Anzio (Operation Shingle)

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Anzio (Operation Shingle)

  1. 1. ANZIO (Operation Shingle) RTO Trainer – 1/180 th INF BN, OKARNG 1 st Platoon, BNCOC Class 07-408
  2. 2. ANZIO <ul><li>UNCLASSIFIED </li></ul><ul><li>Information Briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Scope: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description of the events and major personalities involved with the Allied landing at Anzio, Italy during WWII. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, an explanation of the strategic importance of the landing, its intent vs. the result. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Order of Battle – Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Order of Battle – Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Key Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of Major Events </li></ul><ul><li>Medal of Honor Recipients </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Picture </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Order of Battle – Allies (UK) <ul><li>British 1st Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>46th Royal Tank Regiment </li></ul><ul><li>2 Special Service Brigade (partial) </li></ul><ul><li>No.9 Commando </li></ul><ul><li>No.43 Commando (RM) </li></ul><ul><li>British 56 th Infantry Division </li></ul>
  5. 5. Order of Battle – Allies (US) <ul><li>1st Ranger Battalion </li></ul><ul><li>3rd Ranger Battalion </li></ul><ul><li>4th Ranger Battalion </li></ul><ul><li>509th Parachute Infantry Battalion (PIB) </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Armored Division </li></ul><ul><li>45 th Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>34 th Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Special Service Force (US-Canadian) </li></ul><ul><li>Task Force 81 (Navy – Multinational) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Order of Battle -- Axis <ul><li>4 th Parachute Division </li></ul><ul><li>Hermann Goering Division </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Panzergrenadier </li></ul><ul><li>71 st Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>3 Division Equivalents (Germany, </li></ul><ul><li>65 th Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>715 th Motorized Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>114 th Light Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>362d Infantry Division </li></ul><ul><li>26th Panzer Division </li></ul><ul><li>29 th Panzergrenadier </li></ul><ul><li>16 th SS Panzergrenadier </li></ul><ul><li>LXXVI Panzer Corps </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteenth Army </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Leaders (Allies) <ul><ul><li>Field Marshall Harold Alexander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British—Overall Commander, Operation Shingle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Mark W. Clark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US—5 th Army Commander </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Key Leaders (Allies) <ul><ul><li>Lieutenant General John P. Lucas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US—VI Corps Commander </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major General Lucian Truscott </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US—3 rd ID Commander— Replaced Lucas 23 February 1944 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Key Leaders (Axis) <ul><ul><li>Field Marshall Albert Kesslering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany – Commander in Chief Southwest (All German forces in Italy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Eberhard von Mackensen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany – Commander Fourteenth Army – Given command of Anzio containment 24 January 1944 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sequence of Major Events <ul><li>October 1943 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans establish a new defensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Winter Line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower obtains landing craft for two divisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allies will attempt an “end run” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intent: Break the Winter Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut or threaten Axis lines of communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>GEN Mark Clark selects VI Corps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chooses MG Lucas to lead Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>22 January, 1944 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VI Corps lands, unopposed at Anzio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All 1 st Day’s objectives achieved by noon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced 3 – 4 miles inland </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>Success breeds hesitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans totally surprised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucas fails to order units forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routes to Rome clear of resistance </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>German Field Marshal Kesselring reacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rushes reserve units to Anzio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes containment of beachhead </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>16 February 1944 – German counterattack! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major fighting in 45 th Division and 3 rd Division sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Factory </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>11 May 1944 – The Winter Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major offensive unhinges German resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 th Army and 8 th Army advance up Liri Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>25 – 26 May 1944 --VI Corps attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakout toward Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 June 1944 – VI Corps enters Rome </li></ul><ul><li>6 June 1944 – Operation Overlord </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sequence of Major Events (cont) <ul><li>The Breakout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45 th , 36 th , 3 rd , 1 st Armor, all advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with II Corps advancing from North made on 25 th </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Medal of Honor Recipients <ul><li>Sgt. Sylvester Antolak - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>T/Sgt. Van T. Barfoot - 45th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>Pvt. Herbert F. Christian - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>T/Sgt. Ernest H. Dervishian - 34th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC John W. Dutko - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC Lloyd C. Hawks - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>2nd LT. Thomas W. Fowler - 1st Armor </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. William W. Gault - 34th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>T/5 Eric Gibson - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>S/Sgt. George J. Hall - 34th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>Cpl. Paul B. Huff - 509th Para. Inf. Bn. </li></ul><ul><li>Pvt. Elden H. Johnson - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC William H. Johnson - 45th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC Patrick L. Kessler - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC Alton W. Knappenberger - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>Pvt. James H. Mills - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>1st LT. Jack C. Montgomery - 45th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>1st LT. Beryl R. Newman - 34th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>Sgt. Truman O. Olson - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC Henry Schauer - 3rd Div. </li></ul><ul><li>Pvt. Furman L. Smith - 34th Div. </li></ul><ul><li>PFC John C. Squires - 3rd Div. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Big Picture – D-Day <ul><li>Anzio Landings failed it’s intent </li></ul><ul><li>Still a strategic success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced German commitment of reserve units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between Anzio and Winter Line, tied down 26 German divisions </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. ANZIO <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>Failed the intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I had hoped we were hurling a wildcat into the shore, but all we got was a stranded whale.“ – Winston Churchill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enabled D-Day success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You’d better keep putting ammunition and supplies on the beach behind us, because the 45 th is staying.” –Major General Troy Middleton, on being offered a chance to withdraw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tied down 26 German divisions </li></ul></ul>

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