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eTech Magazine - Issue 5


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eTech 5 - Balancing the Power Options

eTech 5 - Balancing the Power Options

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  • 1. oL 06 To Y Nc 24 P b c IE PoWER EffIc IcIENcY Eff 14 MAxIMISI g NWelcome to your latest edition of eTech. If you’ve scannedthe contents section of this issue of eTech our theme canhardly have escaped you.A startling statistic I came across recently is that the Earth absorbs more energy from thesun in an hour than the population of the world consumes in one year. In fact the amountof solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twiceas much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth’s non-renewable resources of coal,oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined! The technologies that we have for extracting INSIDE eTechenergy from this and other natural sources are developing rapidly, and we are starting tosee the benefits. Projects like the prize-winning solar powered car on page 5 are turning 04 iSAYsceptics everywhere into believers. 05 RS NEWSLINEFor some electronic devices, renewable energy is already supplementing existing power 06 PoWER EffIcIENcYsources, and coupled with more efficient power design, this can greatly reduce the cost of 10 PRoDUcT NEWSoperation, or extend battery life. The mobile technology revolution now demands batteriesthat come close to matching the energy density of dynamite, so a “greener” battery 12 ESD PRoTEcTIoNtopped up via harvesting energy is desirable in more ways than one when you think aboutholding a smartphone up to your ear! 14 MAxIMISINg EffIcIENcY 16 ePURchASINg INNovATIoNS Power efficiency and renewable energy go hand in Terms and conditions: Terms and hand, and together are driving a further shift. 20 DESIgN REvIEW : EMbEDDEDconditions of sale set out in the current For environmental reasons, for economic reasons DEvELoPMENT WITh EDP 22 RS Catalogue. This issue is valid from January 2011 to March 2011. and for reasons of convenience, in the future I believe MARKET TRENDS : SoLAR MARKET that we will move on from thinking about simple Published by: RS Components Limited. Registered office: “power efficiency” to power “self-sufficiency” in 24 Pcb TooL Birchington Road, Weldon, Corby, our electronic designs. Northamptonshire NN17 9RS. Registered No. 1002091. RS 28 DESIgN TIPS : 3D LED PYRAMID Components Ltd 2010. RS are trademarks of RS I hope you enjoy this edition, which of course, 30 cUSToMER PRofILE Components Limited. An is consumed with powerful discussions about, Electrocomponents Company. yes, power. 31 REDUcINg ENERgY 32 ELEcTRoNIcS ExTRAS 34 fIbRE-oPTIc 36 DETEcTINg MoTIoN Glenn Jarrett 40 LUNch bREAK Head of Electronics Marketing 42 INDUSTRY NEWS : fRAUNhofERELE_0014_0111 eTech - ISSUE 5 03
  • 2. iSAY RSAndreAs schneider, NEWSLINES“ technology?executive vP & Founder,enoceAn Gmbh, sAys: how to harness outstanding Sales RS sponsored team wins Award Presented to RS the Solar challenge Race components ” RS supports Tokai University solar car team the potential of energy harvesting Extension of relationship with EPcoS to win the race held in South Africa. results in outstanding sales This is their second successive victory at the SA Solar Challenge from Pretoria towards Cape Town, George and Mpumalanga to Pretoria. A total At Electronica in November RS components was distance of 4062km was covered with an average speed of 90.1km/hr in the 10 day challenge. delighted to be presented with the Sales Award for 2010 by EPcoS Ag. The award is presented each year to one The Solar Challenge is organized by the Advanced Energy Foundation and of EPcoS’ sales channel partners for outstanding growth the Innovation Hub. The primary aim of the Solar Challenge is to promote in sales in both the electronics and traditional side of the science and technology in South Africa and demonstrate the potential business based on online and NIc sales. of renewable energy sources to the motoring and other industries. over ten years ago Energy harvesting was known only to a small group RS Japan supported the supply of parts for the design and build of the car. of research engineers. but if you google it today you will find nearly two Announcing the award Peter Arch, Director Distribution Once the car arrived in South Africa, RS SA provided the chemical million hits and there is now a diverse range of energy-saving electronic at EPcoS commented, “We are very pleased with products to support the car. RS’ outstanding sales performance. The extension of products on the market that draw energy from their surroundings. our mutual product and service offerings has been Professor Kimura from Tokai University has personally thanked RS across the world for sponsoring for the Tokai University Solar car continuously. a success story, helping us to gain market share in a In building and industrial automation alone, the metres free-field range with a minimal energy challenging supply period.” find out more on this project on opportunities for energy harvesting products are requirement of about 30 µJ for a single wireless inexhaustible. Particularly now, with the arrival of telegram. The process works with extremely short chris Page, general Manager, Electronics at RS wireless plug & play modules that work energy- telegrams, randomly controlled and repeated twice components continued, “The strengthening of our autonomously and bidirectionally. This means, for in the space of 30 milliseconds to avoid any collision. relationship with EPcoS over the last year has enabled example, that a room temperature sensor can transmit us to provide our customers with a wider product its telegram with the measured temperature value selection as well enhanced support services. We are and can receive a message for set point correction delighted this has resulted in this superb sales award.” “ ...the opportunities for along with the current time. To search the full EPcoS range All energy harvesting wireless sensors incorporate energy harvesting products visit ” three essential functional blocks: electronic components (wireless technology, sensors and process control), are inexhaustible energy supply (energy converter, energy storage, energy management) and software (executive control, sensor STMicroelectronics MEMS profiles and wireless protocol). EnOcean, with its batteryless wireless modules, is Sensor range now available Employing mechanical or thermoelectric converters a pacesetter in the development of fully energy- STMicroelectronics and RS bring together an and solar cells instead of batteries is a unique autonomous applications in building automation. innovative range of motion sensing solutions approach, cutting system error rate and maintenance The technology is also gaining traction in industrial costs considerably. Further benefit is derived from the plants for reliable monitoring of machine status, STMicroelectronics’ MEMS sensors have revolutionized the way ability of the sensor to bridge periods when no energy simplification of cabling and retrieval of data from we interact with everyday technology, making it easier and more is available. Harvested energy is stored in a charge capacitor and can suffice for several days of operation inaccessible locations. user friendly by making electronic devices sensitive to motion. MEMS sensors allow smarter human-machine interfaces for vishay range expands in complete darkness. if you’ve got a strong opinion and would both consumer and industrial applications. to over 11,000 products like the opportunity to get on your soapbox, When it comes to wireless transmission, an optimum The MEMS sensors family available from RS, includes 2 and 3-axis RS and vishay announce new distribution agreement wireless protocol should combine maximum reliability write it up in around 300 words and email linear accelerometers to single and multi-axis gyroscopes, for high of transmission and proof against collision for 300 it to performance and smarter power management. RS Components has concluded a European distribution agreement with Vishay which means that RS formally represents Vishay for detailed information, around the globe through three regional agreements. Vishay is one visit of the world’s largest manufacturers of discrete semiconductors (diodes, MOSFETs, and infrared optoelectronics) and passive electronic components (resistors, inductors, and capacitors). RS has a stock profile of over 11,000 Vishay products available online for next-day delivery from capacitors and resistors to semiconductors. for more information visit eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 05
  • 3. This article discusses some of the high systems, often this is not commercially level power architecture choices which viable since isolated power stages are Isolation are useful to consider at an early stage in generally more expensive than non-isolated Mains Psu #1 dc #1 the product design cycle. Choice of high converters. One alternative option is to level architecture has a significant impact use an intermediate bus architecture (IBA) Psu #2 dc #2 on the cost, efficiency and type of power whereby a front end high efficiency isolated topologies used to provide each of the converter steps the input power down Psu #3 dc #3 required power rails. to a safe low voltage which then powers secondary side power converters.The IBA Psu #4 dc #4 System Approach approach allows the majority of the system The power supply system for any product power converters to use non-isolated generally has a single energy source and topologies which saves significant cost. Intermediate Isolation requires many regulated DC outputs. The only downside of this approach is that DC Bus The energy source depends on the the energy delivered on most of the output Mains Psu #1 dc #1 product type but could be mains power, rails will experience power loss in two battery supply, telecoms DC input or a converter stages rather than one. In the case Psu #2 dc #2 renewable energy source. of the IBA shown in Figure 2, all the energy delivered on rails #2, #3 and #4 experiences Psu #3 dc #3 The power subsystem must normally loss in the front end converter PSU#1 as provide a number of key functions:- well as each respective secondary converter. Psu #4 dc #4 • Protect safely against abnormal Since the IBA approach is often chosen figure 2 conditions (faults in the product to minimise cost, there are a number Independent converter Architecture (Top) electronics or problems with the of guidelines which can be followed to and Intermediate bus Architecture (bottom) primary energy source) maximise the IBA overall system efficiency:- • Provided regulated voltages to the 1. Choose an intermediate bus voltage When considering the commercial product electronics independent of equal to the DC output rail with the implications of intermediate bus voltage changes in the primary energy source highest power requirement. This choice, it is good to remember that the or output load demand ensures that the largest possible secondary side converters with a high share of the total system power flows input voltage capability are likely to be • In many cases, provide galvanic isolation through a single converter stage. more expensive and have poorer efficiency between the primary energy source and than those where input voltage range is the product electronics 2. Where possible try to keep the low. Conversely, the conversion efficiency intermediate bus voltage just of the front end mains power converter • Control the power on/off sequence of slightly higher than the majority of tends to improve with higher intermediate the DC power rails as required by the the required DC output voltages. voltages. The best intermediate voltage product