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eTech Magazine - Issue 6


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eTech 6 - DesignSpark PCB takes design to another dimesion

eTech 6 - DesignSpark PCB takes design to another dimesion

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  • 1. N SElECTIO 06 bE b PC 20 O K PR DESIGNSPaR 14 USb 3.0One of the triumphs of the harry Potter movie franchise is the plethoraof magical gizmos it features, springing from the fertile imaginationsof J.K. Rowling and the movie special effects department.Yet some of these ideas are no longer so far fetched or magical. The ‘talking newspaper’seen in some scenes, for example is available today on the iPad. I know, because RS has,from our previous issue made eTech available as a downloadable iPad App, and I’m the onedoing the talking.Our theme this issue is connectivity, and that’s particularly appropriate because it isconnectivity that is enabling this functionality. A chain of wireless and wired connections INSIDE eTechcarries a voice recording, a video clip, an image or a piece of text from the source,to your iPad (or netbook, Kindle, laptop, smartphone…) 04 iSayNo wonder that at RS we’re seeing explosive growth in interest in the products and 05 RS NEWSlINEtechnologies that create the links in that chain. In this issue of eTech, we’re exposingjust a few of those. USB3.0 is poised to transform the relationship between computers 06 DESIGNSPaRK PCband peripherals. ZigBee is seeing increasing uptake as a simple mesh networking 10 PRODUCT NEWSprotocol. Power over Ethernet simplifies these networks and potentially saves power.The Human Machine Interface (HMI) is the final, and arguably the most important link in 12 ThINK GlObally, aCT lOCallythat connectivity chain, and we have a major article that looks at how technology pioneered 14 USb 3.0in game consoles is being used in industrial and instrumentation applications. 16 OPEN SOURCE haRDWaRE Our mission at RS is to help you Find the right USER GROUP Terms and conditions: Terms andconditions of sale set out in the current connectivity solutions for your next project, Design them in and then make it simple to Buy the 18 CUSTOmER PROfIlE RS Catalogue. This issue is valid from April 2011 to June 2011. components you need for prototypes and production. 19 POWER OVER EThERNET Offering eTech on your iPad as well as in print and Published by: RS Components Limited. Registered office: online is one part of that mission. The new version of 20 PRObE SElECTION Birchington Road, Weldon, Corby, Northamptonshire NN17 9RS. Registered No. 1002091. RS DesignSpark PCB described in this issue is another. 22 maRKET TRENDS Watch this space for more! Components Ltd 2010. RS are trademarks of RS 24 RS EDP Components Limited. An Electrocomponents Company. PS:…. and before you ask: yes we are planning to extend our iPad app to other platforms like Android. 26 faN IS a blaST 28 DESIGN TIPS: NETWORKER 32 ElECTRONICS EXTRaS Place FSC logo here 34 POWER Of TOUCh Glenn Jarrett Head of Electronics Marketing 36 RaPID POWER RS Components 42 INDUSTRy NEWS: fRaUNhOfERELE_0019_0311 eTech - ISSUE 6 03
  • 2. iSay RSJEAN-LOUIS BRELET,SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER NEWSlINESPRODUCT DEFINITION, XILINX SAYS:“ eTech launches as the Supporting R&D of flexibility first Electronics Industry Intelligent Robots in Japan iPad magazine app With the use of sensors, the Intelligent Robot featuring enhanced interactive content including laboratory in Japan, successfully developed images, animation and video free of charge an autonomously controlled robot. gives fPGas the advantage ” This iPad app provides a and has been developed to go The research and development of new way to display product beyond the basic page-turner the robot required a wide variety and technology information, digital magazine, taking full of manufacturing knowledge extending and enhancing the advantage of the device’s off-line covering from electronic and magazine content with additional viewing capabilities. ” mechanical components. images, animation and video, Download the latest edition of making it a truly interactive eTech on iPad through the With the support of customer experience. App Store. RS Components, researchers at the laboratory were able to flexibility gives fPGas the advantage in growing number of applications. Commenting on the launch, purchase analog and digital Glenn Jarrett, Head of devices, as well as printed circuit Electronics Marketing at RS boards from a one-stop shop. said, “With more and more The flexibility of programmable components while remaining committed to support the existing information sources available to Dr. Shin’ichi Tuka commented, Dr. Shin’ichi Tuka has become more important than ever as 3G W-CDMA or CDMA2000 standards. Equipment design engineers, it is imperative “It was a paradigm shift. RS ” electronics adoption continues to grow in more and more manufacturers must ensure that these base stations can that RS provides them with features a wide variety of product delivery of RS Components, not applications. For example, in the automotive industry be easily upgraded when required to adapt to any change news in the format that they find portfolio, the next day delivery, to mention the support provided on-board integrated systems are multiplying to provide in standard. In addition, operators require slight variations both informative and engaging. and long-tail products. I was through regular advice through greater convenience and safety, along with improved in different countries and some parts of the world are eTech for iPad is an industry first astonished at the speed of face-to-face meetings.” pollution control. Cutting-edge electronic modules provide intending to use WiMax. greater functionality at ever-decreasing cost. The standard components (or Application Specific Standard Product (ASSP)) and specific ASIC-type circuits (Application Specific To my knowledge, no supplier of fixed and mobile telecommunications infrastructure relies only partially EnbW Engineers build an automated Cocktail mixer Integrated Circuit) available on this market are however on FPGA solutions. Programmable components are often found to be inadequate for the demands made fast becoming the only economically-viable approach four trainees at EnbW in Tuttlingen, a PlC and two custom boards resistors, rectifiers, capacitors, on them. for new systems. Germany, have built an automated were also used. To provide efficient microprocessors and cocktail mixer as their final project service, an lCD display shows users the stepper motors, The needs of manufacturers frequently change between as they study to become Industrial the cocktails they have selected all of which they the initial design specification and the arrival of a new Electronics Installation Engineers. and an aluminium compression tool obtained quickly and “ vehicle on the market, making demands on the flexibility driven by a geared motor is used to easily using the RS of the electronics which are difficult to satisfy using ASSPs and ASICs, especially within an accessible price range. ...on-board integrated The engineers built a mixer that could accommodate a large pour out the required level of liquid from the bottles. E-Procurement service. The cost of masks set in 40/45 nm technologies reaches systems are multiplying to spindle bearing eight bottles. Plexiglass windows and a stepper for the mixer’s electronic provide greater millions of dollars. The effect of this is clearly a fall in the number of ASSPs and ASICs. In 2009, the number of new motor was used to push the systems, a large number of small spindle over cog wheels. components including transistors, ASIC designs fell by 21%. FPGAs, on the other hand, are entering the world of processors because of their flexibility convenience and safety, of use, coupled with the efficiency and performance levels along with improved RS announces partnership with board ” of hardware solutions. SRAM-based programmable components combine the benefits of fast integration and flexibility during the design stage while being adaptable pollution control manufacturers bVm and microsoft to multiple standards. RS Components are pleased to announce leading board developer BVM and software customers and suppliers; our business For instance, the FPGA is now vital in mobile telephone the partnership with BVM and Microsoft to giants Microsoft. is focused on doing what is best for all infrastructures. The latest generations being installed provide design engineers, exclusive access stakeholders, to ensure we deliver the best are based on 3GPP LTE technology, whose full range of to a complete range of motherboard kits with This joint venture provides engineers with a product and service to the end customer. specifications is not yet finalised. Base station suppliers Share your opinion on this at Windows Embedded software installed and plug and play solution which is transferable Clearly RS are a great partner to meet these have however already begun to deliver LTE technology, ready to use. This is the first partnership of across devices with easy adoption routes, objectives and Microsoft thinks so too.” its type in the high-volume distribution market offering a long-term development lifespan. place, linking the RS design engineering Commenting for BVM, Robert Wainwright, community (DesignSpark) and the General Manager said “we are committed Find out more on the BVM / Microsoft / ecommerce trading site users with market- to working in partnership with both our RS partnership at www.designspark.com04 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 05
  • 3. “ ...3D viewer, enablingengineers to gain a ‘reallife’ view of a PCb layout DesignSpark PCb Version 2 takes PCb deSiGNSparkPCB ” design toduring design... aNOThER DImENSION by martin Keenan The launch of DesignSpark in summer 2010 sent ripples through the engineering world. With free online resources and design support, waves of engineers soon joined the community. One of the biggest success stories since the launch of DesignSpark has been DesignSpark PCb; a completely free and unrestricted professional-grade schematic capture and PCb design environment. Now, after just nine months, the number of downloads for DesignSpark PCB has exceeded 60,000; functionality, resulting in an even better experience for the many thousands of engineers already using it. The expectation Through the 3D Viewer, engineers can review a three-dimensional representation of their board, at any stage during design, to that’s around 300 per working day since is that this commitment to development quickly evaluate the mechanical design. Any its launch! will help to further increase its popularity adjustments can easily be carried out in the and encourage the DesignSpark community 2D view and checked in the 3D Viewer for With a commitment to maintaining and to continue contributing their ideas for near-instant visual feedback. improving what is rapidly becoming one of future enhancements. the most important engineering resources to engineers in over 150 countries across 3D Viewer added the globe, RS has announced Version One of the major new features of 2 of DesignSpark PCB. This is the first DesignSpark PCB Version 2 takes PCB official revision of the tool and while it design to another dimension – literally! remains totally free and unrestricted in its The development team have implemented functionality, it boasts a long list of new a 3D Viewer, enabling design engineers features. Engineers can download Version to visualise in real time their final project, 2 today from rendered in a highly accurate, fully detailed and start enjoying all the new features and 3D view. existing benefits that large corporate users, as well as SMEs and hobbyists around the DesignSpark PCB has always offered world, have already discovered. the ability to export designs to a CAD environment that offer a 3D representation The 3D Viewer is found in the tool bar and In fact, the diverse cross-section of of the board and its components, for along with the ability to view a populated DesignSpark PCB users is something RS mechanical design. While this is still board in 3 dimensions, engineers also have is particularly proud of; the intention is to possible, using a pre-loaded and extensible the option to edit individual component develop, support and maintain DesignSpark library of 3D components engineers no settings, to get the most realistic PCB to remain an industry-leading resource, longer need to move to a CAD environment, representation possible – all from and with the release of Version 2 comes or export an intermediary file, to visualise within the same design environment; the addition of many new features that their design in 3D. DesignSpark PCB. extend the tool’s capability, usability and Continued page 08>06 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 07
