Transcript of "Smallgroupchapter6listeningfall2012"
ReviewChapter One –•Definition of small group•The advantages and disadvantages of a smallgroup•Primary and secondary groups•How to be a competent communicator
ReviewChapter Three –•Why people join groups•Interpersonal needs (Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds and Schutz’s theory)•Individual needs•Group and team goals•Establishing mutuality of concern•Interpersonal attraction (similarity,complementarity, and proximity)
ReviewChapter Four –•How are self concept develops (gender, sexual orientation, culture and theroles we are assigned or select)•Our roles (Diversity in roles, group task roles, group building and maintenanceroles, and individual roles)•Group norms (Rules that determine what is appropriate and what is not)Clothing, values, language, use of humor, etc.•Status (High status/low status behavior and manner of communication)•Power (Who has it and why – what resources can you control or influence?)•Trust – Trusting members in the team = successful, open group•Self – Disclosure – Building trust involves sharing of your self – the more openthe better, but beware of TMI, and the risks involved
What’s the weather like?Look out the window!• How do you feel looking out this window?• Is it inviting?• Do you want to go out and enjoy the weather?
What’s the weather like?Look out the window!• How do you feel looking out this window?• Is it inviting?• Do want to go out and enjoy the weather?
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/ Team CommunicationCh. 5 - Improving Group ClimateClimate – Each group, class, team has a climate…like weather. (Many factorssuch as temperature, air pressure, latitude, bodies of water affect what theday is like. )•Climate affects your desire to engage in certain activities.•Group Climate consists of a variety of factors interact to create a groupfeeling or atmosphere.It involves:•Behaviors that foster defensive and supportive climates, which you examinedin your take home questions.•The way in which group members respond to each each other (It is itdisconfirming or confirming, which you examined in your take homequestions.)
How would you describe your group Climate?• Clear, warm, and breezy• Humid, hot, and uncomfortable• Cold and rainy• Party cloudy and cool• Rainy• Snowy• Thunderstorms• Sunny, no clouds,• Other?
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/ Team CommunicationCh. 5 - Improving Group Climate
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/Team CommunicationThe more group members equally talk to each other, as opposedto singling a particular person, the more productive, moreaccurate, better goal attainment and task performance.
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/ Team CommunicationCh. 5 – Other patterns Leader centered – person centered. These patterns are Circular – people talk to people to more efficient – creating more their sides, across from them, or cohesion. Less satisfaction, if go around the circle members want more involvement
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/ Team CommunicationCh. 5 - Improving Group Climate• Group Size – Three or more makes a group, but groups of 5 to 7 make the best groups.The Right size:• More involvement• Small enough to encourage involvement, but large enough for flow of ideas• More satisfaction with involvement and decisions
Chapter 5 & 6 – Managing Group/ Team CommunicationCh. 5 - Improving Group Climate The wrong size: •Less satisfaction when groups are too big •Less involvement when groups are too big •Group members efforts decrease when groups are too big
Communication Competence The competent communicator knows how and when to communicate and is able to do so. •One engages in supportive rather than defensive communication. •One is more aware of confirming and disconfirming responses. •Group size just enough people to ensure there is enough diversity in skills, role played, etc. •Group climate should be trusting, open, and members are free to express themselves. •Group members respect the goals and group members."Communication leads to community, that is, to understanding, intimacy and mutual valuing." - Rollo May
Chapter 6 – Enhancing Group/Team Communication SkillsObjectives:• Describe “three barriers” and how to avoid them• Identify four listening styles• Describe two major barriers to effective listening• Learn to listen more effectively• Explain why nonverbal communication is important to study groupsOther:• Difference between hearing and listening• The listening process• And, other facts, you should remember
History Repeats itself because no one listens the first time. ~ unknown Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self – confidence. ~ Robert Frost, Poet
Chapter 6 - Types of Listening: HearingMost of us are all born with the ability to hear• Physiological activity that occurs when the sound waves hit our eardrums.• People who have hearing challenges receive messages visually through writing, lip reading, and American Sign Language (ASL) and Helen Keller Sign Language.
Chapter 6 – Hearing and Listening• Hearing is being aware of sound generated by the environment. Hearing is “hearing” the sounds.Examples: A baby crying, breaks squealing from a car, a police siren or a crash in the kitchen.• Listening is a skill which allows us to interpret those sounds that create meaning.Example: Based on the type of cry from the baby, or the length of the siren, or sound of the crash in the kitchen – all might mean there is trouble, which has meaning to us.