electronics This allows for the most efficient choice is often driven by a combination of conversion of the intermediate commercial and technical factors which are • Provide all the above functionality whilst bus voltage down to the DC unique to each product. For many products, wasting the minimum amount of energy output voltages. a good choice for system DC voltage rails of around +5V or lower is an intermediate In general the most energy efficient way 3. DC outputs with a very low load bus voltage of around 12V. The +12V outputPower Efficiency to provide each DC output is with a single compared to the total system load mains power converter often represents a power converter stage for each power will have minimal impact on the good compromise between commercial rail. In this case, the energy provided to overall system efficiency. Rails with and technical constraints for output power each output passes through only a single higher power requirements should levels up to around 60W. power stage and suffers only one stage of be used to justify a particular conversion loss. In the case of mains power intermediate voltage. Continued page 08 >for the modern electronics system Raw Power Regulated DC Voltages “ by Dr. Iain Mosely, Technical Director of Zonetech choice of high Primary Energy Source Power Subsystem Product Electronics level architecture hasModern electronic systems require an ever increasing number of different E.g. Mains AC, Automotive ??? E.g. FPGA μC, μP displays, ’s, , a significant impact DC, Telecoms, Battery, power amplifiers,system Dc voltage rails to operate. These complex power requirements Generator signal conditioning on the cost, efficiencycombined with a drive towards more energy efficient products and evershorter product design cycles can become a burden to companies and type of powerwho would rather focus resource on developing the key differentiatingtechnology of their new product. figure 1 – high Level Power System energy Flow topologies ”06 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 07
  • 4. < Continued from page 07figure 3 topology schematic considerations Latest Innovation Miniaturized 2 Watt and 3 Watt DC/DC Converters • Fully moulded SMD- and DIP-Package Series VOUT<VIN, Efficiency degrades if VOUT is • Package Size 18.9 x 12.8 x 8.7 mm TDR 2: 2 W, DIP 24, 2:1 Input buck significantyly lower than VIN. • Wide Input Ranges 2: 1 or 4:1 TDR 2WI: 2 W, DIP 24, 4:1 Input cover 4.5 VDC through 75 VDC TDR 2SM: 2 W, SMD, 2:1 Input VIN VOUT • Tightly regulated Output Voltages • No minimum Load required TDR 2WISM: 2 W, SMD, 4:1 Input • Remote On/Off Function TDR 3: 3 W, DIP 24, 2:1 Input • 1500 VDC I/O-Isolation TDR 3WI: 3 W, DIP 24, 4:1 Input • Operating temp. Range -40 to 85°C TDR 3SM: 3 W, SMD, 2:1 Input VOUT<VIN, Efficiency better than Buck topology synchronous when VOUT is significantly lower than VIN. TDR 3WISM: 3 W, SMD, 4:1 Input buck Generally more expensive than buck. Semi-Regulated 1 Watt DC/DC Converters VIN VOUT • Compact SIP-Pachckage Series • Load regulation within 5% TRA 1: 1000 VDC I/O-Isolation • 1000 or 3000 VDC I/O-Isolation TRV 1: 3000 VDC I/O-Isolation • Operating temp. Range -40 to 85°C VOUT>VIN, Best effeciency when VOUT is not • Very high Efficiency up to 88% boost too far above VIN. Difficult to turn VOUT off due to DC current path through inductors and diode. Highest Power Density in DIP-24, 1“ x 1“ and 1” x 2” Package VIN VOUT • 6-side shielded Metal Casing Series • Wide Input Ranges 2:1 or 4:1 THD 15N: 15 W, DIP 24, 2:1 Input • Adjustable Output (except 15 W Models) THD 15WIN: 15 W, DIP 24, 4:1 Input • Remote On/Off Function THN 20: 20 W, 1“x 1“, 2:1 Input inverting Generates a negative voultage from a • Input Filter to meet EN 55022 Class A (buck boost) positive voltage. High peak currents can • Low standby Current THN 20WI 20 W, 1“x 1“, 4:1 Input degrade efficiency. • 1500 VDC I/O-Isolation THL 20WI: 20 W, 1“x 1“, 4:1 Input VIN VOUT(Negative) • Very high Efficiency up to 91% TEN 40N: 40 W, 1“x 2“, 2:1 Inputfigure 3 – Secondary Side non-isolated Topologies High Power DC/DC Modules 75 – 200 Watt Linear VOUT<VIN, simple but poor efficiency unless input • 2:1 and 4:1 Input Range Series regulator and output voltages are very close. • Output Voltages 5 to 53 VDC TEP 75WI: 75 W, 2.4 x 2.3“, 4:1 Input • Ultra high Efficiency up to 93% TEP 100: 100 W, 2.4 x 2.3“, 2:1 Input VIN VOUT • Series with EN50155 Approval for TEP 150WI: 150 W, 2.4 x 2.3“, 4:1 Input • Railway Applications • Multiple Options: Chassis / DIN-Rail TEP 160: 160 W, 2.4 x 2.3“, 2:1 Input Mount Adapter; EMI Filter; Heat Sink TEP 160WI: 160 W, 2.4 x 2.3“, 4:1 InputOnce the intermediate bus voltage has a significant challenge to designers who power) but this can hide which parts of a • Soft Start and reverse Input Voltage TEP 200: 200 W, 1“x 1“, 2:1 Inputbe chosen, the power topologies for the wish to maximise their new product product subsystem are really dominating Protection TEP 200WI: 200 W, 1“x 1“, 4:1 Inputmain isolated converter and secondary energy efficiency. Commercially, the IBA power consumption. Wouldn’t it be greatconverters can be chosen. For a 60W total architecture is often the best system level at design time if we could understand thepower capability with 12V intermediate bus approach but the choice of bus voltage and product power use at a much 100 W & 200W AC/DC Power Supplies with «cool» Designvoltage, a flyback converter can give good secondary side power converter topologies deeper level….?front end performance with conversion then has a significant impact on product • No Fan required at full Power Seriesefficiency of 85 to 90%. The topologies energy use. Key to minimising development up to 50°C! TOP 100: 100 W in 2” x 4” Formatused for the downstream converters risk is to use a flexible modular approach to • Excellent thermal Management for TOP 200: 200 W in 3” x 5” Formatdepend on the output voltages and system power design whereby the power long Product Lifetimepower levels required. system can be easily modified during • Highest Efficiency: 90% typ. the design process to optimise system Zonetech products will shortly • Protection Class l or Class ll Operationconclusions power use. Often, power consumption be introduced to the RS stockedThe complex power requirements of measurements are just performed on the product range. find them firstmodern electronic products can present primary energy source (e.g. mains input at for full TRACOPOWER Product Range rswww.com08 eTech - ISSUE 5
  • 5. PRoDUcT PRoDUcTNEWS NEWS Pv fUSES fRoM SchURTER high performance fuse for Pv systems with Touch safe fuseholder STEgo SMALL fAN hEATER high power compact fan heaters, n A new solar fuse ASo and fuseholder ideal for use where space is oxLEY LED LAMPS fSo from ShURTER with quick-acting at a premium New and exclusive to RS. Energy efficient characteristic to protect photovoltaic incandescent lamp replacements. n DIN Rail Mount Enclosure and similar Dc-applications. The PcI AND PcI ExPRESS MINI cARDS products are well suited for “renewable heaters specifically intended n Oxley LED bulb replacements provide an for anti-condensation and Sbc’s exclusive from RS for PcI energy” systems with a 1000 vDc fuse. optically designed “fit and forget” alternative to frost protection in control and and PcI Express mini cards A current range from 1 A to 30 A and traditional filament bulbs. They give an excellent equipment cabinets. These a touch safe fuseholder in a compact spread of illumination. and over 90,000 hours n PCI Express Mini Card is a replacement for compact fan heaters prevent 10.3x38 mm package. of operating life. Applications range from push the Mini PCI form factor based on PCI Express. formation of condensation, are online search term: 71247* fuse button switches, mimic panels to rail, automotive, PCI Express Mini Cards are 30 x 56 mm and quiet in operation and provide an evenly distributed interior air military and airborne applications. This true “fit smaller than other add-in card form factors. and forget” product ensures maintenance costs This reduced size permits a higher level of temperature in enclosures with electric/electronic components. are all but eliminated, and the added advantage integration into an embedded PC providing a number of of using LED technology means little or no heat benefits, including Flexibility for Build-To-Order, Upgradeability online search term: Stego, “small fan heater” build up occurs within the equipment. for the newest technology, Seviceability and Reliability. online search term: oxley, “led lamps” online search term: commell, mp* MEMS RANgE fRoM ST MIcRoELEcTRoNIcS LEDIL oPTIcS foR MULITPLE LEDS 3-axis LIS331DL, Low power and tiny package Triple and Quad optics for osram oSLoN SSL Series of LEDs n ST’s 3-axis motion sensors represent a significant step forwardPREcI-DIP SPRINg-LoADED coNNEcToRS in the product’s miniaturization. The LIS331DL n Designed for Osram Oslon SSL series accelerometers deliver high performance at low of LEDs. The lens material is an opticalA perfect alternative for electrical continuity in power consumption and their ultra-compact robust grade PMMA with high UV andproblematic environments. design provides very high immunity to vibration and temperature resistance with a High shock survivability up to 10,000g. optical efficiency of over 85%. Theren Ideal for all mobile communications including medical and online search term: LIS331DL is no need for a lens holder withmilitary applications. Their unique, patented design combinesa contact body, piston and spring to create a self-adjusting fastening; all that’s required to attachcontact. This assures low, stable electrical resistance giving the heatsink is a few droplets of glue.maximum reliability. online search term: ledilonline search term: Preci-dip, Spring Loaded TEKTRoNIx TDS2000c ARDUINo ATMEL PRocESSoR boARDS oScILLoScoPE SERIES Arduino Uno Atmel Atmega 328 McU board Performance at a reasonable price n The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based n The TDS2000C Oscilloscope Series provides on the ATmega328. It contains everything needed you with affordable performance in a compact to support the microcontroller; simply connect design. Every model is packed with USB it to a computer with a USb cable, power with connectivity, 16 automated an Ac/Dc adapter or battery to get started. MIcREL bUcK REgULAToRS measurements, limit testing The Uno differs from all preceding boards hyper light load switching regulators and built-in help menu. in that it does not use the fTDI USb-to- Get more done in less serial driver chip. Instead, it features n The MIc23153 is a high efficiency 4Mhz 2A synchronous time with the TDS2000C the Atmega8U2 programmed as a buck regulator with hyperLight Load™ mode, Power good Oscilloscope Series. USb-to-serial converter output indicator, and programmable soft-start. hyperLight online search term: online search term: 715-4081 Load™ provides very high efficiency at light loads and ultra-fast Tektronix, “Digital transient response which makes the MIc23153 perfectly suited oscilloscopes” for supplying processor core voltages. The tiny 2.5mm x 2.5mm package saves precious board space and requires only four small external components. online search term: 711-742310 eTech - ISSUE 5 See more online - over 5,000 new products are added at every month eTech - ISSUE 5 11
