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    Introtosmallgroupfall2012 Introtosmallgroupfall2012 Presentation Transcript

    • WELCOME TO SPEECH 151 SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION “Great discoveries and achievements invariably involve the cooperation of many minds” ~ Alexander Bell
    • A Little History about Speech Modern Humans – 250,000 years Greatest contributing factor to our domination over other animals is speech Wherever humans are in groups they develop a way of communicating with each other
    • A Little History about SpeechWhy is speech soimportant?The development ofhuman culture ismade possible byour ability to...Share experiencesExchange ideasTransmit knowledge
    • Shared ExperiencesExamples of Shared Experiences: The love of family and children The instinct to survive The desire for health, knowledge and happiness The concern for the safety and happiness of loved ones. We have a similar biological identify We have shared susceptibilities to injury and illness,pleasure and pain.Shared inform our lives no matter who weare, no matter how different we are fromothers, no matter where we live.
    • Exchange of ideas: The trade routes were the communications highways of the ancient world. Cities along these trade routes grew rich providing services to merchants and acting as international marketplaces. (Syria, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, China, and more.) They also became cultural and artistic centers, where peoples of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds could meet and intermingle. New inventions, religious beliefs, artistic styles, languages, and social customs, as well as goods and raw materials, were transmitted by people moving from one place to another to conduct business.Examples of ideas, goods and raw materials:China: PapermakingRoman, Syria – The waterwheelFood that was easy to carry – apples, grapes, and oranges
    • Trade routes
    • Modern ways for ideas to spread?• Recommendation from a friend, coworker, another student• Internet – Websites such as YouTube, Pinterest (see next slide)• Books• Television• Magazines• Tweeter• Online Exchanges: Verizon has launched a new Idea Exchange in its online communityhttp://verizon.com/ideaexchange that offers community members an opportunity to suggest product innovations and enhancements from Verizon, and to comment on suggestions by members peers. Daily votes by community members move top suggestions to the companys product development teams for further review.
    • Pinterest Idea - Baby sister’s Box
    • Transmit Knowledge Q: How do we transmit knowledge?TelevisionMovies - DocumentariesStoriesInternetIntranetPhonesDemonstrations – Costco how to use some piece ofequipmentApprenticeships – Blacksmith, violin making, baking,etc.Teaching - The amount of information exchanged byspeech (talking, teaching) is the greatest!
    • A Little History about GroupsResearchers say: Humans are genetically programmed for hunting and gathering. Gathering nuts, berries, herbs, etc. could be done alone. Hunting in the past: - Took an organized approach with group members - Was critical for survival - Brought groups together - Took a unified plan Learning to work in coordinated groups was one of keys to the creation permanent settlements.
    • Why Do We Communicate?Develop Identities (Who am I?)Establish and build relationships (Whatgroups do I want to be in?)Coordinate efforts with othersHave impact on issues that matterWork out problemsOther?
    • Levels of Communication – Except intrapersonalcommunication, all levels involve interpersonalcommunication.
    • INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNCIATIONSelf Talk : Our inner thoughts and feelings (Occasionalspeaking to ourselves)Self-concept: How we think and feel about ourselves (Howwe feel about our body, intelligence, occupation, income level,education, our gender, age, where we live.)Experiences we have had in life, our religion, gender, age, whatwe value, what we believe is right or wrong, good or bad; it isour ethnic background ) All of this affects how we feel aboutourselves, thus affecting how we communicate withourselves, and ultimately othersSelf-fulfilling prophesy: “Be careful what you ask forbecause you just may get it” (What you believe to be true, willusually come true.)
    • INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICAITONOne-on-one communication (Dyad)Putting what we think and feel intocommunication (verbal and nonverbal)What we say will be interpreted (and may ormay not be understood) by the receiver of ourcommunicationSuccess of communication depends on(culture, past history with communicator, self-concept, education, life experience, andcomfort with the communication process)
    • GROUP COMMUNICATION (3 to 7 people)Increases the communication complexity/more people tointerrupt the meanings of your words/more difficult to getpoint acrossIncreases uncertainty (especially with strangers)Group roles, power, status, and leadership becomemore important (as most group function better undersome from of leadership, and that offers power, status togroup members involved)Groups are important to the survival of human, fulfillpersonal needs by (eliminating loneliness, creating aplace where humans can have/give love and affection,and a place where humans can get/give support, grow,and accomplish interests and be influenced andinfluence others.)