Chapter 6 – Hearing and ListeningReview:You must:• Receive the sounds transmitted• Translate those sounds into the words and meanings that were intended.• Understand the relationship of those words in the sentences spoken.• Note the relevant nonverbal cues that reinforce the message.• Comprehend the entire message as intended.• It is the use of critical or creative judgment to interpret those sounds to create a meaning; to hearing the message accurately.• Listening is a skill that needs to be understood, practiced, appreciated, and taken seriously• It is an important skill at work; and more important in starting and maintaining relationships
Listening to SucceedResearch from Paul Rankin, Ohio StateUniversity revealed:70 percent of an adult’s waking hours isspent communicating.– 9 % writing– 16 % reading– 30% speaking– 45 % listening
We are a nation of poor listeners! • Immediately after hearing a message, most people retain barely 50% of the content.Sperry Rand Corporation • Eight to twelve hours later,estimates that every year ifeach of the 100 million workers they barely retain 25%in the United States made just percent of the content.one $100 error because of alistening mistake, then the costto United States would be $1 • Retention of Information-billion. depends on interest/need.
Chapter 6 – ListeningListening in Groups:• Listening is an important skill for interpersonal and group communication• Poor listening is major reason for conflict, discord, etc.• Listening is a skill that can be improved with practice• Listening takes the ability to controls how one responds to external and internal noise• Listening more….enables you to learn more…..
The Listening Process1. Being mindful• We don’t let our thoughts drift, We do not focus on our feelings and responses.• We fully tune in (without imposing our ideas, judgments, biases, stereotypes, prejudices, values, and feelings)
The Listening Process2. Physically receiving messagesHearing or listening to the receiving the message.Gender Listening• Women more attentive to the whole process (details, relationship meaning)• Men tend to focus on specific aspects of communication. Usually how to solve or resolve.Reason: hemispheric specializations (women more developed right lobes - creative and holistic thinking; men better developed left lobes, which control analytical and linear information processing.)Other influences on listening - Culture, experiences, childhood experiences, etc.
The Listening Process3. Selecting and organizing information• We don’t perceive everything around us – we selectively attend to only some messages and elements in our environment• We focus on intense, loud, unusual or communicators that stand out (The squeaky wheel gets the goods.) Quiet people often get overlooked.
The Listening ProcessHow do we organize? We organize based on prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.As we listen, we decide how to categorize what we hear.• Which prototype (good friend, person in trouble, student, teacher, etc.) do they closely resemble.• Then we apply the personal constructs to define more detail (are they upset or calm, open to advice or closed to it.)• Based on the construct of others, we apply stereotypes (how has this person reacted in the past. Or how this situation similar to others) that predict what they will do.• We then apply the script (how the interaction should proceed, including how we should act.)• Lastly, the schemata (a pattern imposed on complex reality or experience to assist in explaining it, mediate perception, or guide response) we use helps us figure out how to respond to others.• We select meaning by how we select and organize communication – Perceptions should be tentative and open to revision.
The Listening Process4. Interpreting communication• Effective interpretation is person-centered.• You engage in dual perspective so you can interpret others in their “own terms.”• Listening expert Robert Bolton – don’t impose our meaning “Stay out of the others’ way” so they can learn what others think and feel.5. Responding• Communicating attention and interest and engagement.• In the U.S. (eye contact, nodding, attentive posture and questions and comments invite others to elaborate.)• Vocal response such as “mm-hmm” “go on” “I see” “really.”6. Remember• Retaining what you have heard can help in many ways (you can follow up later by asking person how things are…this shows interest. You can use information to help solve problems.• Effective listeners let go of details to retain the more important content.
Chapter 6 – Four Listening StylesPeople-Oriented Listeners•Most comfortable listeningto others feelings and emotions•They are empathetic, search for commonalities and areas of interest•Like long stories, examples•In small groups, they are good at developingrelationships and fulfilling group maintenanceroles.
Chapter 6 – Four Listening StylesAction – Oriented Listeners•Want information to be well organized, brief (just the facts Madam, and error free)•Want to get to the bottom line, don’t like long stories.•Are often skeptical about what they hear•They help a group stay focused and assume task orientedroles.
