Bloom's Taxonomy

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  • HISTORY – The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives: Handbook I, The Cognitive Domain 1950s - developed by Benjamin Bloom and fellow university examiners (about 50 people) The name “Bloom’s Taxonomy” came from the senior editor -- being Benjamin Bloom Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of intellectual skills and abilities Was adapted for classroom use as a planning tool Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking Was hypothesized to be a cumulative hierarchy; that is, each lower level was believed necessary to move to the next level
  • Changes were based on 50+ years of history of using original Taxonomy and research on learning conducted by cognitive psychologists There are eight authors of the revised Taxonomy; the two editors were Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl (who was one of the editors of the original Taxonomy) The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. The word knowledge was inappropriate to describe a category of thinking and was replaced with the word remember instead. Comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understand and create respectively, in order to better reflect the nature of the thinking defined in each category. Create was moved to the highest, that is, most complex, category The revised Taxonomy is not a cumulative hierachy
  • The single dimension of the original Taxonomy has been replaced by two dimensions. As a cognitive process category, Knowledge was a replaced by Remember. Then, as a separate Knowledge Dimension, knowledge was “unpacked” (as we shall see later).
  • The two dimensions are part of a grid where the cognitive process dimension is spread horizontally across the top and the knowledge dimension is spread vertically.
  • Let’s take a closer look at the Cognitive Process Dimension.
  • Review each verb going through the revised Taxonomy’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Review each verb going through the revised Taxomony’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Review each verb going through the revised Taxonomy’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Review each verb going through the revised Taxonomy’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Review each verb going through the revised Taxonomy’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Review each verb going through the Revised Bloom’s definition and the corresponding verbs in each category.
  • Now, let’s turn our attention to the Knowledge Dimension.
  • There are four types of knowledge.
  • Recipes have two parts, a top part and a bottom part. The top part includes the ingredients. The bottom part describes what the cook is supposed to do with the ingredients. In the terminology of the revised Taxonomy, the top part contains the basis for Factual Knowledge (the details) while the bottom part contains the basis for Procedural Knowledge (the steps to follow). More advanced cooks may bring Conceptual Knowledge to the recipe; others may involve Metacognitive Knowledge in the preparation of the Hot Artichoke Dip.
  • Review information on Factual Knowledge. Review recipe to illustrate Factual Knowledge.
  • Review information on Conceptual Knowledge; use recipe to talk about how Conceptual Knowledge differs from Factual Knowledge. Finding a package that says Parmesan cheese because the recipe calls for Parmesan cheese is an example of Factual Knowledge. Knowing where Parmesan cheese fits into the general category of “cheeses” is an example of Conceptual Knowledge. With Conceptual Knowledge, you can make proper substitutions of ingredients. With Conceptual Knowledge, for example, you can determine whether it is possible to substitute Salad Dressing for Mayonnaise.
  • Review information on procedural knowledge, using the steps in the recipe to illustrate the composition of procedural knowledge. Emphasize the sequential nature of procedures. Sometimes “next,” “then,” and “now” are used instead of 1, 2, 3, and so on.
  • Review the information on metacognitive knowledge; unlike the other types of knowledge which derive primarily from the subject matter being taught, metacognitive knowledge derives primarily from individual students. Indicate how metacognitive knowledge allow cooks to make recipes “their own.” They make strategic modifications in the procedural knowledge. They know which recipes are difficult for them and which are easy. They know what recipes are their “signature dishes.”
  • So this is the way the entire Taxonomy Table looks. REVIEW ONE MORE TIME: CHANGING EMPHASIS Two dimensional Verb represents the cognitive process dimension Noun represents the knowledge dimension Twenty-four cells that are all important and necessary for well-rounded understanding Authentic tool for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment Allows for examination of alignment objectives, instruction, and assessment Not a cumulative hierarchy – lower levels are NOT necessary for advancement through levels
  • Get participants’ answers and then emphasize flexibility. In problem solving, for example, the cognitive processes can be used in any order.
  • Bloom's Taxonomy

    1. 1. Many thanks to Connie Chappelear, AOP-G Mathematics and Science Regional Center; Martha Fout, Coastal-PeeDee Mathematics and Science Regional Center; and Alice Gilchrist, USSM Mathematics and Science Regional Center for preparing several of the slides (especially the ones that “move.”) The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
    2. 2. What do you know about Bloom’s Taxonomy?
    3. 3. The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
    4. 4. Bloom Revised Bloom <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul><ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul>
    5. 5. IN COMBINATION THE SIX REVISED CATEGORIES ARE TERMED “COGNITIVE PROCESS” CATEGORIES AND THEY EXIST ALONG THE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION.
    6. 6. Q: What happened to knowledge? A: It became a separate dimension – The Knowledge Dimension
    7. 7. Knowledge Dimension Cognitive Process Dimension
    8. 8. THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION
    9. 9. Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension
    10. 10. Remember <ul><li>retrieve relevant knowledge from long term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recalling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you recall the name of a particular object? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Understand <ul><ul><li>Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you represent verbal information visually (interpreting)? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Apply <ul><li>  Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing </li></ul></ul>Can you use information in another situation?
    13. 13. Analyze <ul><li>Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributing </li></ul></ul>Can you break information into parts to explore relationships?
    14. 14. Evaluate <ul><li>make judgments based on criteria and standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critiquing </li></ul></ul>Can you make & justify a decision or course of action?
    15. 15. Create <ul><li>Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing </li></ul></ul>Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things?
    16. 16. Knowledge Dimension Cognitive Process Dimension
    17. 17. <ul><li>Factual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Knowledge </li></ul>Knowledge Dimension
    18. 18. <ul><li>HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14) </li></ul><ul><li>2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts </li></ul><ul><li>16 oz. mayonnaise </li></ul><ul><li>1 c. grated Parmesan cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic salt (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>==================================== </li></ul><ul><li>Drain artichoke hearts. </li></ul><ul><li>Mash artichokes with fork. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve with crackers or party rye. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Factual Knowledge <ul><li>The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of specific details and elements </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Conceptual Knowledge <ul><li>The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of classifications and categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of principles and generalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of theories, models and structures </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>How to do something, methods of inquiry and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques and methods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Metacognitive Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge or one’s own cognition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-knowledge </li></ul></ul>How did I get that answer?
    23. 23. THE TAXONOMY TABLE COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION 1. REMEMBER Recognizing Recalling 2. UNDERSTAND Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining 3. APPLY Executing Implementing 4. ANALYZE Differentiating Organizing Attributing 5. EVALUATE Checking Critiquing 6. CREATE Generating Planning Producing KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION Factual Knowledge Conceptual Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Metacognitiv e Knowledge
    24. 24. What are the benefits (and detriments) of the fact that the revised Taxonomy is no longer a cumulative hierarchy?  REFLECTION

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