Making it manageable final


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Making it manageable final

  1. 1. Making it Manageable Effective Teaching of Low Literacy Achievers Liz Oldridge R.T.Literacy Nelson Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  2. 2. Teacher Knowledge <ul><li>Know the learner as a person </li></ul><ul><li>Know where they’ve come from and where they need to be </li></ul><ul><li>Know the characteristics of literacy learners in general– Literacy Learning Progressions </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you still need to know </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  3. 3. Where do I Start? <ul><li>Assessment that informs teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running Records, STAR, Burt/Clay word tests, HRSW, dictation, writing samples, JOST, alphabet, teacher observation and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyse to identify strengths and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NZ Curriculum, English Exemplars, National Standards </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  4. 4. What might I need to teach? <ul><ul><li>Phonemic/ phonological knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet/blend knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make links from known to unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to monitor own reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to be meaning driven </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  5. 5. What might I need to teach? <ul><ul><li>How to check for sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to locate recognisable chunks in words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to read through words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to check that predictions fit all sources of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make connections with and gain meaning from text </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  6. 6. What might I need to teach? <ul><ul><li>How to be sure of what is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluent, well phrased reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail: accuracy with known words, endings and punctuation </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  7. 7. Phonemic awareness and phonological knowledge <ul><ul><li>Activities to practise hearing, segmenting and manipulating sounds in words- picture cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabification and rhyme- poetry, rhyming texts, talking about words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce letter/sound relationships: matching words with sounds, isolating or substituting sounds in a word, blending individual sounds in words, endings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate teaching of reading and writing by incorporating writing for sounds into phonics instruction </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  8. 8. Phonics cont. <ul><ul><li>Expose students to poems, rhymes, chants, songs and repeated readings of shared books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide activities focussing on syllable, onset-rime and phonemic manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from larger to smaller units of sound e.g.. From syllables to sub syllables (onset-rime) to phonemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a mix of oral (poetry, songs etc) and concrete (clapping or moving counters) activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no sequence of instruction. Students don’t need to ‘get’ one type of operation before having experience in another </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  9. 9. But wait, there’s more <ul><li>Research has shown that low progress readers </li></ul><ul><li>are often weaker in phonemic awareness and </li></ul><ul><li>training in it has been said to improve reading </li></ul><ul><li>levels. (Juel, Griffith and Gough, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive training can improve the word reading </li></ul><ul><li>skills of children who are struggling with literacy </li></ul><ul><li>but it is more effective when combined with </li></ul><ul><li>training in other reading skills and not taught in </li></ul><ul><li>isolation. </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  10. 10. Where can I look for help? <ul><li>Effective Literacy Practice in Years 1 to 4. pp 32-37 and 43-45 </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Literacy Practice in Years 5 to 8. pp 30-32 </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds and Words </li></ul><ul><li>Ready to Read Support Material – Sound Sense pp 2-6 and p 17 </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  11. 11. Word Recognition <ul><ul><li>Deliberately teach high frequency words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight words in different contexts around the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and write them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reread easy material with simple language structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use flash cards, magnetic letters, memory and board games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As students increase the number of words they recognise, they begin to read without having to decode and can give more attention to comprehension. Teaching Reading Comp. p64. </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  12. 12. Classroom Practice <ul><ul><li>Provide shared, guided and personal reading opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide daily writing opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build word charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word cards for sorting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut-up sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take any opportunity to reinforce high frequency words using the think aloud approach to model identification of known words in text reading </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  13. 13. Vocabulary <ul><ul><li>Vocabulary difficulty strongly influences the readability of text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching vocabulary can improve students’ comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For students experiencing difficulties in literacy, vocabulary knowledge is often a major stumbling block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching shouldn’t be systematic and sequential but instead children should study letters, sounds and words in reading and writing contexts </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  14. 14. How to help students acquire vocabulary <ul><ul><li>Provide many opportunities for talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to use new words in speaking, listening, reading and writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading ‘mileage’ an important factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated exposure to new words is needed to consolidate vocabulary knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide explanations of the meanings of words while reading to children </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  15. 15. Context based Instruction <ul><ul><li>Explicitly focus on, and discuss new vocabulary selected from texts children will read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model strategies to explore meanings of new words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide meaningful practice and specific feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use co-operative problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ What kinds of words would we expect to be in this text?’ </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  16. 