  • 6. ESD Protection Spend a Little – Save a Lot ESD (ElectroStatic Discharge) is a significant threat to quality in the electronics industry. Major companies state that 25% of all unidentified failures of electronic equipment result from damage caused by ESD. In total, ESD-related failures are estimated to cost the industry billions of dollars annually. Investing in a high-quality ESD control plan has been grounded ESD work surface. According to IEC61340- shown to deliver typical ROI from 5:1 up to 20:1 5-1, the electrostatic field at the position where the according to articles in the compliance press. One high- ESDS device is handled must not exceed 10,000V/m. All tech company recently reported equivalent savings of insulators with electrostatic potential greater than 2kV €95 for every €1 spent on ESD protection. must be kept a minimum of 30cm from the device. If the measured electrostatic field or surface potential exceeds An ESD protection plan meeting international standards the stated limits, ionisation or other techniques must be can be implemented using relatively inexpensive used. By generating positive and negative ions, which equipment. To remain effective, it needs to be are attracted or repelled by the charge accumulated on continuously monitored and improved. ElectroStatic the insulator, an air ioniser can neutralise an insulator in charge generation increases significantly as relative a matter of seconds. humidity decreases; so typically if mysterious quality and reliability problems are observed in products The third fundamental principle of the ESD control manufactured during your lowest humidity season, system covers packaging. Shielding bags or it’s likely to be ESD related. containers having a conductive outer surface are commonly used. To be effective, bags and containers Need for a Plan should be closed, and opened only by a grounded Most firms use the EN61340-5-1 standard to construct operator at an ESD workstation. their ESD control plan. The standard addresses grounding and bonding systems, personnel grounding, conclusion protective packaging, and marking. In addition to All ESD control costs should provide the user with setting out a control program plan, EN61340-5-1 improved quality and reliability. To maximize ROI, also describes requirements for ESD training highest loss operations, areas and products should and compliance verification. be identified and addressed first. By keeping ESD Control an on-going quality process, program costs and Specified grounding measures include wrist straps resulting ROI can be monitored so that the company for seated operators, as well as ESD flooring and ESD can maximize total program value. Businesses that get footwear such as foot grounders for standing or mobile ESD right will see a direct and measureable contribution workers. Insulators in the ESD Protected Area (EPA), to their bottom line, as well as an improvement in however, cannot be discharged by grounding. customer satisfaction. EN 61340-5-1 clause 5.3.3 states that “All non-essential insulators (plastics and paper) such as coffee cups, food wrappers and personal items shall be removed from the workstation or any operation where unprotected ESDS items are handled. ” get more online... Process-essential insulators present in the EPA can for more information download the present significant ESD threats such as Field Induced charleswater ESD Awareness booklet Discharges. These can occur even at a properly from www.designspark.com12 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 13
  • 7. MAxIMISINg EffIcIENcY fRoM RENEWAbLE ENERgY SoURcES Digital signal controllers can deliver significant efficiency benefits for power inverters in green energy installations. from helga Stevenson The need for alternative forms of power Maximising the efficiency of the PV output is The Maximum Peak Power algorithm is the generation are well established and with a crucial and is typically controlled by the duty most commonly used solution for maximising current focus on renewable sources, solar cycle of the pulse width modulation (PWM) power output, but is inherently variable. panels and wind turbines are receiving signal controlling the DC/DC and/or DC/ Another solution sometimes employed is the considerable attention. As an example, there AC converters. Achieving the most efficient incremental inductance algorithm, which solves are now commercial companies offering free power conversion requires close monitoring the derivative of the voltage/current product panels with installation and maintenance of the power (product of the voltage and (power) curve for 0, which is by definition a contracts for domestic and commercial users, current outputs) from the PV cell. For this a peak. However this method is prone to errors which provide the property owner with power microprocessor is used, along with a number caused by settling on ‘false’ peaks. A more when they need it, while feeding surplus of ADCs. The processor must be capable of elegant solution is to employ a combination of power back in to the national grid. calculating the PWM signal to achieve optimal the two and while this is the most efficient, it conversion conditions, predominantly using a also requires the most processing power. This form of energy generation is, technique known as Maximum Power Point unfortunately, susceptible to inefficiencies. Tracking (MPPT). TI’s TMS320F28x digital signal controller is Photo voltaic (PV) cells offer limited conversion ideally suited to this task; it uses a 32bit device efficiency under the best conditions, but Due to the constantly variable conditions, the that can deliver up to 150 MIPS performance maximising their potential also requires MPPT process is cyclic; it must be performed and integrates a range of peripherals that significant system intelligence, in order to reiteratively to compensate for changes in enable a highly efficient solar panel inverter. provide the best return on investment. output caused by temperature, cloud cover, the Its use has already been reported to have time of day and even seasonal variations. The cut conversion inefficiency by up to 50% in Using complex algorithms, it is possible to objective is to continuously tune the inverters, some installations. achieve high levels of output power even through PWM control, to match the peak under less than ideal conditions and the voltage and peak current outputs of the cell(s). power conversion stage is key in this. This involves measuring and converting the voltage and current outputs and Typically a solar panel installation will use passing their values to the MPPT algorithm, a number of PV cells connected in series calculating the optimal control and feeding and parallel, along with a number of DC/ that back in the form of a PWM control signal. AC inverters to convert the PV output to a While this can be achieved using several mains-rated voltage for use within domestic or discrete devices, a digital signal controller such find the latest TI range of digital signal commercial premises, or to feed back in to the as Texas Instruments’ TMS320C200 family of controllers at national grid. Some installations may also use DSP controllers has the right combination of batteries to store energy during good weather peripherals, processing power and architectural conditions, to provide energy during periods of features to perform this complex process in get more online... cloud cover or even through the night. In these real time in a single chip, thereby delivering Share your views on this article installations a number of DC/DC converters will the maximum possible efficiency for a at also be used. PV installation.14 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 15
  • 8. ePurchasing Innovations for Switched-on Supply chain Management by carlene garvey, RS components While bringing tremendous opportunities, Internet shopping also poses a threat to financial control. Many householders have already discovered this fact. businesses, also, need help to make best use of features such as the web’s high speed and vast search powers. Getting it right can help product marketers cut costs and deliver innovations to market more quickly. However, the temptation to exploit potentially dangerous aspects of the web - such as to locate non-approved suppliers offering apparently better prices - can lead to serious problems. Responsible suppliers must recognise these challenges facing their customers and provide innovative online tools, via their websites, that harness the best features of the Internet to provide a trusted source of competitive advantage. harnessing Search Powers An obvious starting place is to enhance product-search capabilities for online customers. For component suppliers, this means providing parametric-search tools to help customers locate components meeting their exact specification. RS Components has built Component Chooser to provide this facility for its customers. Component Chooser is now the world’s largest and most extensive parametric search engine of electronic components. RS Components also provides online Technical Notes, situated at product level, which can provide answers to technical questions and help to inform purchasing decisions. Continued page 18 >16 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 17
  • 9. LeCroy WaveAce Oscilloscopes< Continued from page 16 or prices, web-based purchasing tools now tasks that traditionally require a mix of technicalExpanded search capabilities are also valuablefor products such as test equipment as well have the ability to apply these automatically to orders placed by any authorised member of the customer’s staff. Internet shoppers and commercial expertise can simplify product realisation and speed up time to market. Get More Scope for Less Cost –as industry-standard subsystems or modules.Searching the RS website automatically locatescompatible alternatives of suitable quality; everywhere are also familiar with the power of price checking. With just a few clicks, it is easy to locate the best deal in terms of price Looking to Web x.0 As the mobile Internet is now a fast-spreading reality for business communities (as well LeCroy Quality does not come at a high priceexamples include families of RS own-brand alongside other important considerations such as high-end consumer users) thanks toproducts, which are conceived to deliver high as availability, shipping costs and delivery technologies such as 3G and Wi-Fi, smaller andvalue at extremely competitive prices. time. Online price checking is also widely more opportunistic design companies need to used by leading national retailers, and is now manage supply-chain services on the move.For larger companies, in particular, coordinating entering the industrial supply chain in facilities Supporting this trend, RS Mobile is a fully WaveAce combines long memory, a colour Class Leading Specs and Features:aspects such as purchasing decisions, delivery such as RS’ Price Checker price-comparison mobile transactional site that can be viewed display, extensive measurement capabilities, ■ 40 MHz, 60 MHz, 100 MHz, 200 MHz and 300 MHzarrangements and spending by multiple service. The service provides instant visibility on most smart phones.individual users is much tougher in the Internet of equivalent prices from alternative suppliers, advanced triggering and excellent connectivity ■ 2/4 channel modelsage. Emerging generations of intelligent which is frequently updated to help online The arrival of RS Mobile, as a next-generation to improve troubleshooting and shorten ■ Sample rates up to 2 GS/stools can provide the flexibility for individuals customers assess the savings on offer. online tool, reminds us all that the Internet Class leading memory – up to 20 kptsto purchase up to pre-set limits or to work is about change. As opportunities develop, debug time. With bandwidths from 40 MHz to ■ ■ Advanced Triggeringwithin other constraints such as a limited Innovation-to-Market, at Internet Speed the nature of any threats will also change. 