  • 4. Amphenol range increased to over “ There are now some 30,000 registered users of DesignSpark and downloads of 9,000 connectors at RS the tool number 55,000 ” New introductions expand the Amphenol portfolio, including renewable energy, industrial, medical, military, data and audio technology markets, all available direct from stock for next-day-delivery< Continued from page 07New capabilities ‘escape’ key. To enable finer gained design,As well as the breathtaking 3D Viewer, the resolution of angular rotation has alsoDesignSpark PCB’s Version 2 also been increased, while the Library Managerintroduces a number of new capabilities. function will also offer new ‘move to’ andThese enhancements include being able ‘save to’ automatically create and save a new RJField range XLR Solutionslibrary as an item, as well as saving the more functionalityselected components directly to a library Adding to the enhanced usability,from the design view. Simpler and more functionality has also received somecomprehensive output is enabled through attention; support for thetwo new features; a new column type widely used Excellonallows plain text to be inserted in to reports, drill file format has beenwhile a new bitmap printing option enables extended to supportgreater flexibility. In addition to these different drill toolcapabilities, DesignSpark PCB will also numbers acrossprovide a drill indent output option, able drill files. Otherto switch between separate plated and enhancementsunplated drills. include the ability to paste copies ofGreater usability components in the sameWe live in a connected world, where candid position, as well as add valuesfeedback via online portals has become to all the alternate footprints of asecond nature and, as with most well- component when editing just one.received products, DesignSpark PCB hasgenerated its fair share of on-line debate. The success of DesignSpark PCB reinforces Ecomate Series 62GB Electroless NickelThanks in part to this user feedback some the belief that the electronics engineeringfeatures have been highlighted where community needs professional tools and See the full range at :usability could be further improved. services that aren’t just free to use butSo in response to this, the first major offer real value, with an uncompromisingupgrade to DesignSpark PCB will include a commitment to support that only anumber of usability enhancements, which company like RS can truly offer.include new commands in the Project menuthat allow sheets within a project to beduplicated or renamed. It will also be easier With the release of DesignSpark PCB Version 2, RS has reaffirmed its commitment to delivering the best Get more online... Share your experience using DesignSpark PCb on adding a new component to return open source experience to its www.designspark.comto the dialog box; by simply pressing the engineering community.08 eTech - ISSUE 6
  • 5. PRODUCT PRODUCTNEWS NEWS fIbRE OPTIC CONNECTORS fibre Optic Transceiver for high speed data rates mICROmaTCh CONNECTORS n The AFCT-5805xxZ transceiver is a high 1.27mm - Tyco amP mICRO-maTCh™ performance, cost effective module for serial IDC Series optical data communications applications specified for a data rate of 155 Mb/s. It is designed to n This small system of IDC connectors provide a SONET/SDH compliant link for intermediate reach links operating at have a contact spacing of 1.27mm, offer +3.3 V or +5.0 V input voltage. Application areas include links for LAN backbone a range of wire-to-board & board-to-board switches and routers, WAN core, edge and access switches and routers, links for intercommunications. The contacts are fully add/drop multiplexers and demultiplexers and SONET interconnections protected by plastic housings, providing high Online search term: afCT-5805 performance and reliability with built in Polarisation. No additional strain relief is required. The contact spring system is in the female board header and not in the wire connector, which compensates for positional tolerances and prevents fretting corrosion. Online search term: idc micro-match 1.27mm POSITION SENSORS fROm SPECTRaSymbOl Contactless, low profile and high temperature Position Sensors. n Membrane Sensors from SpectraSymbol have transformed the way engineers think about position sensing through a low form-factor (less than 0.5mm), better value compared to other linear sensors, and high adaptability for design constraints. We have now introduced high temperature linear sensor applications with the Hotpot, rising to +85°C in operation or storage, the MagnetoPot for contactless applications and the ThinPot which is half the width of the traditional Softpot product. Online search term: Spectrasymbol SChOTTKy DIODES USb2.0 hUb CONTROllERS Rectifiers - Schottky barrier Up to 0.199a Industry’s first Single-Chip, USb 2.0 hub and 10/100 Ethernet Controllers n We have increased the range from Vishay and can now provide Small signal schottky diodes for general purpose n SMSC are the first company to introduce a fully applications. The diodes feature low turn-on voltage and integrated 2/3/4 port Hi-Speed USB 2.0 hub with high breakdown voltage and are protected by a PN junction 10/100 Ethernet controllers. SMSC’s UniClock ™ guard ring against excessive voltage, such as electrostatic technology simplifies the clocking scheme andmCX CONNECTORS - fROm CablINE discharges. They are available in the reduces system BOM cost by using a single 25MHz Specifically designed conectors for DO-35 case with type designation crystal for both USB and Ethernet connectivity lCD applications lECROy USb aNalySERS BAT41, and are AEC-Q101 qualified. − without the need for extra components when Online search term: vishay 7103* adding USB hubs. They have built-in ±8kV/15kV n Cabline V is used in slimline LCD applications. PCmCIa card USb 2.0 analysers “Diode Schottky” contact/air discharge ESD protection on both USB It is now considered the defacto standard of LVDS n The Lecroy USBMobile T2 is a small and affordable hardware-based USB 2.0 and Ethernet PHYs . Multiple Operation Systems panel interface for LCDs with LED backlight. Cabline protocol analyser family that combines de-facto standard CATC Trace display with are supported including: Windows® 7 Windows XP , , VS is specially designed for the transmission/shield powerful analysis features. Features include : portable operation with any PCMCIA Windows Vista®, Windows CE, Windows Mobile®, performance of the Displayport signal which is the compatible PC, CATC trace analysis software, 64 MByte recording memory, High Linux® and Mac®. embedded standard interface of the FPD and is certified impedance probe, 2 mini AB USB ports, Advanced Triggering and Event reporting. Online search term: 716-0449 to the latest VESA specification. Online search term: CablINE Online search term: lecroy, USb ThERmal INTERfaCE KIT Comprehensive Thermal Interface Sil-Pad kit GDT 2 aND 3 ElECTRODE n Bergquist is a world leader for Sil-Pad materials SURGE aRRESTERS to meet critical needs of a rapidly changing Surge arrestors from Epcos electronics industry. This universal kit comprises of different forms of Sil-Pad, Q-Pad and Gap- VNC2 VINCUlUm USb hOST Pad insulators with the necessary accessories n Excessive voltages and the resulting DEVElOPmENT KIT required to attach them to the PCB. The thermally surge currents can damage or even destroy VNC2 Vinculum USb host Development Kit communications equipment, data transmission conductive insulators, continue to be a clean and and energy supply systems. Gas-filled surge efficient alternative to mica, ceramics or grease arresters offer optimal protection in these cases. They limit n V2-Eval Board is intended for use as a hardware platform to enable easy for a wide range of electronic applications. They surge voltages quickly and safely to uncritical values and reliably evaluation of FTDI“s Vinculum-II VNC2 series of embedded USB Host / Slave provide excellent thermal performance, eliminates discharge any dangerous currents that may occur. We have now controllers. The V2-Eval Board includes all the necessary components required the mess of grease, is more durable than mica and have full portfolio of Epcos devices that are very smal,l have a by a user to begin developing USB Host / Slave system applications based on the“total applied cost” compares favourably with fast response time and stable performance over the lifetime the VNC2 device. There are two USB type A connectors for connecting to USB other alternatives. with extremely low capacitance. slave peripherals, FT42232H USB to quad channel UART device for VNC2 programming & debug Online search term: 127-057 Online search term: epcos GDT functions and USB type B connector for connection to PC host via FT4232H. The board supply voltage is +4.75 to +5.25V and supply current is 60mA Online search term: 708-011010 eTech - ISSUE 6 See more online - Over 5,000 new products are added at every month eTech - ISSUE 6 11