    • Organizational CommunicationThe seeds of social organization help make our modern world work. (Organizational Communication involves all levels of communication.)Organizations include: Primary and secondary groups: Profit making businesses – Self sufficient – sell goods and services. Political organizations – Distribute power and control of society. (federal and location government, police and military and financial institutions. Organizations designed to help solve social problems – legal system, consumer advocacy, political parties, public interest groups. Organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development. (families, schools, religious organizations, health care)
    • Public Communication includes:A speaker who has reason for speakingAn audience that gives the speaker attentionA message that is meant to accomplish a specificpurpose (Inform, Persuade, Entertain, Eulogy, Toast,etc. )A Speaker is usually responsible for their ownwords (Speech writers help political and civicleaders)Public speaking events arent’t usuallyinterruptedEffective public speaking is learned and involvesspecific skills
    • Mass Communication •Occurs when a small group of people send messages to a larger audience through a specialized media •There is usually not an audience present (Unless there is a planned audience, debate, talk show.) Television (Cable, Satellite, Over the Air) Radio (AM/FM, Satellite, Online) Internet (Email, Tweeter, Facebook, Hoolo, YouTube, My Space) Handheld Devices – Text messaging, and all the applications that can be accessed Skype – Users who share can do phone calls, meetingComputer mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any communicativetransaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked computers.[has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messages, e-mails, chat rooms), it has alsobeen applied to other forms of text-based interaction such as text messaging
    • Intercultural CommunicationOne of the most important forms of communication that takes place between persons:Intercultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful and clear information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism.For these purposes, culture (including gender, age, ethnicity, religion, group membership, sexual orientation) is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms of behaviour
    • THE DEFINITION OF SMALL GROUP1) An identifiable human communicationsystem composed of between three toseven individuals2) Interacting over time for theachievement of a common purpose orgoal3) Who feel a sense of belonging to thegroup4) Who exert influence and are influencedby one another.
    • THE DEFINITION OF SMALL GROUP 2) INTERACTING OVER TIME FOR THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A COMMON PURPOSE A goal or task– to raise money, sell girl scout cookies To survive: family, friends living together; supporting each other financially To win (Sports team, election for president, senator, congressperson, beauty pageant, etc.) To make music (band, orchestra, choir) To make decisions (city council, juries, supreme court, etc.) Or, just to have fun; family, friend
    • THE DEFINITION OF SMALL GROUP3) FEEL A SENSE OFBELONGINGFor a group to be success, it isimportant for its members to feellike they belong.Group members should feelincluded, respected, andneeded.If not, they will lose people andthe group can fall apart.Or, group can be left withdemoralized people who can nolonger function in a healthymanner.
    • THE DEFINITION SMALL GROUP 4) WHO EXERT INFLUENCE ON ONE ANOTHER The difference between a collection of individuals and a group is the influence group members have over one another Every group member influences others (status, power, knowledge, experience, resources, skills, personality, etc.) Nonverbal messages are a powerful method of influence (silence/body language/facial expressions) Each member exerts some leadership and influence in the group by experience and or knowledge
    • THE DEFINITION OF SMALL GROUP ReviewQuestions Which of the following best meets the criteria for being labeled a “small group”? A. four college professors from the Speech Department listening to an address by the college president B. Four members of the city council meeting to rule on a city zoning violation C. four friends deciding what to do that evening. D. Dogs and cats falling from the sky
    • Review QuestionsWhat abilities(s) were mentioned thatmade it possible for humans to besuccessful:a.Shared experiencesb.Exchange of ideasc.Transmitting of knowledged.The ability to fighte.A, B, and Cf.Or, all of the above.
    • Review QuestionTrue or False : Humans needed a unified plan andcooperative group for hunting?True or False: Intercultural Communication One of themost important forms of communication that takes placebetween persons.True or False: Intrapersonal communication iscommunication between humans and animals.