300 MHz, sample rates up to 2 GS/s andsupplier list. RS Components’ Purchasing For high-tech companies, whose success Switched-on suppliers have an important role ■ 5.7" colour QVGA display on all models waveform memory up to 20 kpts it exceedsManager is an example of this type of tool. It depends on being the first to market, the to play through continual innovation of their ■ 32 parameter measurementsallows companies to tailor access privileges Internet is opening up numerous opportunities online services to help their customers harness all expectations of a small affordable ■ Waveform Math incl. FFTand available facilities, and so match the at every stage of product realisation. Online the power of the Internet while minimising oscilloscope.purchasing needs of each individual’s role. technical communities sharing information and associated risks. ■ Pass/Fail Testing & Digital FilteringTaking purchasing automation to a higher level, resources such as internet-based tools and ■ Waveform Sequence Recordertools such as eProcurement use web protocols open-source software are just the beginning. ■ Multiple language user-interface and helpto open up communications between There is tremendous scope for web-based ■ LAN/USB connections for printers, memory stickssystems. This is another example of how the design to improve, not only by offeringInternet is improving supply-chain efficiency by more powerful design resources but also by and PC remote controlallowing customers to integrate their internal integrating more efficiently with commercial ■ 3 years warrantyprocurement systems seamlessly with the functions such as purchasing. The DesignSparkRS Components online store. This provides PCB environment available throughinstant access to over 300,000 products, with provides WaveAce is the ideal oscilloscope for:live stock availability and the latest pricing an interesting example. ■ Digital design and debuginformation. RS is already expanding this ■ Education and trainingservice with enhancements to features such as DesignSpark PCB is a free-of-charge Windows-the ‘My Account’ area. based EDA tool, created in partnership ■ Manufacturing test and quality control with a third-party specialist EDA vendor, ■ Service and repairPersonalised Automation which engineers can access online. It ■ General bench testIn fact, customer self service, featuring is compatible with industry-standardfacilities for customers to manage their own design-file formats, and hence allowsaccount and even personalise their purchasing engineers to access IP supportedenvironment, is a powerful aspect of internet- by commercial companies as Product Overviewbased commerce throughout the retail as well well as designs availableas trade sectors. Perceived benefits include through open-source WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce WaveAce 101 102 112 202 204 212 214 222 224 232 234increased customer satisfaction, reduced hardware communities.instances of errors and misunderstandings, Consistent with its Channels 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4and lower costs. Enhanced facilities for Internet-based nature, Bandwidth 40 MHz 60 MHz 100 MHz 60 MHz 60 MHz 100 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 200 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHztrade customers can include copy invoicing DesignSpark PCB includes Sample Rate 250 MS/s / 250 MS/s / 250 MS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s / 1 GS/s /and online quotes, as well as the ability to its users within a dedicated per ch./max. 500 MS/s 500 MS/s 500 MS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/s 2 GS/splace scheduled and forward orders. RS social network providing access Record Length 4 kpts/ch 4 kpts/ch 4 kpts/ch 18 kpts 20 kpts 18 kpts 20 kpts 18 kpts 20 kpts 18 kpts 20 kptsComponents has already implemented these to information in using the tool as well Colour 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7" 5.7"services online, which help avoid time delays as other aspects of PCB design. Display QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGA QVGAand generally empower customers to improve RS Stock No. 685-2725 672-1589 672-1582 672-1586 685-2734 672-1595 685-2737 672-1598 685-2731 672-1592 685-2740control over their own orders, costs and The important aspect of DesignSpark PCB,administration. In addition, the RS Components from the purchasing perspective, is its abilityStore Manager tool provides complete multi- to export a full bill-of-materials file that canvendor inventory management system, be uploaded directly to the RS Componentshelping customers control spend and online quotation tool to fully cost a prototypemaximise stock efficiency. or manufacturing run of assembled boards and then seamlessly order the necessaryOn top of this, in situations where customers components. Driving this high level of find out more about RS ePurchasinghave negotiated special purchasing terms automation into component engineering solutions at eTech - ISSUE 5
  • 10. DESIgN DESIgNREvIEW REvIEWEMbEDDED The Route to Production: Phase 3 /* *************************************************************************/ /* Robot Collision-Avoidance Test Program for EDP LPC1768 Module WGM 10/2010 */ At some point the limitations of the mbed development system will /* Project built using Keil uVision 4 development tool and compiler */ /* *************************************************************************/ become apparent. The most obvious limitation is the lack of debugging tools, and perhaps by now the realisation that revealing all your code toDEvELoPMENT #include <lpc17xx.h> competitors via the web may not be advantageous to your company! #include “misra_types.h” /* MISRA type definitions */ #include “defines.h” /* General EDP defines */ The next step is to replace the mbed and its carrier with the LPC1768 #include “Slave_Address_Defines.h” /* EDP I2C slave addresses */ EDP module. The new unit has a number of jumper options that need to #include #include “Portst.h” “i2C0.h” /* /* I/O port structure */ I2C0 low-level driver */ be made depending upon the peripheral application boards present. A #include “I2C0_MASTER.h” /* I2C Master functions */ #include “timer1.h” /* Timer 1 driver, delay */ micro-SD card socket is provided along with a programming header for #include “UART0.h” /* UART0 low-level driver */ #include “Terminal.h” /* Serial terminal functions */ the Keil μVision 4 IDE. If you already have the Keil system with its μLink #include “delays.h” /* Software delays */WITh EDP debug ‘dongle’ then you can get started straight away, otherwise you #include “MC1.h” /* Motor module functions */ will need to purchase a dongle from RS separately. Fortunately it can be uint8_t cmd[2] = {0u,0u}; /* I2C command buffer */ uint8_t echo[2] = {0u,0u}; /* I2C sonar results buffer */ used with all the EDP ARM-based boards. A free code-limited version of uint16_t range = 0u; μVision can be downloaded from the Keil website. sint32_t main (void) { SystemInit(); /* Basic MCU initialisation */ setup_TIMER1(1u); /* Set 1ms wait increment */by Dr William Marshall, RS components Listing 1. is the EDP version of our object avoidance program. Compare setup_ports_default(); /* Set up I/O for EDP board */ it with the mbed program listing in eTech 4. The main difference, apart setup_I2C0_Master_Mode(); MC1_Configure_Hardware(); /* /* Initialize I2C bus */ Set up EDP MC1 module */ from the different names for the peripheral driver routines, is the C++ UART0Init(115200u,8u,NO_PARITY,1u); /* Set up COM channel */ object-oriented structure of the mbed program relative to the plainThe RS Embedded Development Platform offers an alternative path to the C code of the EDP The mbed program was shorter because all the . // Set up SRF08 max range and receiver sensitivity over I2C bus cmd[0] = 0x02u; /* Range register */engineering prototype stage of a project allowing quick and easy changes driver files were called by one single ‘Include’ statement: mbed.h. The cmd[1] = 0x1Cu; /* Set max range about 100cm */ I2C0_Master_Mode_Transmit(SRF08_addr, cmd, 2u); cmd[0] = 0x01u; /* Receiver gain register */of processor at the time of initial design or for upgrades in the future. initialisation steps were also hidden from the user. You can see that cmd[1] = 0x1Bu; /* Set receiver gain */ I2C0_Master_Mode_Transmit(SRF08_addr, cmd, 2u); translation from mbed to EDP is not going to be a difficult job once you are familiar with the sophisticated new IDE with all its project while(1) { /* Main program loop */The Route to Production: Phase 1 management and debug facilities. Note however that the COM port // Get range data from SRF08 // Send Tx burst command over I2C busMost new electronics products start with an idea followed by a functions such as ‘printf’ now work through the RS-232 channel via cmd[0] = 0x00u; /* Command register */quick ‘lash-up’ at the bench to test the feasibility. The plug-in type of an EDP Basic Communications module. The latter also provides USB, cmd[1] = 0x51u; /* Ranging results in cm */ I2C0_Master_Mode_Transmit(SRF08_addr, cmd, 2u); /* Send ranging burst */prototyping board is most often used at this stage to avoid the necessity CAN, RS-485, RS-232 buffering, protection and connections. Ethernet is delay_ms(70u); /* Wait for echo */of soldering or making PCBs. When a microcontroller forms the heart of available on a baseboard connector.such a system, there is the difficulty that the more complex types such // Read back range over I2C bus cmd[0] = 0x02u; /* Address of first echo */as ARM-cored devices are only available in surface-mount formats. DIP- Production I2C0_Master_Mode_Transmit(SRF08_addr, cmd, 1u); /* Send address */ I2C0_Master_Mode_Receive(SRF08_addr, echo, 2u); /* read echo result */modules suitable for plugging into a breadboard have been available Finally, if the finished design is for a low- // Generate PWM mark/space ratio from range datafor some time for PICs and the Propeller and these are now joined by volume specialist application not justifying a range = (echo[0]<<8u)+echo[1];the ARM mbed discussed in issue 4 of eTech. Here is the basis for that custom PCB, then why not just supply the MC1_Set_Motor_Speed(100u-range); /* Update PWM ratio (0->100) */ rs232_printf(“PWM = %dr”,range,3u); /* Display PWM ratio on PC */quick ‘lash-up’: no robust interfaces but sufficient hardware to assess customer with an EDP-based solution? delay_ms(100u); /* Wait for 100ms */the suitability of the processor for the task. Usually this means: is it fast The boards are robust and mounting }enough for my real-time processing application? The mbed is perfect for holes are provided for securing modules }this stage of development. to the baseboard. Listing 1The Route to Production: Phase 2 future-proofingHaving established the viability of the initial idea we move on Now there is an over-used phrase. In theto the support hardware such as anti-aliasing filters case of EDP it means that obsolete orfor ADC channels, buffering and protection for I/O superseded components (usually the component Listchannels such as Ethernet, USB and CAN. The processor chips) can be removed and RS Stock No.breadboard is looking rather crowded and messy replaced with the latest types, leaving EDP 4-channel Baseboard 460-285now with possible noise problems on long trailing the rest of your developed prototype EDP LPC1768 Command Module 703-9229wires. This is where EDP comes in, providing all intact. The key time-saver is thatthese filters, buffers and connectors in one small your precious software will still EDP mbed Carrier Module 703-9235modular system. The mbed module is simply plugged work when re-compiled for the new ARM mbed LPC1768 Module 703-9238into an EDP adapter or carrier to make it compatible processor using the supplied low-level drivers. EDP Communications Module 460-310with the baseboard. A few jumper connections may EDP MC1 Motor Control Module 460-304have to be made to suit the project with some minor changes to your There is also the opportunity to try out different processors at thembed program. Otherwise, that’s it and further software development development stage. How about a different Cortex-M3, Cortex-M0, Program/debug dongle 703-9241can take place ‘in the cloud’ as before. I needed access to an I2C ARM 7 ARM 9 or perhaps an XC167 optimised for fast real-time ,bus for the ultrasonic rangefinder and this was easily achieved from processing? The PIM carrier module brings in the possibility ofthe I/O ‘breakout’ headers on the EDP baseboard. An MC1 motor evaluating dsPICs or PIC32s. EDP is not cheap, but it is built to last –control module provides an interface to the brush DC motor and the the module connectors are rated for many insertions/extractions for get more online...recommended EDP power supply copes with the motor current, example – and after the initial investment future additions will work Download the program listing and read previous mbedalthough a heavier PSU can be connected directly to the out a lot cheaper than a complete new development kit. Then there article in eTech Issue 4 at if necessary. is the time saved by not re-inventing the wheel.20 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 21
