Media Intertextuality


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  • Obama BGT Dickens – It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. Tale of Two Cities
  • Action, melodrama, police, soap
  • Media Intertextuality

    1. 1. Intertextuality
    2. 2. Definition <ul><li>The shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Notion introduced by Julia Kristeva . </li></ul><ul><li>Kristeva argued against the concept of a text as a isolated entity which operates in a self-contained manner and states that: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;any text is the absorption and transformation of another&quot; </li></ul>Bit Heavy
    3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Every text (and we can insert any cultural object here: image, film, web content, music etc.) is a mosaic of references to other texts, genres, and discourses. </li></ul>More Like It! Where a text alludes to, or references, another text
    4. 4. Intertexuality <ul><li>Some texts refer directly to each other – such as in 'remakes' of films, extra-diegetic references to the media / society in the animated cartoon The Simpsons , and many amusing contemporary TV ads. </li></ul><ul><li>The interpretation of these references is influenced by the audiences’ prior knowledge of other texts. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Task <ul><li>The following Simpsons clips make reference to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which important Amercian / International event? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which other popular TV show? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which other British literary genius? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Audience Pleasures <ul><li>This particularly self-conscious form of intertextuality credits its audience with the necessary experience to make sense of such references and offers the pleasure of recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>By referring to other texts and other media reminds us that we are in a mediated reality. This runs counter to the dominant 'realist' tradition which focuses on persuading the audience to believe in the on-going reality of the narrative. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Intertextuality and Genre <ul><li>There are intertextual frameworks (references) at work that are less obvious or direct. </li></ul><ul><li>The assignment of a text to a genre provides the audience of the text with a key intertextual framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Each example of a genre utilises conventions which link it to other members of that genre. </li></ul><ul><li>Such conventions are at their most obvious in 'spoof' versions of the genre. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Intertextuality and Genre <ul><li>Intertextuality is also reflected in the fluidity of genre boundaries and in the blurring of genres. </li></ul><ul><li>In a nutshell, texts provide contexts within which other texts may be created and interpreted. </li></ul><ul><li>What genre boundaries does The Bill blur? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Task <ul><li>List all the intertextual references made in the opening sequence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austin Powers: Goldmember (Roach 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch the following clip that summarises what we have just discussed... </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Intertextuality in Music Videos
    11. 11. Intertextuality – Music Videos <ul><li>John Stuarts description of the music video as “incorporating, raiding and reconstructing” is essentially the essence of intertextuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Using something familiar to the audience may generate both potentially nostalgic associations and new meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>It is perhaps more explicitly evident in the music video than in any other media form, with the possible exception of advertising (and the Simpsons!) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Intertextuality – Music Videos Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953) Madonna Material Girl (1985)
    13. 13. <ul><li>Robert Palmer’s ‘ Addicted to Love ’ (Donovan 1986), alludes to fashion photography and has been parodied many times for its use of mannequin style females in the band fronted by a besuited Palmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Shania Twain copied it for her ‘Man I feel like a woman’ (Paul Boyd 1999) </li></ul>Intertextuality – Music Videos
    14. 14. Intertextuality – Music Videos Robert Palmer Addicted To Love (1986) Shania Twain Man I Feel Like A Woman ( 1999)
    15. 15. Intertextuality - Simpsons <ul><li>Almost every episode of The Simpsons contains at least one film reference to a famous film scene. </li></ul><ul><li>The Simpsons also contains intertextual references to politics, religion – nearly every aspect of social, political and cultural life. </li></ul><ul><li>The grabs on the following slides are from an episode where the Simpsons referenced Psycho </li></ul>
    16. 16. Intertextuality - Simpsons
    17. 17. Intertextuality - Simpsons
    18. 18. Intertextuality - Simpsons
    19. 19. Intertextuality - Simpsons
    20. 20. More Heavy Theory <ul><li>In 1968 Barthes announced 'the death of the author' and 'the birth of the reader', declaring that 'a text's unity lies not in its origin but in its destination' - in other words there is no longer such a thing as an original text – very postmodern . </li></ul><ul><li>This highlights how interpretation lies with the audience – that it is subjective - it is the audience that creates meaning. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Something Else to Consider <ul><li>The notion of intertextuality problematizes the idea of a text having boundaries and questions the dichotomy of 'inside' and 'outside': </li></ul><ul><li>Where does a text 'begin' and 'end'? </li></ul><ul><li>This again is postmodern </li></ul>
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