Ways to support sustainable development in Latin American cities

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Latin America is one of the world regions with highest urbanization rates. This presentation analyzes some of its relevant features and its challenges for sustainable development, and calls attention …

Latin America is one of the world regions with highest urbanization rates. This presentation analyzes some of its relevant features and its challenges for sustainable development, and calls attention on some policy interventions that can contribute significantly in this regard particularly with support from international organizations, development banks and international cooperation.

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  • 1. HOW CAN URBAN POPULATIONS INLATIN AMERICA BE ASSISTED TO ATTAIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013
  • 2. CONTENTS1. A MOST PERTINENT SUBJECT2. EXTRAORDINARY COMPLEXITY3. INTERVENTION FEATURES4. SOME VALUABLE CONTRIBUTIONS5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 2
  • 3. MOST PERTINENT SUBJECT MORE INFO• Huge stakes about sustainable development – Environmental, social, economic The living • Population size and demographic trends conditions of • Production and income generation many millions of people risk • Finance and innovation serious • Public services deterioration over time, for – Many irreversible phenomena involved present and • Need to act early enough future generations – Extraordinarily large investments needed • By public, private and social actorsROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 3
  • 4. PERCENTAGE OF URBAN POPULATION IN 2000 AND INCREASE MORE COMPARED TO 1990, IN COUNTRIES OF LATIN AMERICA INFO Change in percentage of urban population from 1990 to 2000 (percent points)14 I. LOW URBANIZATION II. HIGH URBANIZATION FAST INCREASE Costa Rica FAST INCREASE12 Panama Guatemala10 Paraguay Mexico Surinam 8 El Salvador 6 Haiti Ecuador Bolivia 4 Colombia Chile Argentina Guyana Peru Domincan Rep Brazil Venezuela 2 Nicaragua Cuba Jamaica Uruguay Belize French Guiana 0 30 40 50 60 70 Urban population in 2000 (% 90 total population) 80 of 100 -2 Honduras IV. LOW URBANIZATION III. HIGH URBANIZATION SLOW INCREASE SLOW INCREASE -4SOURCE: Prepared with data from the DEPUALCdatabase.. For some countries the period used for calculations may bedifferent as indicated in the previous table.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 4
  • 5. URBAN PROFILES OF SELECTED LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES, 2000 (Cumulative percentage of total population in localities by size) 80 70 60 Mexico 50 Brazil Argentina 40 Colombia 30 Peru Chile 20 Bolivia 10 Uruguay 0 50-500 thousand inhabitants 500 thousand to one million One million or more inhabitants inhabitants SOURCE:Author´s calculations with data from CELADE CEPAL.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 5
  • 6. POPULATION IN SELECTED CITIES AND METROPOLITAN ZONES OF LATIN AMERICA Country, city, date Population Country, city, date Population (millions) (millions)Argentina: Buenos Aires (1991) 2.96 Ecuador: Guayaquil (2003) 2.09 Córdoba (1991) 1.16 Quito (2003) 1.48 Pop.Bolivia: Santa Cruz (2005) 1.34 Guatemala: Guatemala (2001) 1.02 growth Pop. % of La Paz (2005) 0.83 Haiti: Port au Prince (2007) 0.99 City size No. 1990- (106) pop. 2000Brazl: Belo Horizonte (2005) 2.40 Mexico: Acapulco (2003) 0.82 (%) Brasilia (2005) 2.38 Guadalajara (2003) 3.94 50,000 – 602 87.7 18.7 2.5 Salvador (2005) 2.71 Mexico City (2003) 19.49 500,000 Rio de Janeiro (2005) 6.14 Monterrey (2003) 3.52 500,000 – 43 31.5 6.3 3.4 Sao Paulo 11.02 Panama: Panama City (2000) 0.48 1millionChile: Santiago (2004) 4.98 Paraguay: Asunción (2002) 0.51 MoreColombia: Bogotá 7.19 Perú: Lima (2003) 7.08 than 1 49 159.1 32.7 2.7 million Cali (2005) 2.42 Uruguay: Montevideo (2005) 1.35 Sum 694 278.3 57.7 2.6 Cartagena (2005) 1.03 Venezuela: Caracas (1998) 1.98 Medellín (2005) 2.09 Maracaibo (1998) 1.71Costa Rica: San José (2003) 0.33 Valencia (1998) 1.23Source: Prepared with data from e United Nations Statistics Division, Demographic Yearbook 2005, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2005.htm LARGE DIVERSITY ALSO IN DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE, ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES, SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS, CULTURE, SPATIAL FEATURES, SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE, ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS, ETC. ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 6