    • Remember:
    • Primary groups- fulfill basic need to associate with others• Family• Friends
    • Secondary Groups – Tasks or achievegoals Problem solving Decision making Committees, courts, Study groups Therapy groups Committees Sport teams Remember: No group can be considered a purely primary or secondary. Primary group will accomplish a specific task or a secondary group fulfills inclusion and affection needs.
    • Group Effectiveness vs. Individual Efforts Functioning groups have these advantages: Greater sum total of knowledge and information - Accepts diversity. More resources and knowledge = opens up more opportunities. Stimulates Creativity - Encourages open minds. Discourages biases or personal agendas. Members happier with Decisions - Difficult problem solving = participation and ‘buy-in’ enhance commitment. Example: LAVC Shared Governance structure. Your remember what you discuss - Groups increase comprehension and reduce uncertainty – encourages questions and helping each other. (Websites to store meeting notes, etc. help  Better understanding of self – The group serves as a mirror. Reflecting your communication back to you. If you are effective, if your not effective… (if you are open-mined you can learn much)
    • Advantages - Power of Groups Unity is Strength - When there are hundreds or thousands of people dedicated for the same cause the chances of failure is less. (Susan B. Anthony, Martin Luther King, Cesar Chavez, and Nelson Mandela )Example: End of Apartheid - After the 1992 referendum, deciding to end apartheid, universal suffrage was implemented allowing people of all races to take part in the first democratic elections in 1994. Less Chances of Harassment - Groups have played a major historical role in harassing the weak. Being a part of the group can help protect the weak from the strong.Example of harassing group:Ku Klux Klan - Founded in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866, it spread throughout the South under the leadership of former.- The Klan became a potent instrument of terror against freed people, their white allies, and Republican state governments.
    • Examples of groups to protect security and harassed groups: National Associate for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) established 1909– to fight the KKK. They peacefully defended civil rights of blacks, primarily through anaggressive watchdog system addressed through political and legal means. American Association of People with Disabilities – a non-profit advocacy grouprecognized nation-wide as one of the most powerful and active advocates forcompliance with the “Americans with Disability Act. National Council of La Raza (NCLR) – Established during the civil rights era. Thelargest national Latino civil rights and advocacy organization. Works to improvedopportunities for Hispanic Americans. FTC Bureau of Consumer Protection – To prevent business practices that areanticompetitive, deceptive, or unfair to consumers. In response to predator lending anddeceptive credit card practices.
    • Examples of groups to protect security and harassed groups:Unions – Most common purpose is to maintain or improve theconditions of their employment, collective bargaining for wages,and a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment,ill health, old age and funeral expenses. No more 7 day workweeks! Labor union demonstrators held at bay by soldiers during the 1912 Lawrence textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts.Shelters – A shelter is also a place to go for help.•Homeless shelters•Bomb shelter protects people in a war zone.•Animal shelter houses dogs and cats without a home.•Women and Children shelters who are abused, pregnant or homeless.
    • Group Effectiveness vs. IndividualEfforts Ineffective groups have these disadvantages:Group conformity – I think, you think, we think! Teams members conform by adopting similar behaviors – Need tofit in or reduce disagreements. behaviors becomes the group norm.****Team members conforming to group norms can lowerproductivity or lack of creativity and innovation. People believe that in order to have friends, be loved, beaccepted, stand out……they need to be noticed by others.Problems with wanting or needing to conform: High Cost $$$$ = Desire for the latest….causes conflict withfriends, parents, self, and others. Leads to debt, theft, bullying, andmore. Depression, suicide, pregnancy, binge drinking, doing drugs Stress at workExample: Disney Group (Black Friday, Bob’s Big Boys on Sunday,Waitress Harassment. Bad employee using songs to put peopledown.)