  • 6. Think globally,act locallyWireless Personal areaNetworks: Zigbee or IEEE802.15.4? Certification,Standards and alliances. While electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves has been exploited for over a century, without alongside other standards from the same group (802.15) which defines wireless personal area networks (WPAN), and is itself The right profile The real power of the 802.15.4 standard is its ability the older IR style remote control with an RF device, which doesn’t rely on a clear line- of-sight to operate. More significantly, the ZigBee RF4CE specification. It means device manufacturers can now integrate Atmel’s solution secure in the knowledge that it will the incredible success of mobile phones its a subset of the more overarching group, 802, to create networks using multiple integration of ZigBee into consumer devices be compatible and interoperable with other real commercial potential may yet remain which defines local area networking in general nodes within the immediate area, and to will not only allow a single remote to control devices that have been certified to the unrealised. While cellular technology provided and is not restricted to wireless technologies. use this network to exchange relatively small multiple devices, but also enable those devices same standard. a focus for R&D as well as a return on that amounts of data in a power-efficient way. This to communicate directly, to share information investment, it has encouraged and enabled While the standard defines the physical (PHY) contrasts with other WPAN technologies, about the use and distribution of multimedia, Low power, short range wireless the development of an ever widening array and media access (MAC) layers, it is the such as WiFi and Bluetooth where, although and even shut down equipment automatically communication is expected to support of wireless technologies. Though the basic set of protocols developed to exploit the capable of creating ad hoc networks or peer- when it isn’t being used. greener living through the secure exchange principles remain unchanged, the various underlying network architecture that is actually to-peer connections, their higher bandwidth of data using intelligent sensors to control our “ regulations and protocols that are applied to known as ZigBee. Although the ‘brand’ name and more demanding power requirements will immediate environment which, in turn, could them continue to define the world around us. and the standard are often synonymous, early adopters were prone to using the PHY/MAC likely preclude them from encroaching on the burgeoning application areas where ZigBee is low power, help the global environment too. Perhaps unsurprisingly, wireless technologies that operate in the unlicensed part of the technology with proprietary protocols, rather than ZigBee itself, largely due to now being applied. short range wireless spectrum have seen the greatest amount of interest and as those frequencies become manufacturers wishing to protect their market share from competitors with A significant boost to ZigBee’s appeal – and prerequisite for interoperability and certification communication increasingly congested so too does the need compatible solutions. – is the development and application of is expected to for encoding techniques and protocols that profiles. These effectively define the application are able to cope with the ‘noise’ from other However, while this may have initially area for a ZigBee device and today there exist support greener ” devices.This, along with the need for reliable stymied the adoption of ZigBee in some a number of profiles which cover health care, find the latest Zigbee ranges at interoperability, has led to the evolution of applications areas, it has not impeded the home automation, smart metering and most living... industry standards, governed by independent development and adoption of IEEE 802.15.4 recently remote control. bodies which attempt to accommodate both compliant solutions. Today there are a number the commercial and technical requirements of of chipsets and even single-chip solutions The profile for remote control, which was Atmel recently announced that its developers and consumers alike. available on the market. RS stocks a number created after the ZigBee Alliance agreed to ATmega128RFA1 single-chip wireless Get more online... of compliant solutions from manufacturers cooperate with the RF4CE Consortium, is now microcontroller has been certified by the Share your thoughts on Zigbee One such standard is IEEE 802.15.4, often including Texas Instruments, Freescale, beginning to see widespread deployment in ZigBee Alliance to the ZigBee Remote Control adoption at referred to by its ‘brand name’ of ZigBee. It sits Microchip and Atmel. consumer electronics. It effectively replaces standard, which was developed for the12 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 13
  • 7. SuperSpeed or Supersede? Will USb 3.0 ring the death knell for slower serial interfaces? compatibility; USB 2.0 receptacles won’t be able to accept USB 3.0 external hard drive manufacturers are already announcing products, plugs as they are physically larger, however USB 3.0 receptacles will such as Buffalo Technology’s latest range of USB 3.0 enabled storage accept USB 2.0 plugs thanks to the connector’s design. solutions which was announced at the recent Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas. Beyond the physical differences, the protocol used by SuperSpeed is significantly different from its predecessors, although this will be largely CES 2011 was also the venue for a number of other announcements transparent to the user. It will require a new generation of controllers around USB 3.0, such as Genesys Logic’s introduction of a range and drivers, the availability of which will be significant in helping USB 3.0 of controllers including a 4-port hub controller, flash card reader realise its full potential. controller and a SATA bridge controller. VIA Labs also used CES 2011 to demonstrate its range of USB 3.0 controllers. The SuperSpeed interface uses full duplex transfer, thanks to the use of two independent differential channels. Also, the use of a packet based Speculation that USB 3.0 will displace USB 2.0 has, inevitably, caused protocol makes the data routable between host and device, as opposed some providers to question whether it is commercially viable to continue to the broadcast method used in USB 2.0, all of which contributes to to invest in USB 2.0 development. The answer is almost certainly yes, achieving the higher bandwidth speeds. because although SuperSpeed offers many benefits, it is unlikely to be cost-competitive in all applications. Predominantly this no longer relies on polling, or asking each peripheral whether it has data to send, meaning the bus is only active when The undeniable appeal of USB coupled with the benefits of SuperSpeed USB 3.0 has arrived; at over 10 times faster than USB 2.0 it promises to provide quicker file transfer between enabled devices, feeding consumers’ insatiable appetite data is being moved, which has the added benefit of improving power management, which is now addressed at every layer of the interface to deliver a significant power saving. For instance, at the link layer there are and its compatibility with USB 2.0 may even regenerate the market for USB in general, as no other serial interface offers the same level of convenience or, with the advent of SuperSpeed, the same for storing, streaming and sharing high bandwidth data such as four link states, which can be selected to trade off the power consumed high bandwidth. multimedia files. against the latency of the interface. Also, the USB 3.0 specification increases the amount of power that a host can distribute, from 500mA As with previous incarnations of the universal serial bus, and holding to 900mA. fast with its underlying premise of ease of use, USB 3.0 (or SuperSpeed USB as it has become known) will provide backwards compatibility with Support for the new USB 3.0 receptacle will, of course, take time but “ USB 2.0, even though it is electrically and mechanically quite different. there are a number of PCI bus expansion cards available for PCs that Over 10 times In order to reach the blisteringly high 5Gbit/s bandwidth it uses offer the new interface, while newer PCs, laptops and other devices will be able to support the standard natively. faster than two differential pairs; one for transmitting and one for receiving, as opposed to the single differential pair for tx/rx as used in USB 2.0. To Software support will come in the form of drivers, which will need to be added to all the operating systems in circulation, although initially this USb 2.0 accommodate this without sacrificing compatibility, the specification adds four additional wires to the cable assembly. This, in turn, may also involve peripheral manufacturers developing drivers for the relevant OS, too. it promises to necessitates a different connector profile but in order to make it physically compatible with the existing USB user base, the additional With high speed serial communications comes a need for provide quicker file connections are located at the back of the connector, behind the existing comprehensive test and measurement during the development phase transfer between USB 2.0 connections. and in response to this need, leading T&M companies including LeCroy find the latest USb 3.0 ranges at and Tektronix now offer automated test suites for USB 3.0, along with enabled This clever innovation does have some implications, however. It means that only Standard-A receptacles (the ones most frequently found on the necessary probes and interface hardware for their respective oscilloscopes. Get more online... ” devices PCs) will accept both USB 2.0 and SuperSpeed 3.0 Standard-A plugs. Standard-B, Powered-B, Micro-B and Micro-AB receptacles (the ones The primary appeal of USB 3.0 is its high speed and as it becomes more Share your thoughts on USb 3.0 Superspeed at now commonly found on portable devices) will only offer backwards widely adopted, it will create opportunities for high speed peripherals; www.designspark.com14 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 15
  • 8. “ It is important to note that not all open source designs must start ...hobbyists out that way and there is no reason why proprietary technology cannot be “open sourced” that is provided that you hold all the , to established rights to the design. However, most OSHW projects are open from Images from OShUG events multi-national the offset and are often the result of collaboration that crosses organisational and geographic boundaries. With public resources organisations have such as mailing lists, version control systems, wikis and bug trackers typically being employed in support of their development. come to realise the The poster child of the OSHW movement is without a doubt the inherent potential of Arduino microcontroller platform, and the success it has enjoyed is in no small part due to its open nature and the fact that this engaging in openIntroduction to aspect has served to foster a substantial ecosystem. Which has collaboration and not only benefited third parties through the creation of new business opportunities, but has also enabled the platform to secure liberal licensing ofOpen Source significant market share. Whilst its highly active and ever growing community of users and a culture of sharing has enabled global- hardware design scale support. ” artefacts... Arduino is just the tip of the iceberg and you’d be mistaken if you thought that OSHW was only concerned with simple systems. Thehardware movement boasts, for example, multiple cutting edge software- defined radio (SDR) projects, high performance embedded computing platforms, low cost desktop 3D printers and an affordable USB protocol analyser project, to name but a few out of hundreds. As was initially the case with open source software, OSHW has its own share of detractors. It may be difficult to at first see howby andrew back, Open Source hardware User Group it could work when the replication costs for hardware are so much greater than those associated with software. However, it offers the potential to democratise the hardware development process, reduce development costs, drive reuse, simplify business relationships in collaborative environments and to createWithin the last few years the open source hardware opportunities for new entrants. By its very nature it supportsmovement has been subject to explosive growth, as learning and for this and other reasons it is also gaining favour in education.hobbyists to established multi-national organisationshave come to realise the inherent potential of The numbers speak for themselves and as of Mayengaging in open collaboration and liberal 2010 there were already at minimum thirteen OSHW companies with >$1m revenue. While this mightlicensing of hardware design artefacts. What sound like small change, let us remember the humblestarted as a niche phenomenon is now a multi- beginnings of the multi-billion dollar open sourcemillion dollar industry that continues to grow and software industry.that shows no signs of slowing down.As the name suggests open source hardware (OSHW) adopts the principles and methodologies employed inthe development of open source software and applies them tohardware development. As with the development of open sourcesoftware there is no rigid formula, however, a fundamentalprinciple is that design artefacts will be made available at zero costand via a liberal licence. These may be, for example, schematics,CAD files, PCB layouts or C or HDL source code. Through publishingthese via an open source licence the copyright holder grants for information on the Open Source hardware User Groupanyone the right to study, modify and improve the design, and for visit http://oshug.orgthem in turn to subsequently make it or a derivative work availablein a similar manner to third parties. Get more online... DesignSpark regularly covers OShW developments. find out about the latest initiatives at www.designspark.com16 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 17
