Teoria del Aprendizaje-Gagne


Published on

Published in: Career
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Teoria del Aprendizaje-Gagne

  1. 1. Robert Gagn é Learning Theorist Presentation Trey Gibson Theresa Knott Amanda Silkett Amanda Smith
  2. 2. Robert M. Gagn é <ul><li>1916-2002 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biography and Background <ul><li>Born 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>After high school, Gagn é received a scholarship to attend Yale University </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é received a B.A. from Yale in 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>After completing his undergraduate degree, Gagn é went on to Brown University to begin his graduate study </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é receive his Ph.D. in Psychology from Brown University in 1940 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biography and Background <ul><li>Taught at Connecticut College for Women from 1940-1949 and Penn State University from 1945 to 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>During this time he made initial preparations to study the learning of humans instead of rats </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é drafted into the United States Army during WWII </li></ul>
  5. 5. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é was ordered to report for duty to the Psychological Research Unit No. 1 at Maxwell Field, Alabama. </li></ul><ul><li>Administered and scored aptitude tests to assist with selection and classification of aviation cadets for the crews of combat aircrafts </li></ul><ul><li>Following this duty station, Gagn é attended Officer Candidate School at Miami Beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é received a commission as a second lieutenant </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é assigned to School of Aviation Medicine where he participated in the development, inspection, and technical description of psychomotor tests </li></ul><ul><li>Later assigned to the Perceptual Film Research Unit and engaged in developing film tests of perceptual abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Last assignment was to the Psychology Branch of the Aero Medical Laboratory where the study of human engineering was initiated </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é returned to Connecticut College and began studies of learning and transfer of training in multi-discrimination motor tasks with grant from the Navy Special Devices Center </li></ul><ul><li>In 1949, Gagn é joined the Human Resources Research Center of the U.S. Air Force in the position of research director of the Perceptual and Motor Skills Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Later became technical director of the Maintenance Laboratory at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biography and Background <ul><li>1958 Gagn é becomes a professor of psychology at Princeton University </li></ul><ul><li>Research included studies of problem solving and the learning of mathematics skills then shifted toward the learning of school subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in the development of the elementary science program “Science-A Process Approach” </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é conducted studies of intellectual skills and their prerequisites which led to the notion of “Learning Hierarchy” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Biography and Background <ul><li>1962, Gagn é joined the American Institutes for Research </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in research on training, assessment of human performance, education program evaluation, and other related questions </li></ul><ul><li>The Conditions of Learning was written during this time </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é accepted an appointment in educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley where duties included educational research and studies of learning hierarchies and rule learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biography and Background <ul><li>1969, joined the Department of Education Research at Florida State University </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborated with L.J. Briggs in writing the Principles of Instructional Design as well as seeing two additional editions of The Conditions of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in a visiting professorship at the Faculty of Education at Monash University where he collaborated in studies of rule learning and memory </li></ul>
  11. 11. Life Influences <ul><li>Gagn é served as director of the Air Force perceptual and motor skills laboratory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This position helped Gagn é study and understand motor skills through pilot testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to advances in American education, military training, and industrial training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gagn é was also influenced by positions he held such as consultant to the Department of Defense and to The United States Office of Education. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impact on the study of human learning <ul><li>Major Contributions to Instructional Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>co-developer of &quot;Instructional Systems Design&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrote The Conditions of Learning, 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>co-wrote Principles of Instructional Design, 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-wrote The conditions of learning: Training applications, 1996 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Awards and Honors <ul><li>1993 Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished Professional Achievement Award </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This award recognizes outstanding and significant contributions to the knowledge base of HPT (Human Performance Technology). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982-1983 Robert O. Lawton Distinguished Professors Award </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the highest honor faculty can bestow on a colleague at Florida State University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982 American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awarded to those who make the most distinguish empirical advancements in understanding important practical problems </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Most important work <ul><li>Although Gagn é 's earlier work reflected behaviorist thought, he is considered to be an experimental psychologist who was concerned with learning and instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965, Gagn é published The Conditions of Learning which outlined the relation of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is learning? <ul><li>Gagn é believed that an external observer could recognize learning by noting behavioral changes that remains persistent over time ( Gagn é, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>He also stated that maturation is not learning because the individual does not receive stimulation from the outside environment ( Gagn é, 1974). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning has two parts, one that is external to the learner and one that is internal ( Gagn é, Briggs, & Wager, 1992) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Events of Learning <ul><li>Gagn é described learning as a series of 8 phases that the learner goes through but is unaware of ( Gagn é, 1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation Phase – Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprehending Phase – Attention Selective Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition Phase – Coding: Storage Entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention Phase – Memory Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall Phase – Retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization Phase – Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Phase – Responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback Phase -- Reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Principles of Learning <ul><li>Contiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stimulus situation must be presented simultaneously with the desired response. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is improved with repetition and retention is more certain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is strengthened when it is followed by a reward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Gagn é, Briggs, & Wager, 1992) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Five Categories of Learning <ul><li>Gagn é identifies five categories of learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Verbal <ul><li>Stating previously learned materials such as facts, concepts, principles, and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Learning Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw attention to distinctive features by variations in print or speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present information so that it can be made into chunks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a meaningful context for effective encoding of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide cues for effective recall and generalization of information. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Intellectual Skills <ul><li>Discriminations : Distinguishing objects, features, or symbols, e.g., hearing different pitches played on a musical instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Concepts : Identifying classes of concrete objects, features, or events, e.g., picking out all the green M&Ms from the candy jar </li></ul><ul><li>Defined Concepts : classifying new examples of events or ideas by their definition, e.g., noting &quot;she sells sea shells&quot; as alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>Rules : Applying a single relationship to solve a class of problems, e.g., calculating the earned run averages (ERA) of the Atlanta Braves </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Order Rules : Applying a new combination of rules to solve a complex problem, e.g., generating a balanced budget for a state organization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Intellectual Skills (cont.) <ul><li>Critical Learning Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call attention to distinctive features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay within the limits of working memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate the recall of previously learned component skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present verbal cues to the ordering or combination of component skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule occasions for practice and spaced review. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of contexts to promote transfer. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive Strategies <ul><li>Employing personal ways to guide learning, thinking, acting, and feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Learning Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe or demonstrate the strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a variety of occasions for practice using the strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide informative feedback as to the creativity or originality of the strategy or outcome. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Attitude <ul><li>Choosing personal actions based on internal states of understanding and feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Learning Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish an expectancy of success associated with the desired attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure student identification with an admired human model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange for communication or demonstration of choice of personal action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give feedback for successful performance; or allow observation of feedback in the human model. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Motor Skills <ul><li>Executing performances involving the use muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Learning Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present verbal or other guidance to cue the executive subroutine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange repeated practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnish immediate feedback as to the accuracy of performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage the use of mental practice. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Learning and the Teacher <ul><li>Gagn é felt that the teacher’s job was to provide instruction (Gagn é , 1974). </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é defined instruction as “the set of events designed to initiate, activate, and support learning in the human learner.” (Gagn é , 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher had three primary functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluator </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Events of a Lesson <ul><li>Gagn é believed that all lessons should include these key points ( Gagn é, 1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activating motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>getting the learner interested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing the learner of the objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this way the learner knows what is expected of him/her </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focusing student on pertinent information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulating recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows student to incorporate previously learned material </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Events of a Lesson continued <ul><ul><li>Providing learned guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes “hints,” diagrams, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adding an example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting transfer of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging transfer to other fields of study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliciting the performance and providing feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the student to show off what they have learned and provide feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Information-Processing Theory <ul><li>Compares learning to a series of “inputs” and “outputs” similar to a computer (Gagn é, 1974). </li></ul><ul><li>The learning process is a set of arranged external events designed to promote an internal learning process ( Gagn é, Briggs, & Wager, 1992) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Gagne’s Information Processing Theory (Gagn é, 1974, p.16) & (Gagné, Briggs, & Wager, 1992, p. 9)
  30. 30. References <ul><li>Gagn é, R. M., (1974). Essentials of learning instruction . Hinsdale, IL: The Dryden Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4 th ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é, R. M., Medsker, K. L. (1996). The conditions of learning: Training applications. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Electronic Sources <ul><li>International Society for Performance Improvement (2005). Retrieved from http://www.ispi.org/. </li></ul><ul><li>Explorations in learning & instruction: The theory into practice database (2005). Retrieved from http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html. </li></ul><ul><li>The Psi Café. (2005). Retreived from http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Gagn e.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>The International Board of Standards for Training. (2005) Retrieved from http://www.ibstpi.org/legacy-gagne. </li></ul>