    • Group –ThinkIneffective groups have these disadvantages:Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs withindecision-making group. It happens when the desire for harmony ina overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives ---Groups close outany feedback from the outside -- to the extreme bad things happen.Examples of Groupthink: Nazi Germany The witch-hunts of the Middle Ages. Al Qaida, the I.R.A. and other terrorist groups believe best way tocreate “peace” is to murder and destroy. The invasion of the Bay of Pigs. Thought an overthrow of Castrowould bring glory to the U.S and JFK, and Nothing could possiblygo wrong. WWIII almost started. Hate groups are organized groups or movements that advocateand practice hatred, hostility or violence towards members of arace, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation or otherdesignated sector of society.
    • Cuban Missile CrisisJohn F. Kennedy was presented with anumber of choices by group members inhis handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis.When time came to choose one of them,he is reported to have said to the othergroup members, “Whichever plan Ichoose, the ones whose plans are nottaken are the lucky ones.” What do youthink he meant?
    • Ineffective groups have these disadvantages:A Dominator - Individual group member who may have moreknowledge, are more aggressive, can spot weak group members --may dominate the discussion.Solution: Groups need to channel their energy, encourageothers to talk, talk with the person, report to instructor.Solving problems can take longer – Faster on-line groups, no non-verbal communication.Solution: Results are often better, but group needs to take thetime to talk and listen.Free Riders – Social Loafing – Expecting others to do the work…Solution: Find out group members strength, assign specificduties, give deadlines, have rules if members don’t deliver… talkto the instructor.
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark One: A Clear, ElevatingGoal A common, well-defined goal Goal should be elevating and important Team goals ahead of personal goals. Apollo Moon Project: Clarity: To place a man on the moon by the end of the 1960 vs. to be leaders in space exploration. The Challenger Disaster: Clarity: Jan. 1986, Space Shuttle disaster claiming all seven passengers. The mission of the Rogers Commission was to investigate and determine the cause within 120 days. And they did. The mission was clear and concrete.
    • Hallmark One: A Clear, Elevating Goal On 40 occasions, humans have attempted to send missions to Mars. Only 16 of these missions have succeeded. Doug McCuistion, director of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, said Thursday. The 2000-pound SUV-sized“Perseverance and patience are critical to rover has been on the the success of any of government’s surface of Mars for about one missions, he said: “The key is to keep month, and operating as going. Make those hard decisions. expected. Don’t be afraid of them.” Throughout that time, the team of engineers and scientists on the project “didn’t lose sight of what that final path was,” McCuistion said. “And we made it.”
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark Two: A results Driven StructureTeam structure – The way a group is organized; who reports to whom and who does what are key elements in developing a team structure.To note: A structure that tolerates ineffective meetings, busywork, and “administration” - distracts from team effectiveness.Examples: Mt. Everest climb of 1985. Leader George McLeod. --Team objective was to get one member of the team to the top of the mountain. (Needed lots of equipment, sherpas and no one made it to the top.)Examples: First women’s team to be invited to climb Mt. Kongur in China “The goal was not to get one person on top – but rather to get as many people as high on the mountain. (Carried their own equipment and got most people to the top.)
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark Three: Competent Team Members(1) The necessary technical skills and abilities to achieve the desired objective.(2) The personal characteristics required to achieve excellence while working well with others.(3) Knowledge of strengths and weaknesses…get training if necessary.What companies are looking for in team members: – Intellectual Ability – Results Orientation – Interpersonal Skills – Planning and Organizing – Team Orientation – Maturity – Presence
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark Four: Unified Commitment “Michael, if you can’t pass, you can’t play.” ~Legendary basketball coach Dean Smith, speaking to Michael JordanHigh-performance team members are: passionate dedication to goals identification and emotional bonding among team members balance between unity and respect for individual differences. Lack of unified commitment is often the most important feature of ineffective teams.Example: Antarctica
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark Five: A Collaborative Climate.Q: #1 reason get fired? TRUST most important virtues to create a positive working climate. When a team member doesn’t support the team, lies, doesn’t do their work, etc. TRUST IS HARD TO BUILD BACK.TRUST: Allows team members to stay problem- focused. Promotes more efficient communication and coordination. Trust improves the quality of collaborative outcome.Example: Quote: Captain Joe Prucher – U.S. Navy Strike Warfare
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAM Hallmark Six: Standards of Excellence Pressure to perform and reach high standards – can be negative and or positive…a strong capable leader determines this. Starts with Individual standards (our experiences, what have done, successes, failures, role models and manner to which we’ve been encouraged.) Team pressure (past history, expectations determine level of success. Some groups accept mediocrity, and punish those who don’t.) The consequence of failure can exert pressure create higher standards. External pressure (Sports, NASA, Rogers Commission – investigating the Challenger disaster)
    • The four minute mile barrier After WWII, Britains Roger Bannister broke the long held recordwith a 4 minute mile. Australian John Landy followed 46 days later. And, many othersfollowed after him. By the end of the 20th century, the record had been lowered to3:43.13, by Hm El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1999.WHY?