  • 7. MEXICO: POPULATION UNDER DIFFERENT POVERTY LINES BY SIZE OF LOCALITIES, 2000-2002 Extreme poverty Intermediate poverty Moderate poverty 7.4 9.1 14 16.5 2.9 3.5 4.6 2.9 16.2 13.2 7.5 7.2 Localities with less than 15 thousand inhabitants Localities with more than 15 thousand inhabitants 2000 2002 2000 2002 SOURCE: Author’s calculations with data from SEDESOL.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 7
  • 8. URBAN POPULATION PROSPECTS UP TO 2050 FOR SELECTED LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES250 Brazil200 35.37150 Mexico100 26.90 Colombia 50 11.31 Argentina Chile 4.21 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision, http://esa.un.org/wup2009/unup/.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 8
  • 9. MOREOVER… • Predominant role of cities for development of countries and subnational regions • Global and international effects – Internationaly agreed goals and commitments • Numerous and diverse actors and stakeholders – Levels of government – Private sector in different industries – Diverse population groups • Considerable lags and long-term consequencesIMPLICATION: AN EVEN GREATER AND MORE DIFFICULT PROBLEM ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 9
  • 10. AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST:• Incomplete knowledge and information – Limited undestanding hinders adequate actions and complicates coordination – Uncertainty and credibility challenges EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND LEARNING-AS-WE-GO ARE NECESSARY ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 10
  • 11. EXTRAORDINARY COMPLEXITY MORE INFO• Sustainable development is needed in three dimensions: – Economic, social and environmental• Very large number of issues – Inter-relationships – Systemic problems• Combined natural, technical, social, behavioral, financial and governance phenomena – Inter-disciplinary matters• Difficult to visualize, understand for individuals and single organizations – Policy making and implementation challengesROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 11
  • 12. WHICH IMPLIES…• A multistakeholder endeavor – Private sector, society, public sector, academic and research institutions • Open government • Social learning• No one-size-fits-all – Remarkable diversity of national and local conditions• Policy coherence and coordination – Across sectors • Whole of government – Across levels of government • Multilevel governanceROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 12
  • 13. INTERVENTION FEATURES• Policy packages – Relevant, effective, efficient, participatory, equitable • Trust, partnerships and ownership building • Fundamentally anchored in local challenges – Selectivity, with an integral systems perspective • High impact • Cost effective – Locally and nationally – Engaging all types of stakeholders in decision and policy making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation • National and sub-national governments • Private sector and society • Research and academic institutions – Legal and regulatory, policy and programs, infrastructure and private investment, capacity building, awareness raising – Regional or territorial development approach, and comparative actions – Graduality, with a long-term planROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 13