  • 11. Q iQ MARKET TRENDS fastest-growing The Intelligent Choice Solar Market in 2010 Pv installations up 1,500 percent this year The sun was rising on United Kingdom’s solar market in 2010, Energy in the UK as attractive government incentives made it the world’s fastest-growing The overall goal of United Kingdom’s program is to encourage smaller, country for Photovoltaic (PV) installations, according to distributed, self-generation in an effort to reduce CO2 emissions and to iSuppli Corp. contribute to the renewing of the U.K. energy park. The United Kingdom is using above-market FIT rates to incentivise PV adoption. Installations of PV systems in United Kingdom amounted to 96 Megawatts (MW) in 2010, up an astounding 1,500 percent from 6MW The average residential price for electricity in the United Kingdom is in 2009. Starting from a nearly negligible level in 2009, the expansion currently 0.12 pounds per kilowatt hour (kWh). A residential PV system dramatically outpace the growth of the next fastest-growing of up to 4 Kilowatts (KW) in size can earn 0.36 pounds for every nation – Spain – which rose by approximately 730 percent in 2010. generated kWh that is consumed by the owner itself, or 0.39 pounds for every kWh fed into the grid. This translates into a financial benefit of 0.48 Figure 4 presents iSuppli’s forecast of annual PV installations in the pounds per kWh for self-consumption. United Kingdom. According to the United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Figure 4: uK Photovoltaic system instalation Forecast (in megawatts) Change, a typical household that installs a well-positioned 2.5 Kilowatt (KW) system could save 140 pounds per year on its electricity bill. Installations conducted since July 2009 can retroactively qualify for the tariff. Returns on Investments (ROIs) for advantageous residential projects can approach 12 percent, iSuppli calculates.Megawatts iSuppli’s initial estimate is that the U.K. PV installation market will reach 214 MW in 2012 and 501 MW in 2014. This assumption is modelled after the ramp-up rates of other countries and by accounting for the United Kingdom’s level of insulation, or the amount of sunlight it receives. by henning Wight The United Kingdom in 2010 adopted attractive Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) to promote PV adoption. Furthermore, with leading solar country Germany cutting it’s FITs, the focus of the PV world shifted to places with more favourable incentives – making the United Kingdom a solar hotspot. While growth in the United Kingdom is expected to slow down from such a blistering rate after 2010, PV installations will continue to rise in the 50 Percent range for each year through 2014. giving the solar market fITs FITs promote the use of solar energy by guaranteeing that utility companies will buy excess electricity produced by solar installations. This helps individuals or organisations to defray the upfront costs of investing in a PV system. get the Latest Photovoltaics Research at Replacing a Q Motor with an iQ Motor will reduce energy or by contacting Extensive use of FITs has helped Germany to become the world’s consumption by 70%. iSuppli via leading country for PV, with 3.8 Gigawatts (GW) worth of installations in 2009. However, Germany government’s move to reduce FITs will cool copyright 2010 iSuppli corporation. RS Stock Number: 714-2139 off growth in the country from 2012 on. For more advantages, visit us at: 22 eTech - ISSUE 5
  • 12. Pcb tool lowers the barrier to innovation by Martin Keenan Technical Marketing Engineer, RS components A movement is gathering steam in electronics engineering. Similar to the open- source software movement that has opened up access to a wide range of IT applications, open-source hardware is helping to remove a number of barriers to innovation in technology. Unlike the open-source software community, however, hardware designers wanting to open up their work haven’t had access to as many freely accessible tools of the same level. This issue is now being addressed. open source hardware open source design tools restricted in any way, whether you look at Open-source hardware (OSHW) makes Although there is a growing community board size, layers, pin counts or file output. it possible to take designs and make of electronics and systems designers Created in partnership with a third party them without paying royalties or, more willing to open up their work and provide a EDA tools company, the development importantly, modify and extend them head start to people with ideas on how to team totals over 150 man years experience to build new things. It means less time extend them, there has been a gap when it in PCB CAD software development and reinventing the wheel, implementing comes to the design tools. The open-source DesignSpark PCB product is the result of subsystems when someone who has software community has access to many this vast experience, together with feedback done the work and provided it as an free tools to create new software. However, from CAD users all over the world, plus open-source design has already before now, freely accessible tools for detailed analysis of tools currently available optimised those designs. electronic-hardware design have not for PCB Layout. As well as the schematic reached the same level. capture and layout features essential to any Companies such as Arduino have embraced PCB design tool, DesignSpark PCB includes the open-source hardware model to make There are a number of free PCB design tools a full autorouter with full support for design- it easier to prototype and develop new available to download but they frequently rule checks to ensure that the board is systems. The core boards made by Arduino have serious limitations. For example, they manufacturable. As a result, it allows a new are supplied with all the documentation may have very limited import or export generation of electronics engineers to work and source files needed to recreate facilities because they are designed to on projects with a class of tool that would, them and to adapt them. work with a particular PCB manufacturer’s previously, have cost hundreds or even equipment. There are also open-source thousands of pounds. Open-source hardware has made it past tools that can be downloaded from the prototypes and into finished systems. internet. They are generally free of artificial The tool makes it possible to take a wide Openmoko kicked off the idea of building an restrictions on attributes such as board range of designs that are already available. entirely open-source cellular handset and size and the number of layers a project That is not just those in the OSHW the project has yielded not just a software can have. But, being developed by a loose space but the many reference designs stack but spawned a community effort to community of programmers, they can lack produced by manufacturers such as Texas provide a reusable hardware design for a key features that PCB users have come Instruments, which provide design files complete mobile device. The MakerBot 3D to expect from commercial tools. compatible with industry standard tools. printer, designed to construct plastic objects at home, is sold as a kit. But the company DesignSpark Pcb In contrast to free tools made available to provides all the design files and information DesignSpark PCB, on the other hand, needed to make one, or to improve on the is a free tool but with the attributes of a design to create a better MakerBot. commercial tool that has not been artificially Continued page 26 >24 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 25
  • 13. Microcontrollers “ ... less time reinventing the wheel, implementing subsystems when someone who has done the work and provided it as an open-source design has Add Advanced Graphics Displays Using Integrated PIC24F Microcontrollers already optimised those designs ” Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory< Continued from page 25 something done, you can search through easier for those tools to incorporate the real the Q&As or simply ask. 3D shapes into mechanical designs – soeducational or hobbyist users, there are no you can easily see whether a heatsink hasusage restrictions on DesignSpark PCB. It And on to production… enough clearance and, if not, nudge it intocan be used for commercial designs It is not the only way that DesignSpark PCB the right place with DesignSpark well as those that are passed to the is connected to online tools. The tool makesOSHW communities. it much easier to cost a design and get it Once the design is ready, DesignSpark manufactured through the ability to export PCB will generate a standard Gerber fileDesigned from the ground up for a full bill of materials. This bill-of-materials ready for production at any PCB supplier, Microchip’s new PIC24FJ256DA microcontroller family reduces costs by eliminating Get Started IN 3 eaSY StePSMicrosoft’s Windows, DesignSpark PCB fully file can be uploaded to RS Components providing the final link in the chain. external RAM and controllers for graphics displays, USB and touch sensing. 1. Purchase PIC24FJ256da210embraces the approach that the operating online quotation tool to fully cost asystem recommends for application design. prototype or manufacturing run of The oShW vision the PIC24FJ256da microcontroller family integrates three graphics acceleration units and development kit and trulyThis makes the tool much easier to learn. assembled boards and then seamlessly Open-source hardware can change the a display controller, along with 96 Kbytes of raM. this integration reduces system costs display Board.When the software first opens, the user is order the necessary components. way the engineering community looks at and makes it practical to add advanced graphics displays for a wide range of embedded 2. download free library andnot presented with a matrix of inscrutable design – focusing effort on differentiable applications by eliminating the need for external raM and a display controller.buttons and commands. Instead, the The tool is supplied with a full database areas rather than forcing everyone to designer software additional savings are achieved through the integrated peripherals for USB and capacitiveuser interface is very clean with the core of components, from resistors to recreate common subsystems from scratch touch sensing. 