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAMHallmark Seven: External Support and Recognition “Invisible Team” (People outside team who have expectations. Fans, community, and media)To succeed teams need: Support from outside - information and materials. Need to be rewarded (Tangible rewards…Show me the $$$) Recognition as group, without focus on the individual.Q: Any examples of how teams are supported and recognized in your companies on your teams?
    • 8 HALLMARKS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEAM Hallmark Eight: Principled Leadership The right person in a leadership role can add tremendous value to any collective effort. Be Transforming: Seek to arouse and elevate: Gandhi “aroused and elevated the hopes and demands of millions of Indians and whose life was enhanced by the process.” A consistent message The ability to recognize talent and provide the tools The ability to turn a negative situation into a positive. (Football, basketball, soccer…all sports have success stories about coaches and player leaders who turned things around. Creates a supportive decision making climate– and let others contribute to the team success.
    • Reasons a team may not be successful Teams don’t have authority to accomplish goals Teams feel isolated Teams don’t get support from the outside with materials and information they may need Team members arent’t recognized for their efforts Teams need to know they won’t be penalized for whatever results they produceExample: The “O” ring incident
    • Chapter 1 Review QuestionsAdvantages of working in a small group include:A. pooling of informationB. better self-understandingC. allows you to work lessD. A & BE. all of the aboveDisadvantages of working in a small group include:A. pressure to conformB. length of time to solve a problemC. dominance by individualsD. A & BE. all of the above
    • Chapter 1 Review QuestionsReasons a team may not be successful include:a.Teams don’t have authority to accomplish goalsb.Teams feel isolated Teams don’t get support from theoutside with materials and information they may needc.Team members are recognized for their effortsd.Teams need to know they won’t be penalized forwhatever results they producee.A, B, and Df.All of the above.
    • Chapter 1 Review Questions1. True or False – A strong leader can determine the success or failure of a team?2.3. True or False – Intrapersonal communication is referred to as a dyad?4. True or False – Teams do best when they have a clear elavating goal to achieve?5. True of False – Some groups want to underachieve?6. True or False – The four mile barrier was broken because Roger Bannister had low expectations for himself.
    • Group DiscussionQ: Answer the following questions.Peer pressure – When someone or anorganization tries to influence what you do andthe way your act.1.What are some situations in which you have, or someone youknow has, experienced peer pressure?2.What types of organizations exert pressure to conform?3.Why do you think it’s so difficult to withstand peer/organizationpressure?4.What strategies have used to withstand peer pressure?5.Often peer pressure revolves around negative behavior, what aresome ways you can avoid negative peer pressure?
    • The End – Time to Go!
    • Why do we join groups? My routines come out of total unhappiness. My audiences are my grouptherapy. ~ Joan Rivers When you work out or youre doing anything active, its more fun as a group.You may lose track of the time, and the next thing you know, youre working outfor two hours because youre having fun. ~ LeBron James (Miami Heat) I have a group of people, about 40, in a local church in Surrey in England, whopray for me regularly. ~Cliff Richard We were all on this ship in the sixties, our generation, a ship going to discoverthe New World. And the Beatles were in the crows nest of that ship.~ John Lennon
    • Q: What do you Need???Q: How does this determine what groups you are involved with?Groups fulfill Needs: As long as a group fills a need we will stay associated; The less alternatives that exist to fulfill that need, then the more obedient we will be.Reason: Women stay in abusive relationships, or people stay in gangs, cults, or therapy groups
    • Why do we join groups?Biological imperative – Humans are socialanimals by nature.“Man is by nature a social animal; an individual who isunsocial naturally and not accidentally is either beneathour notice or more than human. Society is somethingthat precedes the individual. Anyone who either cannotlead the common life or is so self-sufficient as not toneed to, and therefore does not partake of society, iseither a beast or a god. ”Q: Do you agree? Can we survive without each other?