  • 9. CUSTOmERPROfIlE Power over Ethernet startedQ out as a proprietary technology developed by network equipment POWER uick OVER vendors such as Cisco, to deliver power to VoIP (Voice EThERNET over Internet Protocol) phones without using separate power supplies. uestions SImPlIfyING Other manufacturers soon realised the advantages of sending DC power over ThE EQUaTION Key facts the network: especially, Company Name Bytec Group cheaper cabling and higher Year established 2007 data rates than alternative Location Redhill. Surrey USb and aC powerline Number of employees 30 technologies. Key market Medical and rugged keyboards, Displays and HMI Website Interviewee name James Barr These are benefits not only for IP telephones, but also for security IEEE 802.3at Updated in 2009, IEEE 802.3at uses phantom power techniques to allow powered pairs Interviewee position Senior Product Designer cameras with pan/ tilt/ zoom functions, to also carry data. This extends its use to embedded computers, Ethernet 1000BASE-T, which uses all four cable pairs switches, thin clients and even LCD for Gigabit/s data. In real-life applications, PoE displays. Such diversity also brought the Plus or PoE+ is able to deliver 25.5W at 44VWhat is your latest product? how do you gain new skills? need for standardisation. and up to 350mA down a standard CategoryMediKey Mk2 Infection control keyboard Seminars and webcasts offer good opportunities for training 5 Cable using two twisted pairs. [Midspan on specific activities (mostly relating to software), but also the IEEE 802.3af-2003 manufacturers such as Phihong have extendedWhat differentiates your products? everyday activity of ‘design’ uncovers new challenges which The original IEEE 802.3af-2003 standard this capability by delivering power throughHigh level of water ingress protection, rugged enclosure push us all to explore all avenues of reference media to solve defined the implementation of sending unused data pairs as well as the networkand multipoint gesture touchpad. a problem. power as well as data over Ethernet cabling. cables in use.] Category 5 cables contain four twisted pairs,What new technologies does your product employ? What RS service do you find most useful in your but only two are used for data transfer in either PoE support from RSAnti-Microbial silver ion additive is included in the plastic and job and why? 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX. This leaves two RS stocks many components to support PoErubber covers. Brand new ‘widescreen’ format touchpad. The fast delivery of goods is essential. When you discover you pairs available to carry DC current. Power is designs including ICs from Texas Instruments, need something specific to complete a prototype you can most delivered to the end device (PD) either by PoE National Semiconductor, Linear Technologyhow did you equip yourselves with knowledge often find it in RS online and have it the next day. enabled Ethernet switches (endspans) or by and STM Electronics. In addition, our rangeof this new technology? figure 2. Typical PoE powered access point: injection from a midspan power supply. includes off-the-shelf solutions such asWe have a dedicated team of electronics engineers who What technology do you foresee having the biggest the access point’s PSU needs are supplied via powered device (PD) interfaces from Murata,routinely investigate new technologies to keep well impact on your next product? the Ethernet cable using the PoE splitter seen PoE enabled microcontrollers from Olimexinformed on new innovations. There is always evolution within our designs, sourcing of on the side of the Ethernet wall socket and Phihong’s range of midspan injectors electronic and mechanical components and having access to a and splitters.Give an example of the impact one of your products wide selection to choose from in one place is very important.has on, or the benefits it provides to, the end user. For example new switches which have better functionality or a RJ-45 Input RJ-45 OutputSold predominantly to the healthcare industry our Medi-Key smaller form factor than previously help to give our designers the (Data Only) (Data & Power)keyboard takes on board years of research gained through sales freedom to explore new options.into the medical sector. As a HMI (Human Machine Interface) Pin Symbol Description Symbol Description To learn more about PoE see thesolution it incorporates a touchpad and full size keyboard but What is the biggest threat to your business? 1 RX+ Data Receive(+) RX+ Data Receive(+) Design Tips section in this issuewith the crucial advantage of being able to be ‘deep cleaned’ Many sales are into funded organisations. There is always the 2 RX- Data Receive(-) RX- Data Receive(-) on Pages (28,29 and 30) for an(submerged in soapy water), essential to help prevent cross worry that budget cuts will affect our customers’ spending power. 3 TX+ Data Transmit(+) TX+ Data Transmit(+) Elektor reference design.contamination between different users and spread of 4 NC No Connection +Vdc DC power(+)contagious diseases. Where do you see your industry in 5 years? 5 NC No Connection +Vdc DC power(+) The medical industry on the whole tends to be fairlyhow do you learn about new technologies? constant. It is in the most part an industry (alongside military) 6 TX- Data Transmit(-) TX- Data Transmit(-)We regularly monitor trade press, websites and have a network of which weathers recessions well and has good opportunities 7 NC No Connection -Vdc DC power(-) Get more online...industry contacts who offer advice and keep us updated on new to grow as technology becomes less expensive or more 8 NC No Connection -Vdc DC power(-) Simply go to rswww.comtechnologies. mature over time. and search for “PoE”. figure 1. Example configuration with an original data-only versus a PoE solution18 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 19
  • 10. bNC and Sma type connectors and special features. Standard BNC Probes. TekProbeTM Level 1 BNC TekProbeTM Level 2 BNC TekVPI® Probes. TekVPI TekConnect® Probes. Probes with a plain BNC Probes. TekProbe Level 1 Probes. The TekProbe equipped probes offer Probes with TekConnect connector will connect BNC connector equipped Level 2 BNC shares the advances in power interface support thePRObE with virtually all Tektronix probes communicates scale information of the management and remote highest bandwidth oscilloscopes. Low cost scale information to the Level 1 but also provides control. TekVPI probes active probes offered by passive probes generally oscilloscope so that the power for a whole host are an ideal choice for Tektronix. The TekConnect have a plain BNC oscilloscope correctly of active electonic probe applications where interface is designed connector. conveys accurate designs. computer control is to support probe amplitude information. important. requirements >20 GHz.SElECTION? In addition to imposing bandwidth and rise- time constraints, the real-life probe also acts signal or vibrations, for example. By selecting a probe appropriate to the type of signal, RS also carries a constantly expanding library of manufacturer’s technical briefs, applicationNO PROblEm. as a load at the test point, which can change direct measurement results will be notes and other resources will help get the the signal that the circuit or signal source sees. attained more quickly. most out of probes and other equipment. Especially at higher frequencies, capacitive loading reduces bandwidth and increases rise Moreover, designers need to consider the times for the overall measurement system. amplitudes of the signals being measured. This effect can be minimized by selecting Are they within the dynamic range of the probes with low tip capacitance values. ‘scope? If not, a probe is required that can adjust dynamic range. Generally,by Trevor J Smith, market Development manager, Tektronix A further consideration is the probe’s this will be through attenuation with a inductance, which interacts with capacitance 10X or higher probe. to cause ringing at a certain frequency. The impact is reduced by designing probe If all this sounds over-complex, there is plenty grounding so that the ringing frequency of help available to guide users through the Test and measurement Fundamentally, the probe needs to provide a Delivering signals faithfully occurs beyond the bandwidth limit of the selection process. RS and Tektronix have connection of adequate quality between the Beyond these requirements, the ideal probe probe+oscilloscope system. recently announced a new on-line, interactive with oscilloscopes is key signal source and oscilloscope input. The ideal needs to take the signal at the probe tip tool that enables users to select by series, aspect of electronics probe would offer convenient and easy physical and faithfully deliver it unchanged to the a complex decision? Not any more. model number, or standards/application, then design. Of course, the first connection and absolute signal fidelity with oscilloscope input. This is impossible to achieve Probe selection doesn’t stop there. It fine tune the search with specific testing zero signal source loading and total immunity in practice, but designers should strive to should also factor-in the type of signal being requirements. The list of matching products priority is choosing the from noise. minimise attenuation, maximise bandwidth, measured: voltages, logic, currents, optical updates with each step. correct scope for the task, and deliver as close as possible to linear phasebut probe selection should For miniaturized circuitry, such as high-density at the voltages and frequencies of interest. surface mount technology (SMT), connection not be overlooked either. ease and convenience are promoted through For accurate amplitude measurements theUsing the wrong probe can subminiature probe heads; and most suppliers bandwidth of the measurement system should potentially compromise offer a range of probe-tip adapters specifically as a general rule be five times greater than the designed for SMT devices. At the other end of frequency of the waveform being measured; measurements and the spectrum, applications such as industrial and in measuring pulse rise or fall times, ultimately derail the power circuitry demand physically larger the rise time of the probe and oscilloscope probes with greater margins of safety, together should be three to five times faster final design. in order to handle high voltages and than that of the pulse being measured. heavier-gauge wires. Analysing the system bandwidth or rise Oscilloscopes can also have different input times from the individual oscilloscope and connector types and input impedances. For probe bandwidths is far from simple, so example, most scopes use a simple BNC- manufacturers of quality oscilloscopes type input connector; others may use SMA specify these values based on specific connectors; and still others broaden the combinations of ‘scope and recommended Get more online... options to include support for readout, probe models. Using a probe that is not on the RS and Tektronix have announced trace ID, probe power or other oscilloscope’s recommended list runs the risk Specialised probes provide a convenient an online interactive probe selection special features. of unpredictable measurement results. physical connection to high density SmT boards. tool, available at: eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 21