3. Start designing!functions sitting on two icon bars to the microcontrollers. If a component is not in and lowering the barriers to innovation. and to the side of the main screen. the parts database, it is easy to create a new DesignSpark PCB removes another barrier Microchip gets you there with:Commonly used PCB design functions are one by selecting the relevant package type, by providing, for free, the ability to take,available from context-sensitive menus. such as a SOT or a large land-grid array, -23 adapt and create new electronics • Free performance-optimized Graphics Library - with full source code, supports and then assigning the pins entered on hardware designs. multiple fonts and languages, and includes a host of pre-made graphics objects.Because it was written for Windows, the schematic to their relevant positionsDesignSpark PCB fully supports copy and on the package. • Free Graphics display designer software - which enables first-time users with a visualpaste as well as drag and drop. This makes wizard for designing user easy to take portions of a design file and As many of the designs in the open-transfer it to a new project. If a reference source world are not just components on • the PIC24FJ256da210 development Board interfaces directly with Microchip’s truly 3.2”design for a microcontroller has a section PCBs, but robots, 3D printers and even an display Board but can connect to other display boards by the use of adapters boards aC164139that you can use in a larger project, it is experimental hybrid car in one case, how (rS Part No 715-4214). Users will need an MPLaB® ICd 3, MPLaB reaL ICetM or PIC24FJ256da210 demo Board dM240312 - rS Part No 715-4249simple to copy it over. Or the functions can the electronics fit into the system is critical MPLaB PICkittM 3 to carry out debug. truly 3.2” display Board aC164127-4 - rS Part No 686-8672be used to rapidly duplicate sections that to success. This is where DesignSparkwould otherwise be very tedious to draw PCB looks to the future. The tool can take atime and again by hand. PCB design and export IDF files, a format Download DesignSpark Pcb for freeAs DesignSpark PCB users are understood by mechanical 3D CAD tools. at Intelligent Electronics start with Microchipautomatically part of the DesignSpark social Many of the electromechanical componentsnetwork for engineers, it is easy to get tips within Component Chooser, which makes get more online...on using the tool as well as other aspectsof PCB design. Instead of hunting through it easier to select which parts to use for a particular job, have corresponding 3D Share your views on this oShW vision at to work out how to get models. Thanks to this, it is now much The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, PIC and MPLAB are registered trademarks and mTouch, PICkit and REAL ICE are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the USA and in other countries. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2010, Microchip Technology Incorporated. All rights reserved. ME278Eng/11.10D26 eTech - ISSUE 5
  • 14. DESIgN DESIgNTIPS TIPS IN ASSocIATIoN WITh3D LED T11 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 R13 4k7 T10 R12 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 4k7 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56RPYRAMID T9 R11 4k7 3x BC817-40 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56Rby Lothar goede (germany) +5V R9 D24 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23The author ‘just wanted to do a bit of microcontroller programming’. 1k C4 LL4148however, the project rapidly grew into this impressive and visually attractive R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 100n R10 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R 56R C3 1kpyramid. The circuit consists essentially of a specially-sawn printed circuit 20 22u K1 16V 2 PD0board, 23 LEDs and a microcontroller. Despite the fact that the microcontroller VCC 3 PD1 1 6 D+ K2 C1 C2 RESET PD2is a rather modest Atmel ATtiny2313, the author nevertheless has found room T8 IC1 R8 220u 12 DÐ K3 100n PB0 4k7 16Vin the 2 Kb flash memory for 16 different light sequences. 13 T1 JP2 PB1 R1 14 GND K4 PB2 4k7 7 15 T2 PD3 PB3 R2 8 16 JP1 PD4 PB4 4k7 9 17 T3 1 PD5 PB5 R3 11 18The 23 LEDs are divided into three groups. When everything is working, take an 11 cm Two jumpers affect the behaviour of the light PD6 PB6 PB7 19 R4 4k7 T4The lower and middle sections consist of eight length and a 5.5 cm length of 1.5 mm2 solid pyramid: JP1 determines whether the sixteen 1 S1 XO ATTiny2313 XI 4k7 T5 R5LEDs, while the upper section has just seven. copper wire and solder one end of the shorter sequences follow one another in strict order RESET 4 5 10 4k7 T6The microcontroller has only 20 pins, and so piece to the middle of the longer piece to make or at random; and JP2 determines whether R6 4k7it is not feasible to provide a direct individual a ‘T’ shape. Pull the printed circuit board spiral the light patterns are displayed or whether R7 T7 4k7drive for each LED. The multiplexing approach apart so that the T-shaped wire assembly fits all LEDs will be continuously lit. S1 is a resetadopted uses just eleven output port pins. underneath, and then solder it to the two pads button, which will come in handy if you wish to 8x BC817-40Buffer transistors are used to increase the as shown in the photograph. Fine-bore brass experiment with modifying the software. +5V 1 K5current drive capability of each output. tubing can also be used instead of solid 2 3 copper wire. 4The software was written in assembler and 5 6can, as usual, be downloaded from the Elektor As well as the ISP connector a USB ISP 090940 - 11web pages accompanying this article [1] as interface is provided, whose job iseither source code or as a hex file. The printed solely to provide a 5 V supply.circuit board layout files are also available from An external 5 V mainsthe same place, as well as a link allowing adaptor would do the component Listpurchase of ready-made boards and pre- job equally well. Resistors RS Stock No. Miscellaneous RS Stock No.programmed microcontrollers. R1–R8,R11,R12,R13 = 4.7kOhm 698-0126 K1–K4 = solder points 434-138 R9,R10 = 1kOhm 698-0072 K5 = 6-pin (2x3) pinheader, lead pitch 0.1 inch (2.54mm) 251-8137Populating the printed circuit board is R14–R36 = 56Ohm 678-7059 S1 = pushbutton 682-1399straightforward: there are some surface-mount S2,S3 = 3-pin pinheader, lead pitch 0.1 inch (2.54mm) 681-2521,components to be soldered, but space is not capacitors RS Stock No. 251-8654,tight. For best results, it is best to choose C1 = 220μF 16V 568-947 468-074LEDs with the widest possible viewing angle C2,C4 = 100nF 698-2995 Copper wire 1.5mm2 csa, l = 110mm 357-930 (30M)so that the pyramid looks its best even when C3 = 22μF 16V 565-807 Copper wire 1.5 mm2 csa, l = 55mm 357-930 (30M)seen from the side. The author used type PCB jumper 334-561LO L296 orange LEDs from Osram, Semiconductors RS Stock No. PCB # 090940-1 have a viewing angle of 160 °. D1–D23 = SMD ED, wide angle e.g. LO L296 665-6088 Offtheshelfdefault.aspx?type=E&lang=en&an=090940-1A six-way connector is provided to T1–T11 = BC817-40 445-1991allow in-system programming (ISP) of the IC1 = ATtiny2313-20SU (SMD), programmed 720-441microcontroller. The configuration fuses areset to enable use of the internal 4 MHz clocksource, which is divided down to 0.5 MHz byan internal divider. If the fuses are not correctly get more online...programmed the light sequences will run too See a complete version of this review at, too slowly, or even not at all!28 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 29
  • 15. cUSToMERPRofILEQKey facts uick uestions REDUcINg energy dependencies Company Name Gem elettronica Year established 1977 through efficiency Location headquarter in san benedetto del tronto, italy. Number of employees over 180 Website Interviewee name Andrea PiZZAruLLi Interviewee position Gem elettronica technology The global attitude to generating and consuming power is changing, institute responsible thanks in part to legislation. This is forcing manufacturers at all levels to understand the way their products use power and how their customers user their products, in order to minimise the overall power consumed by those products throughout their operational life. Today, consumers are often the same and the deployment of are factored in it can result inWhat is your latest product? how do you gain new skills? seen as being responsible for a energy-aware and energy-efficient specifying a larger, more powerfulAccurate FOG-100 gyro compass and attitude reference Hiring high qualified people and international consultants disproportionately small amount power supplies will continue. By power supply – which will inevitablysystem for navigation of power conservation; that is, selecting energy efficient solutions, also be more expensive. What RS service do you find most useful in domestic power usage may be such as those available from RS,What differentiates your products? your job and why? lower than the power attributable OEMs and their customers can The use of energy efficient DC/High accuracy, high MTBF without maintenance, low cost RS is a valuable supplier to us for prototyping and for to the industrial sector, but the contribute in a positive way to the DC converters, therefore, can save small/medium production, as we can order very small industrial sector is more aware spirit of recent legislation, as well power, cost and space in an end- quantities for delivery very quickly, within 24 hours. of energy conservation. as the law. application. RS now offers a rangeWhat new technologies does your product employ? of energy efficient DC/DC converterFiber Optic Technology versus electromechanical In addition, we appreciate the very good RS instrumentation repair and calibration service. The concepts of energy conservation Another area where greater products from leading manufacturersclassical approach and developing ‘smarter’ devices efficiency can be introduced is including Recom Electronic are now beginning to permeate in to in DC/DC conversion. Often the GmbH, National Semiconductor,how did you equip yourselves with knowledge What technology do you foresee having the the consumer sector and as a result conversion from one DC level to International Rectifier and Zetex.of this new technology? biggest impact on your next product? the use of more energy efficient another is unavoidable in modernInternal R&D effort and long term investment Optical technologies and signal processing power supplies is growing. RS offers electronic devices; the number The electronics industry is a number of energy efficient power of power supply levels in a single inherently dependent on power,give an example of the impact one of your products What is the biggest threat to your business? supplies from leading manufacturers, device can by numerous, and but through continued innovationhas on, or the benefits it provides to, the end user. Extremely innovative and new products may have including switched mode power typically all the required supply and the ambition to deliver greaterReduced operating expenses for product maintenance, Best slow penetration to the market supplies for the delivery of DC voltages would stem from a single energy efficiency that dependencyperformance for the user and Faster operation due to faster voltage levels from AC inputs. DC source coming from a switched is reducing to the benefit ofstart-up time of the gyrocompass Where do you see your industry in 5 years? mode power supply. Being able to all involved. Avionics and aerospace Many of these products are already generate enough power to drive all certified against European legislation; the electronic components is thehow do you learn about new technologies? the EuP Directive. While the primary requirement for a system find the latestInternational conferences, sector workshops legislation may be in a state of flux, level power supply, but when the Dc/Dc converters at the essential requirement remains inefficiencies of DC/DC converters eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 31