    • Survival – Animals have a biological imperative and rarely, if ever, “go it alone.”Wolves are notorious pack-hunters, and always have a clear chainof command in their ranks.Orca whales travel in pods like their smaller cousins Dolphins.Bands of gorillas, if ever sighted, are feared and held in awe for lackof presence anywhere in the world but central Africa.Each of these species move about their surroundings with aterritorial purpose, and defend what they deem as rightfully theirown.They defend the members of their social grouping, and they care fortheir young, old, and sick.They use babysitters, they have affairs, they have deadbeat fathersand even the occasional runaway bride, and they mourn theirrecently departed.
    • Interpersonal Needs ABRAHAM MASLOWwas a leading humanisticpsychologist (Third Force)developed the Hierarchy ofNeedspromoted the concept of self-actualizationwas born in 1908, Brooklyn,New York
    • Hierarchy of Needs growth emotional physical
    • Hierarchy of Needs Self- Groups are seen as place for expressing Actualization personal wholeness rather than means for making up deficiencies Esteem Needs B- Emotional Needs – Group Love & Belonging necessary NeedsSurvivalNeeds – Safety NeedsGroupnecessary Physiological Needs
    • Physiological Needs food water air Sleep Q: What can happen, if these needs not met?
    • Food: A Most Powerful Need• South American Rugby team crashed in 1970• Food was the most pressing problem.• They ate human flesh for survival.• Even the strongest taboo
    • Safety Needsfrom physical attackfrom emotional attackfrom fatal diseasefrom invasionfrom extreme losses (job, familymembers, home, friends)
    • Safety: A Most Powerful Needwhen frightened, ourthoughts and energies aredivertedthreat of, or actual attackcreates “fight or flight”reactionthreats to safety can bephysical or emotional, leadto anger “ Road rage”
    • Hierarchy of Needs Love & Belonging Needs Safety NeedsPhysiological Needs
    • Love and Belonging (social/emotional)Inclusion - part of a group: colleagues, peers, family, clubs Affection - love and be loved Control - influence over others and self
    • Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs Love & Belonging Needs Safety NeedsPhysiological Needs
    • Esteem Needs emotional (ego)respect from others through: awards honors status respect for self through: mastery achievement competence
    • Self-Actualization Needsstop cruelty and exploitationencourage talent in otherstry to be a good human beingdo work one considers worthwhileenjoy taking on responsibilitiesprefer intrinsic satisfactionseek truthgive unselfish lovebe just
    • Some Self-Actualizing People fromHistory Abraham Lincoln Thomas Jefferson Mahatma Gandhi Albert Einstein Eleanor Roosevelt William James Benedict Spinoza
    • B-Needs of the Self-Actualized Truth Completion Goodness Justice and order Beauty Simplicity Unity Richness Aliveness Effortlessness Uniqueness Playfulness Perfection and Self-sufficiency Necessity Meaningfulness
    • Qualities of the Self-Actualized An non-hostile sense of humor Intimate personal relationships Acceptance of self and others Spontaneity and simplicity Freshness of appreciation More peak experiences Democratic values Independence
    • Peak ExperiencesMoments of Pure Bliss
    • MASLOW’S NEED HIERACHY - ReviewSurvival Needs1.Physiological – People band together to survive. Co-ops areformed to make large purchases of food and other items. Limitedpartnerships may be created to purchase a house.2.Safety – Neighborhood watch groups. A union at one’s workplaceto obtain a level of security. Joining a group health plan also fulfillthis need.Emotional Needs1.Belonging or Love -- People often join groups to receiveaffection and comfort from others. This allows people to getaffection from others.2.Self-esteem – A person’s prestige may be enhanced by amembership in a certain group, club, organization (a fraternity,sorority, a certain club with limited membership)Reaching full potential Need1.Self – actualization – There are many groups whose goal it is tohelp you reach your full potential. (consciousness raisingorganizations, networking groups, toastmasters, scientology)
    • Interpersonal Needs William Schultz - Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO) TheoryGroups often provide or deny the following needs: Inclusion - Groups accept you, respect you, and offera place to belong. Control - Groups can offer you status and power. Or,provide a place for you to influence and earn prestige. Affection - Groups can provide you with emotionalwarmth and closeness.