  • 11. maRKETTRENDSEuropeanmarket WatchWireless market moves to Cash in on m2m boommachine-to-machine is the focus as mobile communications seeks ubiquitous presenceby francis SidecoWith the arrival of the second decade of the 21st century, the global M2M devices in most cases use similar – if not the exact same –wireless business is shifting its focus from the so-called ubiquity products and solutions employed in the handset and non-handsetof coverage to the ubiquity of presence through the proliferation of wireless device market for their communications requirements.communications technology into a range of non-handset devices. Whilemuch attention has been heaped upon devices like netbooks, e-readers This represents a major opportunity for the whole wireless value chain,and tablets, one of the most critical areas underpinning the ubiquitous at all node, to expand its total available market with relatively minorpresence revolution will be wireless connections for Industrial Machine- modifications to its existing products, if at all.toMachine (M2M) communications, an area that will generate hugegrowth opportunities for the wireless supply chain, according to new However, there are also important differences M2M and consumerIHS iSuppli research. wireless devices. First, M2M now is mainly oriented toward 2G wireless service – unlike the 3G-centric mobilized consumer devices – evenThis was one of the many topics in the wireless market that was though M2M is beginning to transition to 3G.discussed during iSuppli’s 2010 European Briefing, held on Dec 1-3,at the Hotel Concorde in Berlin, Germany, during Day One’s topic Second, among consumers, the main concern is high speed andUbiquitous Connectivity and the Renewed Economy. performance. On the M2M side, the overriding consideration is rugged design.Worldwide shipments of Wireless Wide Area Networking (WWAN)modules are set to rise by a factor of 10 from 2009 to 2014. In contrast, Companies that can manage these differences whole leveraging theirglobal mobile handset shipments will increase by only 40 percent during existing wireless technology stand to benefit enormously from the arrivalthe same period. of the M2M market.During the past 10 years, the wireless industry has managed toextensively deploy data-capable digital networks, leading to the near-ubiquity of wireless subscriptions, with worldwide subscriptions forwireless services reaching 5 billion in September, equalling 73.4 percentof the earth’s population. However, in 2010, the wireless industry nowstands at the threshold of venturing outside of its traditional market ofhandsets and insinuating itself into every aspect of the human condition “– including communications between the machines that support ourday-to-day activities. Worldwide shipmentsMajor markets expected to adopt wireless M2M technology includeutilities, automotive and healthcare. of Wireless Wide area Networking (WWaN)In healthcare, for instance, wireless M2M allows cardiac patients to beoutfitted with a device that collects and uploads data to a medical center. modules are set to rise MARKET LEADING CAPACITORS AVAILABLE AT RS COMPONENTSThis enables heart patients to engage in normal day-to-day activities by a factor of 10 from ”while undergoing medical diagnoses that previously required a trip RS NOW STOCKING 8000 PANASONIC PART NUMBERSto the hospital. In utilities, wireless M2M can be used for automatedmeter reading, advanced metering infrastructure and smart grids. iSuppli 2009 to 2014estimates that for every household, at least three types of meters can Including Resistors, Inductors, Batteries, Film Capacitors and Semiconductorsbe connected: electric, gas and water.22 eTech - ISSUE 6
  • 12. DESIGN DESIGNREVIEW REVIEWCONNECTING Design considerations for the Programming the Digital Potentiometers Resources anti-aliasing filter The potentiometers are programmed from an [1] Software drivers for the AN16 module The frequency plots in Fig.1 provide a I2C serial bus with two allocated to each filter together with full code listings of sampleThE aNalOGUE graphical representation of aliasing. In this controlling the resistive components which set programs can be downloaded from the EDP example we are going to sample a signal the cut-off frequency. [1] Advantage is taken Design Centre on the DesignSpark website at: which has a maximum frequency component of a simplification of the Sallen-Key filter which of fmax (the band in green) using a sampling occurs when the two resistances and twoWORlD TO frequency of fs. The plot on the left shows capacitances are in the ratio 2 to 1. [2] [2] Analysis of the Sallen-Key Architecture, TI all the new frequencies present in the non- Application Report, SLOA024B. aliased sampled signal. Note that we nowRS EDP have new bands of frequencies (in blue) each with a width of 2 x fmax and centred on the Share your views on this article sampling frequency ƒs and its harmonics. This at is a correctly sampled signal because fs > 2 x fmax. By contrast the plot on the right shows extensive aliasing where the various bands overlap leading to the production of erroneous frequencies in the green baseband. dBanalogue Input module: Setting up the anti-aliasing filter 0 2-Pole Filters, AN0 or AN1 The practical problem is that few ‘raw’ signals Roll-off = -40dB/decade have a nice, clean fmax. In order to avoid aliased components being produced, a low- -Get the Specification pass anti-aliasing filter needs to be placed in 20 4-Pole Filter, AN0 + AN1 circuit before the ADC. Roll-off = -80dB/decadeBefore the considering the analogue input f > 2f : No aliasing f < 2f : aliasing S max S maxto a digital system, the designer must have -available a certain amount of numerical data: Fig.2 shows the trade-off between sampling 40 Signal Power Signal Power rate and the order of the low-pass filter. The • The maximum frequency component of Aliased Frequencies designer can massively over-sample and then - the analogue signal use a simple low-order filter or select a lower 60 rate and then be faced with the need for a • The Dynamic Range of the analogue complex multi-pole type. However the ability signal (ratio of the maximum to the of the DSP device to process the algorithm minimum input signal level) between consecutive samples must be 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 f Hz • The required Signal-to-Noise ratio of the considered before the sampling rate is set. Filter cut-off range digitized signal It can save a lot of trouble later if the DSP AN0 or AN1 program is tested and timed on a suitable fig. 3 frequency response of digitally-controlled filters on aN0 and aN1 development system before the sampling rateThe first point is what concerns us here when is fixed and the filter designed.deciding on the cut-off frequency of the input fig.1 aliasinganalogue low-pass-filter. anti-aliasing filters on the analogue Input module (EDP-am-aN16) Signal PowerDecide on the sampling rate Sampling rate mUCh greater than Nyquist Sallen-Key filters are used on the AnalogueThe sampling rate is set according to the Input module which provides filter circuits forNyquist criterion which states that it must be up to 16 input channels. Eight have simple Lower Order, shallow roll-off LPF required Rf = 6772556u/Fcut_off; /* Calculate filter R2 resistor value */at least twice that of the maximum frequency passive 1-pole filters, six have fixed cut-off R2_Pot = 12000u*Rf/(12000u-Rf); /* Digital pot in parallel with 12k resistor */component present in the analogue signal. This (12kHz) 2-pole Sallen-Key filters with a roll-off R1_Pot = R2_Pot/2u; /* R1 resistor value = R2/2 */ensures accurate reproduction of the signal, of -40dB/decade and two have 2-pole filtersbut a much higher rate will ease the design whose cut-off frequency can be set by digital Set_resistance(1u,R1_Pot); /* Call AN16 driver and set Pot channel 1 */of a vital circuit that precedes the ADC: potentiometers. These two filters on channels Set_resistance(2u,R2_Pot); /* Call AN16 driver and set Pot channel 2 */the Anti-Aliasing filter. AN0 and AN1 can be cascaded by means of Signal Power a solder-link to provide a single 4-pole filter on AN0 with -80dB/decade roll-off. listing 1. C code for calculating the aN0 filter resistance values Sampling rate JUST greater than Nyquist High Order, steep roll-off LPF required Get more online... fig.2 Designing the anti-aliasing filter: Cut-off and Roll-off See the latest on EDP at eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 25
  • 13. how unlocking Latest RS-Introductionsinformation froma fan is a Latest introductions to the RS-offering include cost/perfor- blast! mance optimizations, range extensions, solutions for railway applications and other innovations to meet state of the art customer requirements. A snapshot of the continuous TRACOPOWER DC/DC converter innovation program:Communication may sound like an odd way to TRA-1 1 W SIP package, semi-regulated, 1500 VDC I/O-isolationaddress growing energy concerns and rising prices TRV-1 1 W SIP package, semi-regulated,but communicating with fans can do just that. 3000 VDC I/O-isolation TMR-3E 3 W SIP package, 2:1 input, cost optimized de- ebm-papst manufactures around one million fans and motors per week and increasingly these multiple devices to be connected on one single cable that can be up to 1200 metres long. The hardware needed for RS-485 is also very low cost sign, remote On/Off are electronically commutated or EC fans. These using simple screw terminals in most cases and THL-3WI 3 W DIP package, 4:1 input, remote On/Off, fans offer much higher efficiency than AC fans and typically just one driver IC connected directly to their onboard electronics offers communication to a microprocessor. RS-485 is found as a common input filter to meet EN 55022 class A a level that was previously impossible. However, interface on PLC controllers and on industrial PCs THL-3WISM 3 W SMD package, 4:1 input, remote On/Off, many end-users still consider fans as dumb, making it quick and easy to connect them to fans input filter to meet EN 55022 class A, unintelligent devices and are missing out on the and other devices. Modbus is also a very common vital information which is available to keep protocol used by leading PLC manufacturers and cost optimized design a system running. Whether a cooling building management systems (BMS). TSR-3 3 A Ultra compact non isolated switching regulators, system is looking after a data centre or highest efficiency, remote On/Off keeping perishable goods in perfect The Modbus interface on larger ebm-papst fans condition, downtime is costly and covers speed setting, speed monitoring and THL-6WISM 6 W SMD package, 4:1 input, time consuming. condition monitoring information such as hours run input filter to meet EN 55022 class A and fault status with appropriate alarm outputs. TEN-8WI 8 W DIP 24 package, extended product range All fans move air and air contains This information can be collected and analysed to with contaminants such as dust and allow maintenance personnel to detect potential other airborne particles which can problems and implement preventive maintenance. 43 - 160 VDC input range and railway approval clog filters and leave deposits Communication with fans can bring many benefits, THL-10WI 10 W 1“ x 1“ package, 4:1 input, high perfor- that will reduce a system’s as can communication with any device. However mance, efficiency. These issues can be putting this information to good use is key for managed by using speed control to business and engineers alike if they are to have an cost optimized design, standard pinout optimise air flow rate to the minimum advantage in today’s markets. THL-20WI 20 W 1“ x 1“ package, 4:1 input, high perfor- required. Fan speed control also brings mance, other advantages such as reducing power consumption and increasing life expectancy. cost optimized smallest 20 W converter! It can also allow other parts of the system to run TEN-20WIR 20 W 2“ x 1“ package, 4:1 input incl. high input more efficiently too, by stabilising head pressure in range a refrigeration circuit for example. 43-160 VDC, EN 50155 for railway applications By communicating with the onboard electronics TEN-40N 40 W 2“ x 1“ package, 4:1 input, high perfor- of EC fans, closed loop speed control has never find out more about the ebm-papst mance, been easier. Using an RS-485 interface supporting range of fans available from RS at smallest 40W converter! the Modbus RTU protocol, ebm-papst EC fans provide both speed control, through pulse width TEP-150WI 150 W High power module, new available with modulation (PWM) and 0-10volt input signals, and filter speed monitoring. option to meet EN 55022 class B Get more online... Unlike the more familiar RS-232, RS-485 can be Share your thoughts on fan technology configured to act as a simple network allowing at For full TRACOPOWER Product Range: www.tracopower.com26 eTech - ISSUE 6