  • 16. ELEcTRoNIcS ELEcTRoNIcSExTRAS ExTRAS ESD gRoUNDINg PRoDUcTS Everyday ESD protection products n Whether it is wrist bands, heel straps, grounding cords or clothing RS has a range of products to suit your needs. complimented by a collection of spares and accessories this is just some of the ESD products available from RS. online search term: ESD grounding RS ESSENTIALS bATTERIES for general purpose applications n Standard format alkaline manganese batteries in popular sizes for everyday use. online search term: rs alkaline batteries PREcISIoN cLEANINg RS have a wide variety of products from a variety of manufactures whatever your application. n Whether you’re looking for contact cleaners, flux removers, reflow oven cleaners or the wipes and swabs to apply it, RS have the products you need. online search term: EEM cleaning MfR-1110 SoLDERINg AND REWoRK KIT fLUKE 287 MULTIMETER A single output system supplied with MfR-h1-Sc hand piece True-rms electronics logging which is compatible with SfP cartridges. multimeter with Trendcapture n The system incorporates SmartHeat® Technology that precisely delivers n Quickly documents design performance and the required energy for each connection whilst protecting sensitive graphically displays what happened. Its unique components from damage. Its high power output at a logging and graphing capabilities mean you no fixed temperature provides high throughput. longer need to download logged readings to a online search term: 672-2692 PC to detect a trend. The Fluke 287 packs more accuracy and convenience into a handheld multimeter than ever before. online search term: 156-724 LINDSTRoM PREcISIoN TooLS Lindstrom have been developing and producing high precision tools since 1856 and are a recognised name in the electronics industry. n originally thought of for only pliers and cutters they also produce high precision screwdrivers, tweezers, torque drivers as well as a full ergonomic range. Their products are cRYDoM SSR MoDULES engineered to satisfy customer requirements Ready to use SSR modules with a of better performance and longer life. choice of Ac or Dc load switching 2.8” TfT PRogRAMMAbLE DISPLAY online search term: Lindstrom A low cost full colour programmable panel n The experts in solid-state have introduced a new meter with analogue & I²c interfaces range of slimline SSR modules that offer a choice of control voltages and instantaneous or zero-cross n The SgD-28M gives the electronic design switching. Ratings available up to 10A, and all a choice of metering display formats and modules can fit either TS35 and TS32 DIN rail. colours, with fully adjustable input scaling. online search term: crydom DRA1* With a wide supply range of 4-30vdc, and a dual analogue input of 0-40vdc its suitable for many metering applications where a simple LED display just doesn’t do enough. online search term: 704-813132 eTech - ISSUE 5 See more online - over 5,000 new products are added at every month eTech - ISSUE 5 33
  • 17. fibre-optic Sophisticated data acquisition and control fibre is preferred for its high voltage and subsystems such as braking, door control, electronics must communicate reliably; current isolation compared to optocouplers air conditioning, passenger information often over long distances and amid or similar components. and lighting. Fibre is also used for sending hazards such as high voltages, high levels and receiving monitoring signals for of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and In the nacelle of the wind turbine, short- voltage and current protection at DC harsh electrostatic discharge (ESD). distance fibre-optic links can utilise Plastic links and converters. Optical Fibre (POF) with optical transmitters Optical fibre provides an ideal medium for and receivers such as Avago Technologies’ Communication between the train’s reliable data links, delivering the benefits of HFBR-0500Z. Snap-in, latching, and screw-in central computer and the braking, door choices for Today’s high galvanic isolation from high-voltage terminations are available, permitting fast control and comfort subsystems typically circuitry, immunity to EMI and ESD, and and efficient installation, maintenance or uses the international IEC 61375 Train long transmission range. This article reviews repair in the field. Communication Network (TCN) standard. two specific applications: in wind turbines In general, the TCN defines a Wire Train Energy challenges and in the rail industry, to demonstrate the Where higher levels of ESD and EMI Bus (WTB) for connecting vehicles, and general point. protection are required, Avago’s HFBR- a Multifunction Vehicles Bus (MVB) to 0506AMZ series with metallised packaging connect equipment in a vehicle or group Maximising Wind Power Quality provides enhanced shielding. The SMA- of vehicles. MVB specifies three media In a wind turbine, industrial fibre products styled connector also withstands vibration types, including RS-485, transformer- covering a wide range of data rates and and mechanical shocks. coupled twisted wire pairs, and optical by Mike caddy, RS components link lengths are used within the turbine- fibre. Optical fibre is often preferred for its control unit, power-conversion stages, For networking applications in wind farms, high immunity to the electrical noise in the Rising fuel prices, increasing use condition-monitoring equipment, and longer-range connections to the wind the short-distance POF links are typically multiplexed into Hard-Clad Silica (HCS) locomotive environment. of green energy, and demands farm’s control centre. or multi-mode fibre supporting greater When MVB is implemented with optical for greater safety and comfort bandwidth and link distances. If the fibre, a star coupler is used to restore the For power conversion, producing clean turbine tower is more than 100m tall, using signal quality for connecting up to 4095 are key factors challenging grid-quality electricity from the noisy, optical fibre as the vertical interconnect devices in one bus. The Avago HFBR-1412Z engineers to optimise intermittent raw generator output, control also delivers a valuable weight saving transmitter and HFBR-2412Z receiver management of motors and signals for key functional blocks such as the compared to copper cabling. Transmitters can easily handle the fixed MVB data rectifier and inverter are usually managed and receivers such as the Avago HF BR- rate of 1.5 Mbps. generators in applications by a DSP-embedded controller via a 0400Z series operate over HCS or such as railway engines and conclusion wind turbines. As demand increases for precision management of power-conversion, control “ and safety systems, optical connectivity optical fibre provides an ideal is preferred in unfriendly industrial medium for reliable data links, environments where high signal integrity and ruggedness are critical. delivering the benefits of high Avago Technologies has developed galvanic isolation from high-voltage several families of fibre-optic transmitters, receivers, and transceivers for monitoring circuitry, immunity to EMI and ESD, systems and networking applications in ” numerous power generation, transportation and long transmission range. and industrial applications. fibre-optic link. This maintains efficient and multi-mode fibre and are commonly used in reliable control with high galvanic isolation. wind turbine towers and over long distance wind farm networks. Condition monitoring is also important, using atmospheric sensors to detect wind Managing Mass Transportation speed and direction as well as various POF HCS or multi-mode fibre data links , additional sensors monitoring the turbine’s are also used in the rail industry, to control mechanical components to avoid run-to- power semiconductors such as IGBTs used failure. The monitoring system must provide in the converters feeding electrical traction high voltage and current isolation to be motors and the train’s electrical system . go to and search “Avago able to operate reliably during atmospheric These links are also used to manage optical fibre” to view the latest new disturbances such as lightning. Here, optical communication with safety and comfort fibre optic devices.34 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 35
  • 18. “ We have succeeded in massively reducing the compute overhead for performing moving-object detection... ”Detecting motionwith a moving cameraby Lamine Lemmou and Naim Dahnoun Algorithms exist to distinguish moving well-known technique detecting a moving computational complexity, because of theSchool of Electronics, University of bristol foreground objects from a static background. foreground object with a panning camera is to demands of the FFT, making it unsuitable But these techniques cannot cope with panning build a static mosaic image from a series of for real-time applications. or tilting cameras that are used to monitor a frames. It works well when the camera motionvideo surveillance has become a major part of our lives. much wider field of view than a fixed camera. is very slow and where the target object motion A further disadvantage is that the techniqueLow-cost camera technology has made it possible to deploy video Various methods of moving object detection for is likely to be higher. The differences between only compensates for panning motion,surveillance for a wide range of applications, from monitoring non-static camera have been proposed but none each individual image should be very low. not tilting. However, it can tolerate some of them achieved real-time performance. camera vibrations in the vertical areas to traffic-law enforcement. The most important task To build the composite picture, the image is A second approach is to build up a databasein automated video surveillance systems to monitor the video We have developed an approach that first divided into blocks measuring 64x64pixel. of background objects and reference frameschannels for moving objects that may represent intruders or compensates for the motion of a camera Phase correlation using fast Fourier transforms which can then be compared with incoming and optimises it for real-time performance (FFT) is used to calculate a motion vector.vehicles on the road that need to registered and logged. on low-cost embedded hardware. One The disadvantage of this approach is the huge Continued page 38 >36 eTech - ISSUE 5 eTech - ISSUE 5 37