  • 14. SOME VALUABLE CONTRIBUTIONS 1. Leadership and mobilization of actors and stakeholders – Awareness raising, advocacy, prioritization 2. Technical assistance to strategy-making – Participatory planning 3. Production of toolkits – Databases, indicators – Knowledge repositories, good practices – Model legislation – Planning and budgeting – Training to government and non-government actors 4. Policy advice – Multilevel governance, open government, whole-of goverment – Sustainable production and consumption • Water, energy, emmissions and residuals, transport, housing, ICT • Management of natural resources – Public finance • Budgeting for goals, regional infrastructure, local taxation, transfers – Public-Private-People-Partnerships – Innovation 5. Financial resources – Modernization of the State and public administration – Public and private infrastructure – Private sector development – Social developmentROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 14
  • 15. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS• Multiple entry points• Flagship initiatives• Attention to all dimensions of sustainable development• Local, national and global priority goals• Engagement of non-State actors• Utmost importance of open government priority• Anticorruption END OF PRESENTATIONROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 15
  • 16. ANNEXESROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 16
  • 17. AMÉRICA LATINA: TASA DE CRECIMIENTO DE LA POBLACION TOTAL, URBANA Y RURAL LATIN AMERICA: POPULATION GROWTH RATE, TOTAL, URBAN AND RURAL 1950-2000 Tasa de crecimiento anual (por cien)/ Diferencial de crecimiento Annual growth rates (percent) Tasa de urbanización / Urbano-Rural / Urban-Rural Urbanization rate Growth differential Total / Total Urbano / Urban Rural / RuralArgentina 1.5 2.2 -1.0 0.7 3.2Belice / Belize 2.5 2.2 2.8 -0.3 -0.6Bolivia 2.0 3.2 0.9 1.2 2.3Brasil / Brazil 2.4 4.0 -0.1 1.6 4.0Colombia 2.2 3.2 0.7 1.0 2.6Costa Rica 3.1 4.2 2.1 1.1 2.1Cuba 1.7 2.1 -0.1 0.4 2.3Chile 1.9 2.6 -0.3 0.7 2.9Ecuador 2.6 4.1 1.4 1.5 2.7El Salvador 2.4 3.3 1.8 0.8 1.4Guatemala 2.6 3.8 2.0 1.2 1.8Guyana / Guiana 1.5 1.7 0.9 0.2 0.7Guayana Francesa /French Guiana 4.7 4.3 2.5 -0.4 1.9Haití / Haiti 2.0 3.9 1.2 2.0 2.8Honduras 3.0 3.8 2.6 0.8 1.2Jamaica 1.2 2.8 0.3 1.5 2.5México / Mexico 2.7 3.8 1.0 1.1 2.8Nicaragua 3.2 4.1 2.4 0.9 1.8Panamá / Panama 2.4 3.7 1.2 1.2 2.5Paraguay 2.6 3.6 1.7 1.0 1.9Perú / Peru 2.4 3.7 0.9 1.3 2.7Surinam 1.7 2.3 -0.1 0.6 2.3Uruguay 0.6 1.0 -1.6 0.4 2.6República Dominicana /Dominican Republic 2.6 4.5 1.2 1.9 3.3República Bolivariana de Venezuela /Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 3.0 4.2 0.3 1.2 4.0 ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 17Fuente: Base de datos DEPUALC, 2000. Boletín demográfico Nos 56 y 63. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision.Source: DEPUALC 2004 data base, CELADE/ECLAC. Demographic Bulletin No 56 y 63. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision.
  • 18. AMÉRICA LATINA: PORCENTAJE DE POBLACIÓN URBANA, POR PAÍSES LATIN AMERICA: PERCENTAGE OF URBAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRIES 1950-2000 Porcentaje urbano (por cien) / Urban porcentage (per cent) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Argentina 62.5 73.8 79.0 83.0 87.3 90.5Belice / Belize 56.5 53.8 51.2 49.3 47.6 47.9Bolivia 33.9 39.3 41.7 50.5 57.5 62.4Brasil / Brazil 36.5 43.0 55.9 67.6 78.4 81.2Colombia 42.7 52.1 59.1 67.2 71.0 74.9Costa Rica 33.5 34.5 40.6 44.5 46.8 59.0Cuba 55.1 54.9 60.7 69.0 73.6 75.2Chile 60.7 68.2 75.1 82.2 83.5 86.6Ecuador 28.5 35.3 41.4 49.0 55.1 61.4El Salvador 36.5 38.5 39.5 41.6 50.4 58.4Guatemala 25.0 33.6 36.4 32.7 35.0 46.1Guyana / Guiana 28.1 29.0 29.5 30.6 33.2 36.2Guayana Francesa /French Guiana 52.0 63.6 67.3 70.6 74.4 75.0Haití / Haiti 12.2 15.6 20.2 24.5 29.5 35.6Honduras 31.0 30.4 37.2 38.7 47.5 45.5Jamaica 26.7 33.8 41.5 46.8 51.5 52.1México / Mexico 36.2 43.7 51.4 58.4 65.6 74.7Nicaragua 34.9 40.9 47.7 50.3 54.4 56.1Panamá / Panama 36.0 41.5 47.6 50.4 53.7 65.6Paraguay 34.6 35.8 37.1 42.8 50.3 58.7Perú / Peru 35.3 47.4 59.5 65.2 70.1 72.8Surinam 47.0 47.2 46.0 54.9 65.4 74.1Uruguay 78.0 81.0 83.3 87.3 90.8 91.9República Dominicana /Dominican Republic 23.9 30.5 39.7 52.0 56.1 58.2República Bolivariana de Venezuela /Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 53.7 67.4 77.2 84.0 84.4 86.9Fuente: Base deVILLARREAL ROBERTO datos DEPUALC, 2000. Boletín demográfico Nos 56 y 63. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. 1/17/2013 18Source: DEPUALC 2004 data base, CELADE/ECLAC. Demographic Bulletin No 56 y 63. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision.