  • 14. DESIGN DESIGNTIPS TIPS IN aSSOCIaTION WITh +3V3 GPIO0 GPIO1 GPIO2 MCLR LEDA VB1 VA1 VA2 RX VCC VA1 GND TX VCCNETWORKER a micro 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 R102 R105 C101 C102 C103 C104 C105 C106 JP2 560R 4k7 100n 100n 100n 100n 100n 100n +2V5 +3V3an advanced web server with 19 26 38 48 49 54 57 R103 FE101 AVDD VDD VDD VDDRX VDDTX VDDPLL VDD MCLR 7 53 1k MCLR RBIAS 18 ENVREG 2 10 R104 RE0/P2D VDDCORE/VCAP 1k @ 100MHz EEPROM 1 C112 RE1/P2C 2k26by Sven Schlender (Germany) C107 64 63 RE2/P2B IC1 RD0/P1B 60 59 GPIO3 10u TR1 * 100n 62 RE3/P3C RE4/P3B RD1/ECCP3/P3A RD2/CCP4/P3D 58 1 16 61 2 15 RE5/P1C 51 J1 TPOUT+ 3 14 1 8 50an Internet connection would be a valuable addition RG4/CCP5/P1D TPOUT- TPIN+ 47 6 11 2 3to many projects, but often designers are put off by 17 46 RF1/AN6/C2OUT TPIN- 4 16 7 10 RF2/AN7/C1OUT 5the complexities involved. The ‘NetWorker’, which 15 14 RF3/AN8 RF4/AN9 RA0/LEDA/AN0 RA1/LEDB/AN1 24 23 LEDA LEDB 8 9 6consists of a small printed circuit board, a free software 7 +3V3 13 RF4/AN10/CVREF RA2/AN2/VREF- 22 GPIO4 R107 R108 R109 R110 ETHER_TRANS_N5 8 12 21 GPIO5 49R9 49R9 49R9 49R9library and a ready-to-use microcontroller-based web RF6/AN11 RA3/AN3/VREF+ SPI_CS 11 28 RF7/SS1 RA4/T0CKL PIC18F6XJ6X 27server, solves these problems and allows beginners GPIO0 3 RB0/INT0/FLT0 RA5/AN4 C108 C109to add Internet connectivity to their projects. more GPIO1 4 30 RB1/INT1 RC0/T1OSO/T13CKI 100n 100n +3V3 GPIO2 5 29 RB2/INT2 RC1/T1OSI/ECCP2/P2Aexperienced users will benefit from features such as SPI * VCC 6 44 RB3/INT3 RB4/KBIO RC2/ECCP1/P1A RC3/SCK1/SCL1 33 SPI_INT 34 SPI_CLK IC2 2communications, power over Ethernet (PoE) and more. MCLR PGC MCLR 43 42 RB5/KBI1 RB6/KBI2/PGC RC4/SDI1/SDA1 RC5/SDO1 35 SPI_MISO 36 SPI_MOSI VCC EEPROM 37 31 TX EEPROM 1 PGD RB7/KBI3/PGD RC6/TX1/CK1 SCIO 32 RX GND 11AA02E48 VSSPLL RC7/RX1/DT1 VSSRX VSSTX AVSS VSS VSS VSS VSSThere OSC1 OSC2 GND are three key elements in voltage (3.3 V is recommended) using the ISP 9 20 45 52 39 40 55 25 41 56 3 R101 connecting a device to an voltage regulator included in the PIC. Pin 1M R106Ethernet network: the Ethernet connection ENVREG determines whether the voltage Q101 560Rhardware itself, the software library and finally regulator is enabled. A 10 µF capacitor (C112) JP1 C110 C111the top-level firmware functions. provides smoothing and capacitors C101 to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 C106 positioned around the microcontroller 33p 25MHz 33p SPI_MISO SPI_MOSI SPI_CLK SPI_INT SPI_CS GPIO4 GPIO5 GPIO3 LEDBThe circuit is based around a Microchip PIC18- decouple the supplies. A 25 MHz crystal VB1 GND VB2 VA2 VB2family microcontroller which includes a built-in (Q101) provides an external clock for the 100552 - 11Ethernet transceiver. The author has added microcontroller, and the Ethernet transceivera few new functions to the free C software clock is also derived from this source. figure 1. Circuit diagram showing the PIC microcontroller, transformer and network socket.library available from the manufacturer thatimplements the TCP/IP stack. The final element The project includes a bootloader which A PoE-standard device must support reference current (hence its bizarre value). This Pins VA1, VA2, VB1 and VB2 allow the moduleof the project is a web server running on the allows new firmware to be uploaded over the both possibilities. To take advantage of the in turn determines the signal amplitude on to be used in conjunction with a power overmicrocontroller which can communicate with Ethernet interface. The reset circuit comprises phantom supply a special transformer is TPOUT+ and TPOUT–. Ethernet regulator, sometimes called a ‘PDother hardware via the I/O pins of the device. R102, R103 and C107 R102 is a pull-up resistor, . circuit from the network. On the far side of the needed with centre taps to the windings on module’.Other advanced features can be implemented and R103 and C107 filter the reset signal to transformer is an RJ45 socket J1, into which a the network side. There are two LEDs mounted inside thesuch as PoE. Now let’s see what makes the prevent spurious resets. C107 can interfere standard Ethernet cable can be plugged. Ethernet socket. LED1 lights when the link is The active-low MCLR pin allows the modulemodule tick. with the operation of the ICSP interface, and so A special feature of the transformer we have A suitable PoE regulator circuit can be up and LED2 indicates network activity. The to be reset. It is also pulled low briefly when should be removed if it is to be used. chosen is its compatibility with the IEEE connected to these headers to derive a supply LEDs are driven from the PIC via series current- power is applied to the module.The circuit The EEPROM stores configuration data. It 802.3af power over Ethernet (PoE) standard. for the module from the 48 V DC provided over limiting resistors R105 and R106.Figure 1 shows the circuit of the module. also includes a 48-bit ID code, called the MAC Under this standard a 48 V supply is provided the network.At the heart of the unit is a Microchip address, required for Ethernet communication. on the network and a powered device (PD) can User-side interfacePIC18F67J60. Most of the circuitry required draw current from this supply. There are two Resistors R107 to R110 provide impedance The user-side interface consists of two 10-way Continued page 30 >is provided in the device and only a few Ethernet interface alternative arrangements possible. matching, and C108, C109 and FE101 help 0.1 inch pitch headers. As well as carryingexternal components are needed to connect The connection to the Ethernet network reduce the effect of interference spikes on the PoE connections and the module’s powerto a network. comprises four signals, TPOUT+, TPOUT–, 1. using the spare conductor pairs (on J1 these the network connections. supply, the headers are also directly connected TPIN+ and TPIN–. These signals are passed are pins 4 and 5 and pins 7 and 8); or to certain pins on the microcontroller.The Ethernet PICs require a 2.5 V core voltage via the Ethernet transformer TR1, which 2. phantom supply over the signal pairs (pins 1 R104 is a bias resistor that provides the The supply voltage should be betweensupply, which can be derived from a higher galvanically isolates the main part of the and 2 and pins 3 and 6). Ethernet transceiver circuit with a known 3.1 V and 3.6 V.28 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 29
  • 15. DESIGN knitter-switch Multi-FunctionTIPS number one in switches Tact Switches Switches for all Applications< Continued from page 29 5 Million Switches in Stock Worldwide Support be extended and modified as long as it is Using the modulePins TX and RX are connected to a UART that only used in Microchip devices. It contains a A simple way to find out what IP address hascan support speeds of up to 115200 baud. rich collection of hardware drivers, low-level been acquired is to use Bonjour, a programAn SPI interface is available on the pins with protocol implementations (ARP IP TCP and so , , developed by Apple which is now also available Toggle Switches Tact Switcheslabels starting ‘SPI’. The interface can operate on) and a couple of important application-level for Windows (most simply installed as ain master mode or in slave. protocol implementations such as DHCP and HTTP The simple MPFS file system is also . browser plug-in, for example for Firefox [2]). Rotary Coded Dual-in-lineSoftware libraryA ‘stack’ is a collection of software included to allow storage of web page source data. Example applications, a bootloader, tools Serial modes When a suitable network connection is Switches Switches Slide Switches Micro Switchesimplementations of protocols and drivers, and comprehensive documentation of all stack established with the serial server data canusually arranged in a hierarchy of layers. At functions complete the package. be sent using TCP/IP to the unit. Furtherthe bottom end of the stack are the hardware details on the additional protocols requireddrivers which are responsible for getting data application software for operation in this mode can be found in abits transferred onto the network wires. At the The module has an integrated bootloader that supplementary document downloadable knitter-switchtop end of the stack is a simple interface fordata exchange. allows a new version of its firmware to be uploaded over the Ethernet connection for from the Elektor website. Pushbutton knitter-switch UK Limited Switches Grove House, Lutyens Close, installation at any time: suitable hex files are Chineham Court, Basingstoke,In theory, the layered protocol model makes available on the project’s web pages [1]. The RG24 8AG, United Kingdomit relatively easy to make modifications to one author developed the application softwarelayer (such as the hardware driver) without for the module using the MPLAB IDE. It is Rotary Switches Tel: +44 (0) 1256 338670affecting the others. In practice however, written entirely in ANSI C and can be Fax: +44 (0) 1256 338671 Encoderswhen implemented on a microcontroller, the compiled using the free version of the Email: ksuk@knitter-switch.comhardware and the stack are very closely tied Microchip C18 compiler. www.knitter-switch.comtogether, and lots of tricks need to be used tokeep memory usage low. Nevertheless, TCP/IP The application consists of three modules,stack implementations are available for a wide called Main, Web and Appl. The bootloaderrange of microcontroller families, often for free jumps directly to Main, where the TCP/IP stack,and direct from the manufacturer. the EEPROM driver and the Appl module areMicrochip offers a TCP/IP stack for its PIC18, initialised. Then Appl and the TCP/IP stack Internet LinksPIC24, dsPIC and PIC32 microcontroller receive processing time alternately in an [1] written in ANSI C. It is free and can infinite loop. [2] DesignSparkPCB Component list Resistors (SmD 0603) RS Stock No. Semiconductors RS Stock No R101 = 1MΩ 678-9932 IC1= PIC18F67J60 (TQFP64), 400-766 R102 = 4.7kΩ 679-0484 IC2= 11AA02E48 (SOT23) 667-8034 R103 = 1kΩ 678-9875 TR1= 10/100Base-TX transformer, NeW 3d vieWer R104 = 2.26kΩ 679-0128 Halo N5 (SMD), PoE to IEEE 802.3af 615-4406 or 615-4434 R105,R106 = 560Ω 679-0541 R107–R110 = 49.9Ω (1%) 679-0459 miscellaneous RS Stock No. reLeaSeS your J1= 8+2+2 pin RJ45 socket, w. 2 integrated LEDs (use integrated TR1) Capacitors (SmD 0603): RS Stock No. JP1,JP2 = 10-pin SIL pinheader (lead pitch 0.1 in.) 681-3004 C101–C109= 100nF 391-246 Q101 = 25 MHz SMD quartz crystal, HC49UP case 671-9280 C110,C111= 33pF 616-9161 PCB, Elektor # 100552-11 [1] CreaTiviTy C112= 10µF 698-3239 Inductors (SmD 0603): RS Stock No. FE101 = 1k @ 100 MHz 367-4856 The World’s Most Powerful Free Schematic and PCB Layout Tool is yours to download now Get more online... Download your free copy at WIrED BY30 eTech - ISSUE 6