  • 19. < Continued from page 37images. This Minimum Camera Parameter complexity compared withSettings (MCPS) technique, however, can the technique that employs aonly be used in a fixed environment. Our Gaussian mixture model.approach uses the fact that almost 80 percent of the information in images is common To implement the algorithm,to two successive frames to help construct we used a Texas Instrumenta motion-corrected image. With panning and TMS320DM643x digital signaltilting, the bulk of the pixels will simply be processor (DSP). By using thetranslated horizontally or vertically. So, we use The simplest company’s evaluation module, we were2D correlation techniques to find the translation approach is to able to minimise the amount of externalcoordinates between two successive frames. subtract one image hardware to a video I/O module and someHowever, there are a number of tradeoffs from the other and using external memory.that can be made to optimise for algorithm a threshold function to work out whetherperformance or to reduce compute time. each pixel is a foreground or background object. We spent a considerable amount of time onIt is not necessary to perform a correlation The problem with this simple approach is that memory management so that image linesacross entire frames. One way to reduce the results depend heavily on the could be transferred efficiently from external tothe amount of data needed for correlation is choice of threshold value. internal memory. We settled on a combinationto split the images into four sub-frames and of direct memory access, making use ofthen take a mask, measuring 120x120 in our By using an adaptive Gaussian mixture model the DSP’s enhanced DMA (EDMA) unit, andtests, from the centre of each one. The result it is possible to compensate for the variation double-buffering to minimise processor load.of the correlations is a set of displacement of each pixel in the image over time. Each Processing for the production of the position-coordinates. However, these displacements Gaussian has a mean and variance value and corrected frames is performed line by line.will not be entirely accurate so a 2D correlation is weighted according to its probability – each Each time we load two lines, one for eachbetween the corrected frame and its neighbour curve is conceptually linked to a source of buffer. While buffer one is being processed,for each sub-frame is used to obtain the best variation, such as changes in illumination. The buffer two is getting data from the externalcorrelation result. Gaussian mixture model approach is based memory using the EDMA. on the assumption that each background pixelIt is possible to reduce the computation time is a member of one of these distributions. However, the full frames are needed for theby reducing the square mask to a 60pixel line The algorithm determines how likely a pixel is stage that detects moving foreground objects,and for the second correlation using a mask of to belong to the background rather than the so we need to save the incoming frame injust 120x120pixel taken from the centre of the foreground. Thresholding results tend external memory. It makes sense to initiatecorrected image. This second method greatly to improve with the number of Gaussians the transfers during the frame’s alignmentreduces the amount of data that needs to be used but for video surveillance, three are and matching stage, just after using the DMAtransferred between external memory and the generally enough. to load the current frame line in the internalprocessor’s internal memory. buffers. This is to avoid loading the buffers twice. This can been achieved in 7 ms with .19A third method attempts to reduce overhead a processor running at 700MHz. Executing the optimised algorithms, the DM6437 can sustain “even further by taking a 520pixel line fromone image and then correlating that with a a performance of 28 frames per second,120x520pixel block from the following frame Several meeting its real-time constraints and allowing approaches existcentred on the position of the chosen line. more algorithms to be integrated if needed.Initially, the line is placed roughly in the centre We have succeeded in massively reducingof the image – we avoid the exact centre toavoid accuracy problems caused by fixed-point for resolving the the compute overhead for performing moving-object detection in automatedprocessing. However, we need to ensure that problem of object video surveillance systems that use panning ”the line does not contain any pixels from a and tilting cameras, making it possible tomoving, foreground object. If a check findsthat is the case, the position of the line is detection run the algorithms in real time on low-cost embedded hardware.changed randomly within a range of 60 pixelsin any direction.The second method provides very similarresults to the first but cuts execution time There are also predictive techniques that use find more surveillance and our online quote tool is so quick it willalmost ten-fold. The third method cuts temporal colour variations in each pixel of the detection imaging componentsexecution time by a further 40 per cent but video. Some use Bayesian update mechanisms at give you a slice of your day back.the quality of detection degrades. The process to cope with changes in the scene such asof aligning images makes it possible to perform varying illumination levels.moving object detection using techniques get more online...developed for static cameras. Severalapproaches exist for resolving the problem of For the final implementation, however, we opted for the frame difference approach Share your views on this article oNLINE QUoTES at www.designspark/etechobject detection with static background. using a fixed threshold because of its lower eTech - ISSUE 5
  • 20. LUNch bREAK LUNch bREAKSponsored by Sponsored by WIN Weekly No. 238 Mind Bending Name: 8 17 39 Job Title: 15 11 15 8 Ship-To-Number: a Polaroid Pogo 2 5MP Instant Digital Tel: 18 45 11 E-mail: camera with our killer sudoku 17 11 12 send your completed sudoku to: RS Components Ltd, eTech Team, DPN 24, Corby, Northamptonshire, how to play: NN17 9RS. As with standard sudoku, every row and column and 3 x 3 square must 11 9 9 contain the numbers 1 through 9 exactly once. terms & conditions: This competition is being run by RS Components Ltd. To enter the The grid is composed of shapes with a dotted outline. At the top of each competition, all information on the entry form must be supplied. 10 20 Entry is free, no purchase is necessary. It is the responsibility of shape is a number, this signifies the sum of the cell. for example; if there the participant to gain permission from his/her employer to enter is a shape composed of two cells with a ‘3’ in the corner, the total of those this competition. The prize is as stated. No cash alternatives are cells is ‘3’. from that you can tell that the values of the cells must be ‘1’ available. The competition is open to all RS Components catalogue and ‘2’ or ‘2’ and ‘1’. 7 22 9 20 recipients, except employees of RS Components or their families. The closing date for entries is 01/03/2011. The date of the draw will be in the month of March 2011. The winner will be selected It is not permitted to repeat a number in a shape. If you have a sum of 8 at random by RS Components and will be notified by 1st April across three cells, this cannot be ‘2’, ‘4’, ‘2’ as the ‘2’ is then repeated 42 2011. Responsibility cannot be accepted for lost entries, damaged in the shape. or delayed in transit to the porters address. Illegible, altered or incomplete entries will be disqualified. Details of the prize winner can be obtained from the promoter after the date of the draw by No numbers are placed in the grid to start with, unlike in normal sudoku; 8 11 sending an SAE to RS Components, eTech Team, DPN 24, however you can work out every number with no guesswork but applying Corby, Northamptonshire, NN17 9RS or by visiting logic alone to reach the unique solution for each puzzle. Copyright (c) 2009, how efficient are your answers?1 Do visible LEDs have a higher or lower luminous 4 one of the uses for hydrogen fuel cells are in a ZEv. 7 If high efficient motors replaced all applications in 9 Power line modems are an efficient way of efficacy than incandescent or fluorescent bulbs ? What does ZEv stand for? Europe for pump, fan and compressed air supplies. communicating data over large distances. What would the reductions in co2 emissions be? What does S-fSK and ofDM stand for. ( 0.8 , 8, 80, 800 million tonnes) a. a. a. 5 Name 3 sources of energy scavenging that may a.2 crystalline Silicon Wafers have a negative correlation be used in energy harvesting applications. with temperature. What is the decline in efficiency. 8 one way of saving energy using digital control is 10 Lighting controls that can be controlled remotely 0.05, 0.50, 2.5, 5.0 %/°c.? with PWM. What does this stand for and how does in buildings are expected to reduce lighting a. it save energy. energy by how much 20,30,60 or 80%? a. 6 What is the efficiency of inverter style variable speed a. a. electronic motors, over traditional mechanical motors?3 how much water on average does an automatic washing machine use on one wash. Assuming no “smart energy” use. (to the nearest 10 gallons) a. You may submit up to 5 photos per eTech issue. Entries must be clearly labelled with your name and company details and be sent from your company e-mail address for verification. Entries from a personal e-mail address may not be used. All entries must be your own original work and must not infringe anyone’s privacy or copyright or breached any laws. You must have obtained permission a. of any people featured in the photo, or their parents or guardians if children under 16 are featured. By entering your photo, you allow RS Components to edit and reproduce your photo along with your name and company details in any media in all countries. RS is under no obligation to publish your photo.40 eTech - ISSUE 5 Answers can be found at eTech - ISSUE 5 41
  • 21. INDUSTRYNEWSUsing the rays of the sun toconvert sea - to drinking waterWorldwide, more and more people are obtaining their drinking water eitherfrom the sea or from increasingly salty inland sources. Analysts at Global WaterIntelligence, an industry service, estimate that in 2008, desalination facilitiesaround the world produced nearly 52 million cubic meters (12 billion gallons)of water each day – the equivalent of four or five times the daily production ofwater in germany. This amount is expected to more than double by the year 2016.The bulk of this amount is attributable tothe Arab countries around the PersianGulf. Spain ranks fourth worldwide. OtherEuropean countries are increasingly turningto desalination as well, including France,Greece and Italy. The goal: To secure thewater supply for islands, settlements orentire cities, to supply water to touristresorts, or to irrigate farmland. While mostof the large desalination plants are fueledby oil or gas, smaller and medium-sizedplants can run partly or even entirely onrenewable energies.“Often, the people in charge aren’t evenaware of the opportunities they havehere. They also don’t know how reliableand efficient solar-powered desalinationplants, or wind-powered and perhapssome day tidal-energy-driven plants,work” regrets Marcel Wieghaus of the , fraunhofer ISE intends to contribute to the development of solar-powered water desalinationFraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy plants such as the one shown here, in gran canaria. (© fraunhofer ISE)Systems ISE in Freiburg, Germany. of drinking water each day. When itThe European “ProDes” initiative, of comes to desalination plants run onwhich ISE is a member, intends to change renewable energies, the spectrum ranges “that. Its goal is to provide outreach while from simple solar distillation plants with often, the peoplebringing all participants together to a capacity of a few litres a day to wind-promote use of renewable energies for powered reverse-osmosis plants capablewater desalination: “ProDes” stands for“Promotion of Renewable Energy for of desalinating up to nearly 2,000 cubic meters (half a million gallons). in charge aren’tWater Production through Desalination” . Not every plant is suited to every location, even aware of theThe initiative has established an array however. The best technology for the opportunities they ”of processes for desalinating seawater task depends on the salinity of untreatedand brackish water. Most major water, the local infrastructure and the quantity of water required. “The more have here...European desalination plants rely onreverse osmosis: High pressure and remote the location, the more worthwhile Marcel Wieghaussemi-permeable membrane separate and profitable it is to use plant systems fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energywater from salt and unwanted organic run on renewable energy and to set up Systems ISE in freiburg, germanyconstituents. Plants run on conventional a water treatment operation that is notenergy forms can deliver up to around dependent on an external energy supply” ,400,000 cubic meters (91 million gallons) Wieghaus observes.42 eTech - ISSUE 5