  • 19. AMÉRICA LATINA: CIUDADES DE 1 MILLÓN Y MÁS HABITANTES, SEGÚN CANTIDAD DE CIUDADES Y POBLACIÓN LATIN AMERICA: CITIES WITH ONE MILLION AND MORE INHABITANTS, BY NUMBER OF CITIES AND POPULATION 1950-2000 Población que reside en ciudades de 1 millón y más habitantes (en Número de ciudades de 1 millón y más habitantes / miles) / Population living in cities of one million and more inhabitants (in Number of cities with one million and more inhabitants thousands) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000Argentina 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 747 6 807 8 462 10 986 13 574 14 575Bolivia 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 119 2 534Brasil / Brazil 2 3 6 9 13 16 5 360 9 611 20 181 33 408 45 845 61 111Colombia 0 1 3 4 4 4 1 683 5 371 8 576 10 502 11 685Costa Rica 0 0 0 0 0 0Cuba 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 224 1 147 1 787 1 929 2 111 2 187Chile 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 437 2 072 2 792 3 920 4 729 5 392Ecuador 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 249 2 692 3 559El Salvador 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 043 1 959Guatemala 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 014 1 203 1 632 2 149Haití / Haiti 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 134 1 767Honduras 0 0 0 0 0 0México / Mexico 1 1 3 3 4 7 3 354 5 466 11 732 18 284 21 805 29 365Nicaragua 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 009Panamá / Panama 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 069Paraguay 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 177 1 613Perú / Peru 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 846 3 303 4 608 6 321 7 454República Dominicana / 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 313 1 610 2 148Dominican RepublicUruguay 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 140 1 310 1 402 1 511 1 591 …República Bolivariana de Venezuela /Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 0 1 1 1 3 4 1 372 2 184 2 640 5 155 7 962… Información no disponible en el CELADE. This information is not available in CELADE. ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013Fuente: Base de datos DEPUALC, 2004. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. 19Source: DEPUALC 2004 data base, CELADE/ECLAC. UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision.
  • 20. AMÉRICA LATINA: NUMERO DE CIUDADES, Y DE HABITANTES, PORCENTAJE DE LA POBLACIÓN TOTAL Y CRECIMIENTO ANUAL, POR TAMAÑO DE LAS CIUDADES, 2000 RETURN Ciudades de 50mil a 500 mil Población Total habitantes Ciudades de 500 mil a 1 millón habitantes Ciudades de 1 Millón o más habitantes % Pob NH TMCA NC NH Tot TMCA NC NH %Pob Tot TMCA NC NH(miles) %Pob Tot TMCAArgentina 36260130 1.0 52 7498538 20.7 2.2 3 2810704 7.8 0.9 3 14575 40.2 0.7Belice … … … … … … … … … … … … … …Bolivia 8273344 2.7 10 1631398 19.2 4.2 1 517026 6.2 -3.2 2 2534 30.6 12.6Brasil 169799170 1.5 201 32655979 19.2 1.9 8 5907246 3.4 -0.9 16 61111 36.0 3.3Colombia 41468384 1.9 52 7299186 17.5 2.7 4 2956435 7.1 3.9 4 11685 28.1 1.1Costa Rica 3809879 2.8 6 577751 15.1 14.1 1 900835 23.6 