  • 16. ElECTRONICS ElECTRONICSEXTRaS EXTRaS ISO-TECh COmPONENT TESTER Ideal for use in development and production environments. n a low cost, battery powered component tester with a 3½ digit lCD display and a maximum reading of 1999. Tests: batteries, diodes, lEDs, transistors, SCRs, and measures resistance and capacitance. Online search term: 687-5282 mICRO-TECh SCREWDRIVER SET Ergonomically designed handle for maximum grip, optimum torque transmission and handling accuracy. n 11-piece tool set with 8 x screwdrivers that hOOK -UP WIRE DISPENSER are colour coded by size for easy selection of correct tool, electronic cutters, snipe nose This transparent tube and rack system pliers and a set of tweezers. Screwdriver types keeps hook-up wire neat, clean and are: 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2 and 2.5 x 35mm slotted, No. conveniently at hand. 000, No. 00 and No. 0 x 35mm Phillips®. Online search term: 162-2910 n The hook-up wire dispenser kit contains a range ofspools of hook-up wire suitable for UL/CSA applications. Each kit contains a cut and strip tool and five spools of bENCh maGNIfIERSblack, blue, green, red and white wire in a rack mounted magnifying lamp which is ideal for electronic design and repair engineers. durable dispensing tube. UlTRaSONIC ClEaNING TaNKS Online search term: hookup dispenser Provides efficient and reliable cleaning n Flexible headed lamp incorporating a magnifying glass of circuit boards and other items which provides shadow free multi-direction light with no fREEZER SPRay heat emission. n A range of ultrasonic baths, microprocessor controlled Online search term: bench magnifiers baths and accessories. Tanks are in a range of sizes from 2 a powerful non-corrosive refrigerant for use as a litres to 22 litres. Microprocessor versions provide control rapid and safe method of cooling small components, particularly in electronic equipment. of heater and timer. Online search term: Kerry bmP71 labEl PRINTER n Ideal for use in locating faults, to assess low temperature performance or to prevent damage during soldering. Reduces bmP71 is the essential tool to handle temperature down to -50°C (dependent upon initial temperature all your label printing needs. of the component). Extension tube aids access to components in confined and difficult to reach areas. Fully halogenated CFC’s n The 300dpi thermal label printer prints on more than 30 different have been replaced by HFC134a/HFC152a with an ozone depletion types of label materials from high temperature labels to static potential of 0. dissipative labels and all created quickly and easily using the full Online search term: 846-682 keyboard layout . Ideal for wire and cable identification, circuit board and component identification, and barcode labelling, the BMP71 is suitable for both benchtop and portable use. Online search term: bmP71 IPa ClEaNER PICOlOG mUlTIChaNNEl VOlTaGE Isopropyl alcohol (IPa) is an internationally DaTa lOGGERS approved cleaning solvent to standards set Designed to meet the needs of general by the major manufacturers. purpose voltage, sensor and transducer DIN RaIl POWER SUPPlIES logging applications. n Designed for use where the application of CfC baseda recently expanded range of competitively solvents is undesirable, it will thoroughly clean most priced DIN rail power supplies. n These devices plug directly into a PC via USB 2.0 and electronic equipment leaving a residue free surface. Will also require no external power supply. Two versions offering remove flux residues from PCbs. n Starting at under £30 the range includes either: 12 channels at 10 bit resolution, or 16 channels at Online search term: 132-508 all common output voltages, and current 12 bit resolution. Supplied with software development kit. capacities from 0.4 to 40a. all units feature Online search term: Picolog 12 universal, full range aC inputs and most offer output voltage adjustment. Online search term: rs din rail power supply32 eTech - ISSUE 6 See more online - Over 5,000 new products are added at every month eTech - ISSUE 6 33
  • 17. “ The use ofadditional visual,through changesin lighting, or audiofeedback, can beused to compensatefor the reduction intactile response ”The power of touchby Jerry abraham, Central Product manager, RS ComponentsTechnological progress has dramatically changed the way that we interact withmachinery, and reshaped assumptions of how user interfaces are designed.Early human-machine interface (hmI) designs were products of necessity.Before electronic control systems became the norm, peoplewere accustomed to using mechanical force technologies, such as membrane contacts, have been in used for many years. Touchscreen interfaces on mobile phones have prototyping and acceptance testing of HMI designs to gauge user reaction. 1241 series that include O-ring seals to protect against liquid ingress. and resilience without the drawbacks of capacitive technology. mechanical feedback. In systems where it is important to demonstrate to the user that contact has been made without involvingto interact with a piece of machinery. They demonstrated more recently that the absence Because legends can easily be overprinted As the travel distance on vandal-proof ITW’s ActiveTouch technology, employed in the another form of feedback, tactile responseused levers and long-travel switches to make of tactile feedback is no hindrance to usability, on custom layouts, the look and feel of pushbuttons can be limited, many of these company’s T01 series, uses built-in transducers remains important, providing applications forand break physical contacts or move gears as long as the system responds consistently the membrane keypad can be more easily devices can be ordered with built-in LEDs to supply an ultrasonic signal that is damped devices such as the Arcolectric T09 series.into place. The only places we see those types and immediately. integrated with the overall industrial design that change state when pressed to give the by contact with a user’s finger. This reduces But the evolution of electronics has shownof control today are in systems that need a of the complete system. This can be used user better feedback. Making the switches the ‘ring down’ time of the ultrasonic pulse, that there is much more to HMI designmechanical override, such as the emergency The use of additional visual, through changes to provide the consistent look and feel that is purely touch-sensitive rather than relying on similar to the damping of a bell after it is struck. than tactile feedback. Manufacturers haveexit doors on trains or aircraft. in lighting, or audio feedback, such as the use considered by ergonomists to be an important switch travel can improve the resilience of A microprocessor detects this change in decay responded to this evolution with a greatly of synthesised or sampled ‘click’ sounds, can factor in ease of use. the HMI and make possible a wider range of and signals whether the button has been expanded range of options that support allAs electronic control began to predominate, be used to compensate for the reduction in panel designs that are not restricted by the pressed or not. forms of industrial design.the lever – which needed a lot of force to tactile response. Many HMIs have to survive hostile conditions – techniques that need to be used to protectoperate – gave way to the pushbutton that they may be splashed by liquids that then seep moving elements against deliberate vandalism. Another approach is piezoelectric sensing,could switch between two closely spaced One advantage of non-pushbutton designs into the equipment through gaps between employed by Apem in its PBA series ofcircuit traces. The assumption remained that lies in design flexibility. Take, for example, the switches and mounting. And problems in In difficult environments, the capacitive buttons. A piezoelectric sensor uses the See the latest aPEm and ITW hmIusers like to have tactile feedback when they the AC3875 kit manufactured by Apem. This outdoor equipment such as parking meters touchscreens favoured by high-end mobile change in pressure on the surface of the ranges at pushbutton-based interfaces. However, membrane keypad provides the customer the includes the actions of hostile users. Vandal- phones and consumer products are often button to change the voltage presented to athe rise of touch panels has demonstrated that option to insert their own custom graphs for proofing pushbutton switches is difficult but impractical. Because they rely on body monitoring microprocessor.people do not need the sensation of travel in a specialised designs. It is possible to punch manufacturers have succeeded in closing off capacitance, they frequently do not respond Get more online...switch to be comfortable using a system. holes in the keypad to show the state of avenues of attack so that buttons cannot be to users wearing gloves. Manufacturers This does not mean there is no place for the Share your views on hmI technology LEDs mounted behind it as the individual prised out of their mounting. Examples of such as Apem and ITW have developed traditional pushbutton switch. People are integration at www.designspark.comInterfaces that use low-travel switching pads are pressed. Overall, this allows the easy vandal-proof products include the Schurter technologies that provide touch-sensitivity used to the idea of the Stop button with its34 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 35
  • 18. In our previous eTECh article we discussed how the high level power architecture in complex multi-rail power systems can have a strong influence on product energy use. This article builds on the initial discussion to describe a new concept in power system design - the Rapid Power System (RPS). figure 1 – Rapid Power System (RPS) Test Unit “ ...provides New Concept - Rapid Power System The RPS provides a main 12Vdc rail and Often, provision of the power supply for four user pluggable module zones giving detailed a new product is considered late in the development process. The RPS allows a the capability of up to five DC output rails. A total system load of 60W is possible real-time designer to implement a custom multi-rail power supply at the very first stages of with module output of up to +/-25Vdc and +/-6Adc. The test system will monitor the knowledge new product development which brings minimum, maximum and average value required to a number of key benefits: of each DC output voltage and current as well as measuring mains AC input power, minimise power 1. The ability for a designer to rapidly configure a complex multi-rail power frequency, RMS voltage, RMS current, system output power, total power loss, consumption subsystem with minimal power design experience. overall conversion efficiency and operating temperature. Use of the host application throughout the running on a computer allows the user ” 2. The capability to easily provide detailed to chart all the system variables over new product power use information during product time in order to provide complete powerRapid power development which helps the user to qualification of a new product. minimise product energy use and form an accurate power system load profile. 3. The flexibility to modify the power supply very quickly if the specification changes.for the modern electronics system 4. A low risk route to easily map the custom power subsystem into volume production. RPS consists of two main products; by Dr. Iain mosely, Technical Director of Zonetech a prototyping test system which is used during the product development phase and a generic platform onto which proven designs can then be mapped for volume production. Continued page 38>36 eTech - ISSUE 6 eTech - ISSUE 6 37