Chapter 6 – Four Listening StylesContent – Oriented Listeners•Like information-rich content•Like complex, detailed infor- mation•Like organization, support material, and details…if none, will likely reject the message.•In small groups, they would excel at taking notesand analyzing the issues for a group.
Chapter 6 – Four Listening StylesTime-Oriented Listeners•The time is always important•Want to make sure meetings don’t go to long, and that goals can be met•They like organized, brief meetings•They help keep groups on schedule and focused.
Chapter 6 – Four Listening Styles• There is no single best listening style• Each has its advantages and disadvantages• There are tests to determine your style, but we will not have time• After learning about the four listening styles, spend some time, determining yours Groups do best, will all types of listeners…eight ears are better than two!
What are your barriers to Effective Listening?Q: Have you ever experienced or done any of the following?• Made fun of clothes, food, or physical appearance of people from other cultures• Told jokes directed against people from a particular culture• Used insulting language about particular cultural groups• Made fun of people’s accents or names• Favored students form some backgrounds more than others• Expected students from some cultures or linguistic groups to do better or worse than others• Not respecting people’s different religious beliefs• Said “That is so gay.”
What are your barriers to Effective Listening? Stereotypes: Is a belief that certain groups of people tend to have distinct characteristics. In other words, it’s an assumption that belonging to a certain group will make a person look, think, or act in a particular way.Issues with Stereotyping:• We all rely on stereotypes everyday.• It helps to reduce uncertainty…and it helps to organize experiences, people and events.• There is some truth to some stereotypes in terms of (Behavior of others can be predictable. Events can be predictable. Organizations with special interests can be predictable, but not when applied in a negative manner)
What are your barriers to Effective Listening?Prejudice: Means judging in advance - making an evaluation before you’ve gathered or considered all the relevant information. Prejudice can be based on fear, anger, or jealously toward other people or cultures.Reasons: The way people were raised, past experiences, influence of media, peer group, religion, other influential organizations or groups.Problems: Prejudice is most likely to influence our opinions of people who are different from us -- this can be a great hindrance for a diverse team.
What are your barriers to Effective Listening?Did you Know?• One frequent source of prejudice is our own first impressions.• It takes about 20 seconds to determine whether you are going to like someone/be their friend, hire them, work in a group with them.• Once we form an impression of someone, we pay attention to further information that confirms what we already think, but we ignore information that contradicts it.Example: You decide on the first day of work that your boss is mean, the boss may do a hundred nice things over the next year without changing your opinion.
Barriers to Effective Listening1. Internal obstacles - Preoccupation – with our own thoughts, feelings, concerns, and physiological issues (hunger, fatigue, etc.)2. Prejudging communicator or the communication:• Listener dislikes or disagrees with speaker• Listener anticipates what a person will say and then tunes them out. (Especially politicians who hold different views from our own)• As stated earlier, listeners will prejudge others based on culture, religion, age, sex or race
Barriers to Effective Listening3. Rehearsing a Response - This barrier is perhaps the most difficult to overcome. WHY?????• We spend time rehearsing what we will say before the other person is finished speaking.• One of the reasons is the Speech-rate-ratio: The difference between speech rate and thought rate.• Speech rate - Most people speak at a rate of 100 to 125 words per second.• Thought rate - We have the capacity to think at 400 or more words per second…lot’s of time for our mind to wander, rehearse responses.
Barriers to Effective Listening4. Reacting to emotionally loaded language – Words and phrases that evoke a strong response, positive or negative. We often attack the other person or tune out. “You should,” “Liberal,” “Far Right,” “Family Values,” “Everyone or Everybody”What are your triggers?5. Failure to adapt to the four different listening styles
Barriers to Effective Listening6. External obstacles – Message overload – Too much information!(class information, emails, text message, voice mail, work) We have to screen or prioritize. – Message complexity – Complex messages, topics (science, economics, math classes. Technical words, complex sentences with idioms or slang expressions.)
Forms of Non listening• Pseudolistening• Monopolizing• Selective listening• Defensive listening• Ambushing• Literal listening
Forms of Non listeningPseudolistening•Pretending to listen•We pretend to be present, but we really not focused•We fake listening when we are bored we don’t want to hurt someone’s feelings Most people can tell when someone is ‘faking it.”
Forms of Non listeningMonopolizing•It is about me, me, meTwo tactics are:1)Conversation rerouting (A person shifts the topic back to themselves. “I know what you means.”)2) Interrupting to divert attention from the speaker to ourselvesor to topics that interest us. This form of listening creates frustration and lack of participation.