16. Text Introduction <ul><ul><li>Make sure you’ve read it and are familiar with the language and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the text type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the storyline/concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce vocabulary that you know will be tricky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text selection crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge- may not be of particular topic, but students need to be able to make a connection </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  17. 17. A Typical Lesson <ul><ul><li>Spend 3-4 minutes on text introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly briefly make some links using words that are known to show the relationship to a new word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some discussion around predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student reads the text independently or however much of it you decide is appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the student comes back to you, question to encourage checking of predictions and pull out a couple of bits for the student to read to you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There will almost certainly be a couple of teaching points to address </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  18. 18. Prompts that work <ul><li>What do you know about that word that can help you? </li></ul><ul><li>Does that sound okay to you? </li></ul><ul><li>You said….does that make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know that word? </li></ul><ul><li>You know that word </li></ul><ul><li>What are you going to do now? </li></ul><ul><li>Use what you know </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  19. 19. Specifics <ul><li>Use CDs for fluency practice </li></ul><ul><li>Read to, then with the student to model fluent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry helps with phrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Access to many easy/familiar texts gives the opportunity to practise what is controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Are they listening, monitoring, self-correcting? </li></ul><ul><li>Train parents that it’s okay to reread! </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  20. 20. Tips <ul><ul><li>Record word work/teaching points in a book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use think aloud to model both reading and comprehension strategy use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insist on accurate reading of punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure students know what fluent, accurate readers do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide activities that practise/reinforce what is being learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give follow up work that allows student to show understanding without having to write copious amounts </li></ul></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  21. 21. Pointers <ul><li>Making the lesson manageable for you ensures that it happens </li></ul><ul><li>Directly following the guided reading session, the student rereads the text/the parts they have read. </li></ul><ul><li>Rereading is so much more than practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Reread in pairs and make sure feedback is according to agreed success criteria. See Teaching Reading comprehension. </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  22. 22. Struggling writers <ul><li>Is it poor writing or poor spelling? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Child and teacher may have a different perception of the purpose of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Focus more on what the child is trying to do or say than on what we’re trying to teach </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  23. 23. Shared Understandings <ul><li>Model writing in smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>Provide explicit discussion of purposes for modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Write with the child </li></ul><ul><li>Pair the child with a more fluent writer to produce a joint text </li></ul><ul><li>Provide intensive individual instruction in deep and surface features </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  24. 24. Being explicit <ul><li>Show the connection between reading, writing and spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Teach for, and provide practice in proofreading to enhance these connections </li></ul><ul><li>Model the use of classroom resources – child’s own text, a dictionary, any teacher written list, general classroom resources and specific teacher written resources </li></ul><ul><li>Teach a core writing vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Model clear articulation of words </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  25. 25. A self-extending system <ul><li>Slow articulation of unknown words (word solving) </li></ul><ul><li>Using knowledge of one word to write another by analogy (Searching) </li></ul><ul><li>Using classroom resources to locate an unknown word </li></ul><ul><li>Re-reading of text (Monitoring and editing) </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of writing </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  26. 26. Deeper features <ul><li>Use think-aloud to model strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>Model planning and semantic webbing to encourage organisation and sequencing of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Help children think through what they want to write </li></ul><ul><li>Use shared and guided writing to teach text structure and different strategies/conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide writing frames and demonstrate the use of them </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  27. 27. Making it happen <ul><li>Plan with the student, giving them the necessary vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a way of getting to the high frequency words that they can’t spell </li></ul><ul><li>Remind them of what they can spell </li></ul><ul><li>Jot the first sentence down as they dictate it </li></ul><ul><li>Read it back to them and then they write it </li></ul><ul><li>Check on them and then get the next sentence from them etc. </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  28. 28. Spelling <ul><li>Don’t over-emphasize correct spelling and obstruct creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Build an accurately spelled vocabulary of basic words </li></ul><ul><li>Teach patterns and generalizations by pulling words from reading and writing contexts and examining them </li></ul><ul><li>Select spelling words that reflect features that students ‘use but confuse’ </li></ul><ul><li>Organise spelling words according to spelling patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Use words that are known as sight words in reading </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  29. 29. Teacher- Aides <ul><li>‘ Never do anything for the child that they can do for themselves .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Be deliberate and specific; write prompts on cards </li></ul><ul><li>Model and monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that what is done, is what you want done; no adjusting of the programme! </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise aides with other learners; low achievers need the teacher </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009
  30. 30. Finally… wary of commercial programmes <ul><li>Know why you need it and be sure it is what you need! </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that you don’t try to make the child fit the programme </li></ul><ul><li>The right programme may be useful for some students for some time </li></ul>Liz Oldridge NZRA 2009