Listening• Be mindful• Adapt listening appropriately
  40. 40. Listening – The “D” formula• DDOT – Don’t do other tasks (cleaning glasses, shuffling papers, doodling – one brain process – can really only focus on one task at a time.• DMP – Don’t make plans – Extra listening time gives people the illusion the can make plans, shopping lists, etc. – doing this directs the brain to stop listening.• DD – Don’t daydream – More powerful than DMP – As soon as we start daydreaming the brain stops listening. (It is enjoyable and beneficial – but not when listening.)
  41. 41. Guidelines for Effective Listening• Form an acronym – Chunking information1. Write the facts you need to remember.2. Underline the first letter of each fact. If there is more than one word in a fact, underline the first letter of only the first word in the fact.3. Arrange the underlined letters to form an acronym that is a real word word you can pronounce.Examples:• "HOMES" – The five Great Lakes: Michigan, Erie,• Superior, Ontario, Huron• Order of Operations in Math
  42. 42. Create a story – Phonetic Alphabet
  43. 43. Review information in Syllabus on listening in class.
  44. 44. The End

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