Forms of Non listeningSelective listening•Listener hears what They want to hear.•We reject communication that makes us uneasy.•We screen out communica- tion that is critical of us. You may miss important information by being this approach to listening.
Forms of Non listeningDefensive listening•A person perceives personal attacks, criticism, or hostility in communication that is not meant to be critical.•Some people are more defensive based on low self esteem,current and past experiences, lack of knowledge. Defensive listening can discourage others to share feedback with the listener and deprive them of valuable information.
Forms of Non listeningAmbushing listening•Listening for information, facts, etc. to attack the speaker•Listeners use words as weapons We will not usually speak up when attacked, and people who ambush bring out the defensiveness in others.
Forms of Non listeningLiteral listening•Listener ignores, or isn’t able to focus on the contentand meaning of the message.•Communication is about more than the content, butincludes power, a liking between people, and non verbalcommunication.•Listeners don’t make an effort to understand howothers feel about what they say or to acknowledge themas people..
Becoming an Effective Listener“One of the best ways to persuade others is with your ears – by listening to them” ~ Dean Rusk
Steps for being a more Effective Listener • Stop • Look • Listen • Ask questions • Paraphrase content • Paraphrase feelings
Steps for Being a more Effective Listener• Eliminate distractions so you can concentrate and give speaker full attention.• Be present - (eliminate self talk/intrapersonal communication)Look:• Nonverbal communication makes up about %85 of communication• Listen to what isn’t being said as an additional component.• Look for nonverbal clues that will help you understand what the speaker is feeling• The face provides the most important information about how the person is feeling Body also communicates feelings and emotions.• The person’s voice quality, pitch, rate, volume, and use of silence also give information on how the person is feeling.
Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerListen:• Listen for what another person is telling you• You may not always agree with what the person is saying, but try to give them a chance to be heard• Match verbal with the nonverbal to decipher both the content and emotion of the person’s message (Incongruence – When nonverbal and verbal don’t match – past experience helps.) If a person you are talking with says “I’m OK” but nonverbal doesnt’t match…take an opportunity to learn more.
Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerAsk Questions:• Help others to focus by using questions that clarify perceptions. Four purposes of questions: 1. To obtain additional information 2. To find out how a person feels 3. To ask for clarification of a word or phrase 4. To verify your conclusion about the person’s meaning are feeling.Tip: Ask “How” not “Why” questions. “How do you feel about that?” vs. “Why do you feel that way?”Or “How did that happen?” vs. “Why did that happen.”
Steps to Being a More Effective ListenerParaphrase Content:• After the person is done talking (Don’t interrupt) Restate in your own words what you think the other person is saying. (Different from parroting)• The goal of active listening is understand both the feelings and the content of another person’s feelings.Paraphrase Feelings:• You could follow your paraphrase with a comment on feeling, such as “ I imagine you must be feeling ______(frustrated, confused, happy, sad, perplexed, etc.) Followed with “Is that true.”• Give the person a chance to respond to your paraphrase.• DVD – Example of Paraphrasing• Slow down responses to match the speaker’s pace and processing of information. (Best way to connect with people is to match their use of words, and communication style)
Practice Paraphrasing• I think we’re seeing too much of each other• Do I hear you saying that you want some more space or time for yourself?• I really like communication, but what could I do with the major?• I get the sense that you are struggling with career choices now, is that right?”• I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast.• I hear some hesitancy about your relationship with Pat, yes?• You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive home this weekend.• It seems like your car is very important to you right now.
Mindful listening in classMost most students will have retained only half of it. Then, 48 hours later they will have forgotten half of what they did remember."Top ten ways to listen to a lecture."1. Choose to find the subject useful. – Poor listeners dismiss most lectures as dull and irrelevant. They turn off quickly. – Effective listeners separate the wheat from the chaff. They choose to listen to discover new knowledge.2. Concentrate on the words and message, not on the professors looks, clothes or delivery. – Poor listeners notice faults in a lecturers appearance or delivery. – Effective listeners strive to pick every professors brain for self-gain.3. When you hear something youre not sure you agree with, react slowly and thoughtfully. – Poor listeners stop listening to the speaker and start listening to themselves. They either passively reject what is being said or they launch into impassioned rebuttals (to themselves). – Effective listeners dont jump to conclusions and then disengage. They keep
Mindful listening in class4. Identify the "big ideas," those fundamental concepts to which everything else inthe lecture is related. – Poor listeners say, "I listen only for facts." They may retain a few of those facts, but the information is usually garbled. – Effective listeners look for foundational concepts. They grab key ideas and use them as anchor points for the entire lecture.5. Adjust your note taking system to the lecturers pattern. – Some poor listeners attempt to outline everything, believing an outline and notes are the same thing. They get frustrated when they cannot see "points A, B and C." – Effective listeners adjust their note-taking to the organizational pattern used by the lecturer.6. Stay attentive. – Poor listeners let their minds to wander. – Effective listeners remain focused and actively try to absorb material.