  • 19. < Continued from page 37Example System – External hard Disk Drive measurementsAn external hard disk drive requiring +5V and +12V voltage W mains aC - Powerrails was powered using the RPS system. The data captured 40shown in Figure 2 details four of the twenty three possible 30useful measurements during the course of the test:- 20 101. PLOT 1 - Shows the power drawn from the 230Vrms mains 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 seconds 300 supply (Note the peak level measured at the start of the test) V main 12V - Voltage 12.8 12.62. PLOT 2 - Shows the voltage measured on the +12V output 12.4 including minimum, maximum and average levels 12.2 12.0 11.83. PLOT 3 – Shows the power drawn from the +12V. Again, 11.6 0 50 100 150 200 250 seconds 300 note the peak power consumption at the start of the test W main 12V - Power 304. PLOT 4 – Shows the power drawn from the Z1 Module 25 20 (5VDC in this case). 15 10 5The results of the hard disk test show that the typical total mains 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 seconds 300power draw of the product is around 10W in steady state with afive second peak of about 32W during start-up. Analysis of the W Z1 - Power 4.5output rail powers show the high peak occurs on the 12V rail and 4.0 3.5it is most likely that this is the rail used to drive the motors in the 3.0 2.5hard disk. The 5V rail power is constant until a data read or write 2.0 1.5 1.5 Gb Data Write Omronis performed. During a data read/write, the load on the 5V rail 1.0 seconds 0 50 100 150 200 250 300increases from around 2W to 3.5W, probably a result of movingthe hard disk heads across the disk. Thus, the power supply used to figure 2. Data Captured During Test of an Externaldrive this disk would have a basic specification of:- Computer hard Disk tactile switches+12V/500ma with a 2.3a/5 second peak capability measurements+5V/800ma W mains aC - Power 30So, how can we use the data to save energy? 20The data shows that the power use when the disk is reading or 10writing data is around 9.6W. The power use when in idle mode is 0 for every day use! 5 10 15 20 25 seconds7W. In particular, during idle mode, more than 70% of the power main 12V - Voltagedraw is on the 12V rail and is being used to spin the disks. Since 12.8 Vexternal hard disk drives are often used for data back-up, the most 12.6 12.4straightforward way to reduce energy consumption would be to 12.2 12.0power down the motor during periods of disk inactivity. 11.8 11.6 5 10 15 20 25 secondsConclusionMeasurement of product energy use is often only performed at the 30 W main 12V - Power Omron’s range of Tactile Switches is used in many day-to-dayend of the development cycle when the options for improvement 25 20 applications from clock alarms and electric toothbrushes through keyare limited. The use of the RPS system by product designers during fobs and mp3 players to white goods and so much more. 15the first stages of the development cycle provide the detailed 10 5real-time knowledge required to minimise power consumption 0 secondsthroughout the new product. 5 10 15 20 25 Tactile switches are in 6x6mm and 12x12mm configurations in both through-hole Z1 - Power 4.5 W and surface-mount versions and all have positive click action and variations thatThe simple approach used by RPS provides a low risk solution to 4.0the complex power requirements of modern products. The speed 3.5 3.0 include horizontal, vertical, flat and projected types. Omron even has the industry’s 2.5of implementation frees up design engineers to focus on the key 2.0 1.5 smallest positive click action tactile switch.aspects of their new product design, safe in the knowledge that the Designed into all Omron switches are quality, operability and user-friendliness. 1.0 5 10 15 20 25 secondspower system sitting behind it is proven and can be mapped into avolume product when they move into production. figure 3. This plot shows a zoom of the first 30 seconds Switch to Omron – for more information visit www.omron-rs.eufind out more about ZoneTech at Get more online... Share your comments on this article at www.omron-rs.eu38 eTech - ISSUE 6
  • 20. lUNCh bREaK lUNCh bREaKSponsored by Sponsored WIN a Epson Stylus Photo Name: 18 25 16 8 Job Title: PX720WD Wi-fi printer 22 14 Ship-To-Number: with our killer sudoku Tel: 10 19 24 10 42 E-mail: how to play: as with standard sudoku, every row and column and 3 x 3 square must contain 23 the numbers 1 through 9 exactly once. Send your completed Sudoku to: RS Components Ltd, eTech Team, DPN 24, Corby, Northamptonshire, The grid is composed of shapes with a dotted outline. at the top of each shape is a 28 NN17 9RS. number, this signifies the sum of the cell. for example; if there is a shape composed of two cells with a ‘3’ in the corner, the total of those cells is ‘3’. from that you can tell Terms & Conditions: that the values of the cells must be ‘1’ and ‘2’ or ‘2’ and ‘1’. 14 8 17 This competition is being run by RS Components Ltd. To enter the competition, all information on the entry form must be supplied. Entry is free, no purchase is necessary. It is the responsibility of It is not permitted to repeat a number in a shape. If you have a the participant to gain permission from his/her employer to enter sum of 8 across three cells, this cannot be ‘2’, ‘4’, ‘2’ as the ‘2’ this competition. The prize is as stated. No cash alternatives are 20 30 11 is then repeated in the shape. available. The competition is open to all RS Components catalogue recipients, except employees of RS Components or their families. The closing date for entries is 01/07/2011. The date of the draw No numbers are placed in the grid to start with, unlike in 15 will be in the month of July 2011. The winner will be selected at normal sudoku; however you can work out every number random by RS Components and will be notified by 1st August with no guesswork but applying logic alone to reach the 2011. Responsibility cannot be accepted for lost entries, damaged unique solution for each puzzle. or delayed in transit to the porters address. Illegible, altered or 7 24 incomplete entries will be disqualified. Details of the prize winner can be obtained from the promoter after the date of the draw by sending an SAE to RS Components, eTech Team, DPN 24, Corby, Northamptonshire, NN17 9RS or by visiting how well are you connected?1 Which RohS restricted material is still used as a 4 Some D-Subminiature connectors are available with 7 how many Zigbee standards are there currently? 10 Connectors for thermocouples use contacts made plating for aluminium connectors to prevent salt water a combination of small and large contacts. What are of specialist alloys. Chromel is commonly used, but corrosion? they called? a) Composite b) hybrid c) mixed which other alloy is it usually paired with? a. a. a. a.2 What is SuperSpeed USb also known as and what does 5 at what frequencies do Wi-fi radios make transmit? 8 Cables and Wires are often described using aWG. USb stand for? What does aWG stand for? a. a. a.3 If a full-length hD movie takes about 45 minutes over 6 fibre Optic cables can be joined using connectors, but 9 In TCP/IP network configurations what do the Wi-fi how long will it take over WiGIG? there is another method possible. What is it called? acronyms DhCP and DNS stand for? a. a. a.40 eTech - ISSUE 6 answers can be found at eTech - ISSUE 6 41
  • 21. INDUSTRyNEWSConductor pathsfor marvelous lightOrganic light-emitting diodes are seen as the basis for a newgeneration of lamps: large-area lamps that can be randomly shapedand fl exibly integrated into interior design. but the “illuminated glass”is still very expensive. Researchers want to optimize the lamps of thefuture and reduce the price by a new manufacturing process.A short push on the light switch – and the whole ceiling lights up in auniform and pleasant color. This “illuminated sky” is not available as yet,but researchers from all over the world are working on it flat out. Thetechnology behind this marvel is based on organic light-emitting diodes,or OLEDs for short. These diodes use special molecules to emit light assoon as current passes through them. Although the first OLEDs haveonly recently become available, they are small and expensive. A flat diskwith a diameter of eight centimeters costs around Euro 250. Expertsof the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, Germanyare working together with Philips to develop a process for making theselamps distinctly bigger and cheaper – and thus suitable for mass market.These new lamps are expensive primarily due to the costly a laser passes over the conductor path pattern at a speed of severalmanufacturing process. An OLED consists of a sandwich layer structure: meters per second. The metal melts and evaporates while the vapora flat electrode at the bottom, several intermediate layers on top as well pressure makes sure that the melt drops are pressed through the fineas the actual luminescent layer consisting of organic molecules. The final slits in the masks on to the ITO electrode. The result are extremely finelayer is a second electrode made of a special material called ITO (indium conductor paths. At up to 40 micrometers, they are distinctly narrowertin oxide). Together with the lower electrode, the ITO layer has the job of than the 100 micrometer conductor paths which can be produced withsupplying the OLED molecules with current and causing them to light conventional technology. “We have already been able to demonstrateup. The problem is, however, that the ITO electrode is not conductive that our methods works in the laboratory, says Christian Vedder. ”enough to distribute the current uniformly across a larger surface. The “The next step is implementing this method in industrial practiceconsequence: Instead of a homogeneous fluorescent pattern, the together with our partner Philips and developing a plant technologybrightness visibly decreases in the center of the surface luminaire. for inexpensively applying the conductor paths on a large scale. ”“In order to compensate, additional conductor paths are attached to The new laser process could be ready for practical applicationthe ITO layer, says Christian Vedder, project manager at the Fraunhofer “ in two to three years.Institute for Laser Technology. “These conductor paths consist ofmetal and distribute the current uniformly across the surface sothat the lamp is lit homogeneously. ”Normally the conductor paths are applied by energy-intensiveevaporation and structuring processes, while only a maximum of ten “percent of the luminous area may be covered by conductor paths. “Thelarge remainder including the chemical etchant has to be recycled in acomplicated process, explains Christian Vedder. This is different in the “ Conductor paths consistnew process from the researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for of metal and distribute the current uniformly across theLaser Technology. Instead of depositing a lot of material by evaporationand removing most of it again, the scientists only apply precisely theamount of metal required. First of all they lay a mask foie on the surface surface so that the lamp is ”of the ITO electrode. The mask has micrometer slits where later theconductive paths are supposed to be. On this mask the researchersdeposit a thin film of metal made of aluminum, copper or silver – the lit homogeneouslymetal the conductor path is supposed to be made of. Subsequently42 eTech - ISSUE 6