2.5 0 0 0.0 0.0Cuba* 9723605 1.1 15 1955809 20.1 2.5 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 2187 22.5 0.4Chile 15116435 1.2 27 3555100 23.5 2.7 2 1482090 9.8 0.9 1 5392 35.7 1.4Ecuador 12070115 2.0 17 2217219 18.4 3.6 0 0 0.0 0.0 2 3559 29.5El Salvador* 5118599 1.8 4 481026 9.4 5.3 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 1959 38.3 8.7Guatemala 11237196 3.5 5 408964 3.6 17.5 1 735530 6.5** … 1 2149 19.1 3.1Guyana … … … … … … … … … … … … … …Guayana Francesa … … … … … … … … … … … … … …Haití 5053791 1.4 1 64406 1.3 -18.6 1 724002 14.3 … 1 1767 35.0 5.5Honduras 6535344 3.0 9 1101890 16.8 6.9 1 819867 12.5 3.2 0 0 0.0 0.0Jamaica … … … … … … … … … … … … … …México 97483412 1.8 105 15567843 16.0 0.2 13 9151290 9.4 5.6 7 29365 30.1 3.4Nicaragua … … … … … … … … … … 1 1009 … …Panamá 2688405 1.4 3 242357 9.0 2.5 1 844532 31.4** 3.2 1 1069 39.8Paraguay 5183101 2.2 3 355599 6.8 3.8 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 1613 31.1 3.7Perú 22048356 2.2 26 3603736 16.3 1.2 2 1118974 5.0 … 1 7454 33.8 1.8RepúblicaDominicana 8500173 1.7 14 1416180 16.7 0.3 1 507418 6.0 … 1 2148 25.3 3.3Surinam … … … … … … … … … … … … … …Uruguay 3241003 0.3 6 428173 13.2 2.3 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 1591 49.1 0.5RepúblicaBolivariana deVenezuela 23054210 2.2 46 6282109 27.2 1.6 4 3065593 13.3 6.4 4 7962 34.5 5.4TOTAL 486664652 2.6 602 87343263 18.7 2.5 43 31541542 6.3 3.4 49 159130 32.7 2.7NOTA 1. NH: Número de habitantes, año 2000; NC: número de ciudades, año 2000; TMCA: Tasa media de crecimiento anual, por cien, 1990-2000; TMCA: Tasa media de crecimientoanual, por cien, 1990-2000; % Pob Tot: porcentaje de la población total, por cien, año 2000. Los años mencionados varían para algunos países, como se indica en la Nota 2.NOTA 2. Los datos de población se refien al último año del período que se indica enseguida para cada país, y las tasa medias de crecimiento se calcularon para el promedio del período:Argentina,1991-2001; Bolivia,1992-2001; Brasil, 1991-2000; Colombia,1993-2005; Costa Rica, 1984-2000; Cuba, 1970-1981; Chile:1992-2002; Ecuador, 1991-2001; El salvador, 1971-1992; Guatemala, 1994-2002; Haití, 1971-1982; Honduras, 1988-2001; Paraguay, 1992-2002; Panamá, 1990-2000; Perú, 1981-1992; República Dominicana, 1993-2002; Uruguay, 1996-2004; Venezuela, 1991-2002.* Los datos de estos países exhiben una obsolecencia notable: Cuba, 1981 (excepto el dato para la ciudad de más de 1 millón de habitantes que corresponde a 2000); El Salvador, 1992;Haití, 1982.** En Guatemala hay 1 ciudad de más de 500 mil habitantes, pero el último dato de población de la misma se refiere a 1964. asimismo, en Panamá, los datos se refieren a 1990 (dada laalta tasa de urbanización registrada entonces es improbable que la población de la ciudad haya decrecido subsecuentemente, como erróneamente indican los datos disponibles para 2000). ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 20Lo mismo ocurre en Uruguay, donde el último dato disponible es para 1991.Fuente: Cálculos propios, con información de CEPAL, Centro Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Demografía (CELADE).