Mindful listening in class7. Aggressively tackle difficult material. – When poor listeners encounter a tough topic, they stop absorbing and let things start bouncing off them. – Effective listeners condition themselves to be interested in challenging matters. They find a challenge in grasping the meaning of what is being said -- no matter how difficult the subject.8. Dont get derailed by emotionally charged "buzz" words that trigger negativeresponses. – Poor listeners tune people out on the basis of a few words. – Effective listeners dont let the emotional baggage of a word hinder them from getting at the substance of a lecture.9. Get to know the professor personally. – Poor listeners see professors as talking heads. – Effective listeners like to pick up interesting facts about professors (personal history, family life, hobbies, etc.).
Mindful listening in class10. Understand and use the differential between the speed ofspeaking and the speed of thinking. We think at about 400 wordsper minute. Thats four times faster than most speakers can talk. – Poor listeners drift back and forth between a lecture and thoughts about other things. – Effective listeners use the thinking/speaking differential in three ways: • Riding the crest of the wave by trying to anticipate the next point of the lecture. • Evaluating what the lecturer is using for supporting evidence. • Periodically summarizing the lecture to themselves.
Types of Nonverbal Communication• Brief overview of nonverbal communication – for more detail review text; and visit http://nonverbal.ucsc.edu/ and other recommended sources.• 100 minute video you will see over next two class session really gets into detail• Experts evaluate celebrities, Political leaders and more
Nonverbal Communication• All aspects of communication other than words• More time spent communicating nonverbally than verbally - 85%Nonverbal cues include:• Posture, movement and gestures• Eye contact• Facial expression• Vocal Cues• Personal space, territory, and seating arrangements• Personal Appearance• Communication Environment
Nonverbal Communication1) Posture, movement and gesturesThe way we stand, move, andgesture provide information on..• Our status• Intensity of attitude• Warmth• If we are seeking approval• The group climate• Deception
Nonverbal Communication2) Eye contactFunctions of eye contact…•Cognitive function: Provides cues about thought processes – some look awayor down. Right/brain process, lying, can all effect.•Monitoring function: Allows feedback from others. Signals when thecommunication channel is open and closed. Listeners/speakers look atnonverbal cues to determine if message is understood.•Regulatory function: Signals when communication channel is open andclosed. Eye contact or lack of eye contact is used to invite participation andinterest.•Expressive function: Provides information about feelings, emotions, andattitudes. The areas around the eyes provide much information.
Nonverbal Communication3) Facial Expressions•Paul Ekman, An emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Californiaat San Francisco, Ekman is a world authority on facial expressions.•Seven primary facial expressions are recognized around the world????•Sadness, happiness, fear, anger, contempt, surprise, disgust•The face is the most important revealer of emotions.•On Paul Ekman’s http://www.paulekman.com/, you can view a few videointerviews that he has done over the years analyzing and explaining his readingof faces. These videos are great both as training tools to understand the rangeand depth of information that faces present.•New research from the UK challenges shows that east Asian people struggle torecognize facial expressions that western Caucasians attribute to fear anddisgust. By focusing on eyes and brows, Asians miss subtle cues conveyed via themouth.