    • Interpersonal NeedsAll needs have three components:1.Express – Pro-Active– We express ways orbehave in ways to fulfill our needs.2.Want - In Active – We want others to behavetowards us. We wait and often needs aren’tmet.3.Ideal – The goldilocks people understand notall needs can be met. Will be patient or haveother groups to fulfill needs.
    • The Goldilocks Rule:Goldilocks model, inspired by the work of Dr. Robert Bjork and Lev Vygotsky. As inthe story, there are three zones of failure: too soft, too hard, and just right. Zone 1: Too soft - The Comfort Zone: You’re able to hit your target more than 90percent of the time. You’re in control; relaxed, confident. You’re not reaching pastyour current abilities, but operating firmly within them. You’re like an advanced skieron a beginner run, carving turns with ease and grace. Zone 2: Too hard - The Thrash Zone: You’re failing more than half the time.When you succeed, it’s mostly because you’re getting lucky. You’re behaving like abeginning skier fighting his way down a steep expert run: occasionally you mightmake a good turn, but more often you’re just trying to get to the bottom in one piece. Zone 3: Just right - The Sweet Spot: You’re in between Comfort and Thrashing.You’re putting forth maximal effort and you’re succeeding between 60 percent and80 percent of the time. You’re failing — sometimes spectacularly — and you’repaying attention, and learning from each mistake or fall.
    • The Goldilocks Rule:As with Goldilocks, this goal of this rule is to help us make the right choicebetween different options. To put this idea to work, here’s a quiz:Q: Should a student cram for a history test by (A) reading a chapter overand over five times, or (B) by reading the chapter once and thenconstructing an outline of the key points?Q: Should a business train its new sales force by (A) sending them into thefield to see how they do or (B) by constructing a series of role-playingexercises led by a master coach?Q: Should a pianist spend her practice hour (A) playing a song perfectly,over and over, or (B) isolating the weak spots in a new song, repeatingthem until they’re improved?
    • The Answer! The basic rule in all cases is to choose (B), and aim for the sweet spot. Steer clear of comfort and thrashing, especially when you’re starting something new. The second rule is that when in doubt, keep things small and simple. The smaller and simpler the task, the easier it is to locate your sweet spot.
    • Inclusion: Express: We call or text a friend, reach out to others, plan things. Want: We wait for others to text or call us, reach out to us. Ideal: We reach out, if you want…and you are ok if people don’t always reach out.Example: Waiter/Waitress
    • Control: Expressing Control: The extent to which we control others’ actions’. We like to make decisions. Want Control: You decide - We want others to guide us (What to have for dinner, What movie to go to, driving, etc.) Can be out of weakness. Ideal: You give and take. You don’t always need to control and enjoy having others be part of decisions. You know when to control and when to let others.
    • Affection: Expressing Affection: You express affection by smiling, prolonged eye contact, or giving compliments. Over personal – Too much touching, hugging etc. Wanting Affection: Wanting affection from others, wanting compliments from others. Covert – hinting at gifts, or invitations. Asking do you like this….dress, purse, etc. Ideal- Appropriately Personal: Are ok with what people want to do.
    • Schutz’s FIRO Theory
    • Schutz’s FIRO Theory
    • Schutz’s FIRO Theory
    • Schutz’s Interpersonal Needs TheoryCycle of a groups when they begin: Initial formation stage - communication aims at inclusion Group members friendly, and cautious as they try to evaluate each other and try to be accepted by others As group develops, control needs become more evident: members contest issues and vie for leadership Conflicts happen - are resolved, people turn toward affection needs This process is cyclical, and plays itself over and over with each new group All steps necessary for a strong group to survive
    • How do you apply this?Q: How can understanding Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs help you understandhow you relate to others?Q: How can understanding Shutz’s FIROTheory help you understand yourself?Help you understand others?