Top row, from left to right: Fear, anger, happiness, contemptBottom row: surprise, disgust, and sadness
• QUESTION: In the video A World of Gestures, people from all over the world demonstrate the remarkable diversity of international gestures. Can you guess the meaning of this Japanese gesture?a. Im scared like a bunny b. Ive been hearing things about you c. Im angry
• QUESTION: In A World of Gestures, this woman from France demonstrates this gesture. Can you try to guess what this French gesture means?a. I dont believe you b. I wish I hadnt seen that c. I am looking at a very handsome man
Nonverbal Communication4) Vocal CuesThe pitch, rate, volume, and quality of voice communicate emotion, credibility, andpersonality perceptions:•Pitch is placement of the voice on the musical scale ranging from high to low. Usually men speakin lower pitch (about 120 Hz) than women (220 Hz).•Low-pitch talkers are associated with authority, credibility, strength and self-confidence.•Tone refers to the emotional content carried by our voices.•Volume Volume refers to the power of loudness of your voice. (Do they speak loud, are theyquiet or a combination. )•If you are a soft-spoken person, you can be perceived as shy or insecure. Too loud you mightgive the impression of someone, who loses their temper easily.•Rate (Does the speaker speak fast, slow or a combination)•Slow speakers usually give people the impression of being calm, composed and confident. Theyappear relaxed and in control and often have a soothing effect on people they talk to. T•Talking at a pace that is too high makes it challenging for people to mentally keep up with themessage and follow the trace of thought. It also gives the impression that the speaker is agitated,loves to chat, lacks seriousness and can be easily manipulated.
Nonverbal Communication5) Proxemics – The study of how close or far away we choose tobe to other people and objects.•Personal space – Western CultureQ: What’s your personal space:•Intimate zone: 0 to 1.5 ft. Loved ones, close friends.•Personal zone: 1 ½ to 4 ft. Family and friends•Social zone: 4 to 12 ft. Campus, professionals, etc.•Public space: 12 ft. and beyond – Teachers, speakers
Nonverbal Communication6) Territoriality: A term used in the study of animals to refer to how they stake out and defend their areas.Humans also do this:•Fences, planters, they way a car is parked, books on tables at the library or class, parking spots, saving places at a party…more?Neighbors gone bad….#1 complaint of GlendalePolice Dept.Library research: sweater on chair.•High status people take up more room; as do most men when they sit our stand compared to women.•Low status people permit territorial invasion.
Nonverbal Communication6) Seating Arrangements – Small Group Ecology•Square or circular seating demonstrates more equality.•Rectangular tables have a head, which most people assume the selected orperceived leader sits.•People who are more centrally located get more messages.Stress – During times of stress or conflict, people prefer more space aroundthem.Gender – Women generally sit a bit closer to others than men do. Men tendto to prefer greater personal space when sitting next to other men.Personality - Extroverts (outgoing people) tend to sit across from others ornext to others; Introverts (people who are less outgoing)- prefer moredistance between themselves and others. Often leaving seats between themselves and others, or sitting in the back.
Nonverbal Communication7) Personal Appearance - Most peoplePass judgment about others in seconds.•How we dress•The jewelry, watch, pens, phones we wear and use all communicate messages to the world about us•Height, weight, hairstyle, make-up affect your communicationwith others – Remember: Intrapersonal Communication?•Changing our appearance with plastic surgery, tattoos, andbody piercings, are all symbols that send messages about whowe we want to be or want to be perceive as
How Do People Choose Their Political Leaders? Mr. President: Height, Nice Voice, Bright Smile, and Charisma. Published on September 30, 2012 by Gad Saad, Ph.D. in Homo ConsumericusBottom line: While policy issues matter, people vote for candidates who look and soundpresidential•People are driven by peripheral cues that are largely irrelevant to actual matters of policy.•The height of competing candidates is perhaps the most influential of all such cues. In the greatmajority of presidential elections over the past one hundred years or so, the taller candidate haswon.•The facial features of prospective (male) leaders constitute another important feature•The Voice – Deep and resounding voices. Obama’s voice is deep and somewhat mellifluous. TheBarry White and Darth Vader effects.•Finally, there are the intangible peripherals such as personal charisma, which might include abright smile. In the current context, Obama’s smile is warm and inviting. Romney’saura comes across as strained and slightly distant•Recall Machiavelli’s maxim regarding appearances: “Everyone sees what you appearto be, few experience what you really are.” This is why all politicians seek to appear ina photo shoot carrying a baby. They wish to exude the appearance of nurturance,empathy, and kindness even if they are largely void of such qualities.
And, educate yourself about the issues.• Regardless of your political party VOTE…it is a privilege that was fought and won for all of us.• http://www.rockthevote.com/• Register on Campus – There is a tent with people who will help you.• California Official Voter Information Guide - http://voterguide.sos.ca.gov/
Gostou de algum slide específico?
Recortar slides é uma maneira fácil de colecionar informações para acessar mais tarde.