    • Individual Goals Influences choice of group . I gave my life to the Group Theatre, because in it Im building something for myself. What I build, I am. ~ Elia Kazan (American director, producer, writer and actor)Q: What goals do you have that a group can help fulfill?A: Our personal goals direct our group choice.(Enjoyment, health, personal growth, status and power,and prestige)
    • INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTIONSimilarity: We join a group because of how much we have incommon with other group members. <Bird of a feather flocktogether>. Can lead to conformity and group think.Complementarily: People join groups they are attracted to orhave abilities or skills they do not possess, but admire.<Opposites attract> In relationships and groups better to have acombination of needs represented.Proximity/Contract/Interaction: Attracted to people who weare physically close to. We try harder with people who are near.Examples; coworkers, neighbors (side by side, backyard)Physical attractiveness: In the initial stages of group formationwe are drawn to people to whom we are physically attracted.Attractive people can get their ‘foot’ in the door first, attractmates faster, but beware. Caution: Con Artist Research
    • Can you spot the Con Artist (s)? A B C D
    • The Con ArtistsA) Stacey Lynne SmithAlong with her husband, she raised more than $1 million from approximately 27investors who purchased stock and notes from their two companies. The Smithsinvested most of the money they raised in two speculative companies that neverturned a profit. They diverted more than $200,000 of the investor funds to theirpersonal use, including a Hawaiian trip, Cartier jewelry, and day-today livingexpenses.B) Phyllis RichBend. Along with her husband, Michael Rich, she convinced more than 250 peopleto invest nearly $20 million in trust deeds ostensibly secured by properties inOregon, Washington, Arizona and Hawaii. They used the money to purchase acorporate jet and exotic vacations.C) Wesley Rhodes, Jr.West Linn. This financial adviser misappropriated approximately $16 million ininvestor funds to purchase collector cards, art, and a lavish lifestyle. To further hisscheme, he created and distributed fictitious account statements that purportedlyrepresented actual stocks held in his clients accounts.D) Nice Guy
    • Con artists draw on a variety of strengths, including: Power & Influence: When he talks, people listen. He has a positionof power and friends in high places. He exudes an aura of success. Charisma: He appeals to most people. He makes people feel cleverand charmed. Strong Cover: He seems almost incapable of wrongdoing. His covermight be his solid reputation and the loans he’s secured from bigbanks and investment firms. A respected pious member of thecommunity or a gifted, but naive, businessman.The Con Artist looks for those who any strength or weakness thatcan be exploited.
    • GROUP ATTRACTION – You like what the group does. Group activities: What does the group do? Sometimes it doesn’t matter, just the regular meetings, structure and human contact can be rewarding.Examples: Running clubs, book clubs, sewing circles, etc. Group goals: The goals or values of the group attract people If a person values the goals of a group they will likely to seek membership.Example: Activists groups, religious or spiritual groups. Group membership: Group that offer potential group members/status or prestige can be attractive.Example: Exclusive club, honor society, chamber of commerce,
    • REVIEW QUESTIONPeople join groups:A. to fulfill interpersonal needsB. to fulfill individual needsC. because of group goalsD. because of group attractivenessE. all of the above
    • REVIEW QUESTIONThe three needs included in Schutz’s Interpersonal Needs Theory are:A. ability, communication, persistenceB. inclusion, control, affectionC. companionship, excitement, loyaltyD. shelter, food, safetyE. the need to be in Roana Thornock’s Speech 151 class
    • REVIEW QUESTIONMaslow suggests that before you canmeet your safety needs, you need tosatisfy:A. esteem needsB. control needsC. love needsD. physiological needs
    • Review QuestionsTrue or False – Con Artists prey on thestrengths and weaknesses of a personTrue or False – The goldilocks rule says ahappy medium is the best approach tomeeting your interpersonal needs.True or False – We are usually nicer topeople who we work with or live close to.True or False – The honor society wouldbe an example the type of club we wouldjoin for prestige.