  • 21. AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATES OF URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION IN MORE INO LATIN AMERICA, 1950-2000 (%) RETURN 3 RURAL Belize Honduras French Guyana 2.5 Nicaragua Guatemala Costa Rica 2 El Salvador 1.5 Paraguay Ecuador Panama Dominican Rep Haiti 1 Mexico Guyana Bolivia Peru Colombia 0.5 Jamaica Venezuela 0 URBAN Cuba Surinam Brazil 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 -0.5 Chile -1 Argentina -1.5 Uruguay -2SOURCE: Prepared with data from the DEPUALCdatabase.. For some countries the period used for calculations may bedifferent as indicated in the previous table.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 21
  • 22. URBAN POPULATION IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES, 1950-2000MORE INO (% OF TOTAL) RETURN 1950 1980 2000100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0SOURCE: Prepared with data from the DEPUALCdatabase.. For some countries the period used for calculations may bedifferent as indicated in the previous table.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 22
  • 23. POPULATION IN CITIES LARGER THAN ONE MILLION INHABITANTS IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES, 1990-2000 RETURN (Millions) 1990 200030 45.8 61.125201510 5 0SOURCE: Prepared with data from the DEPUALCdatabase.. For some countries the period used for calculations may bedifferent as indicated in the previous table.ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 23
  • 24. DIVERSE ISSUES RELATED TO THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MORE INFO ECONOMIC SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION DIMENSION DIMENSION Income growth Poverty eradication Decreasing rents from natural resources Income distribution Equity and social cohesion Private property rights Competitiveness Acceptance of diversity Adaptation to climate change, energy efficiency Risks management Safety and social protection Prevention of natural disasters, resilience Population size and skills Labor force participation and training Green production and consumption Investment and finance Savings Conservation Knowledge and innovation Education Environmental education and research Space Land planning and use Clean, safe and permanent natl. environ.Markets private goods & services Basic needs Treated water, pollution control Labor markets Decent employment Green jobs Public government services Citizenship Environmental ombudsman Public infrastructure services Inclusion Environmental services Public social services Empowerement Public property rightsPublic regulation and enforcement Compliance with rule of law Environmental protection Public accountability Democratization Social oversight Public finance Anticorruption Environmental taxes and subsidies Public governance Participation Intertemporal intergenerational links Public information Media Public georeferenced ICT systems ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 24
  • 25. SYSTEMS APPROACH MORE INO + + Social & RETURN economic Law enforcement equity Economic + and efficiency gains - (water & sanitation, education, health, anticorruption Social gender, and - etc.) Solidarity Safety - economic inequality Institutional + Effective freedoms, protection of of people Human Social and rights and adaptive development economic capacity property (income,health, education; - - exclusion Social and political + Crime leadership & Social adjusted for Decent prevention inequality) employment + participation cohesion + (all social + Public + ROR + groups) Poverty - governance Rule + + Social Tax and public expenditure human capital Social - of Law + and economic policies protection + capital Productivity, and family + and business features Energy Alternatives + Political + -labor efficiency to support stability regulations Policies livelihoods of on cost of the poor Preparedness for + + + living Primary sources - Energy use - + natural disasters (quantity) - Products & processes choice + Global + + Clean energy technology + climate Sustainable change and safe Economy natural Degradation Pollution + environment + - and mgt. of (air, waters ecosystems - and soils - Population, l abor force + + Recycling and + + + reutilization Natural Biodiversity stocks (renewable + and non- Savings and investment, public and Production costs, investment renewable resources) + private debt allocation Food, public healthROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 25
  • 26. MORE INO RETURN Energy efficiency Primary + sources - Energy use (quantity) Products & processes + + Global - choice Clean energy + technology climate Sustainable and safe change + Economy natural Degradation Pollution + environment (air, watersPopulation, l - and mgt. of ecosystems + abor force - and soils - + Recycling and + + reutilization Natural Biodiversity stocks (renewable + Savings and and non- renewable investment, resources) public and private debt Production costs, investment allocation Food, publi c health GREEN ECONOMY ROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 26
  • 27. INCLUSSIVE AND EQUITABLE MORE INO + SOCIETY Social & economic RETURN equity Economic (water & sanitation, efficiency gains - education, health, gender, Social and - etc.) - economic inequality Human Social and development economic (income, health, education; - - exclusion adjusted for Decent inequality) employment + (all social groups) Tax and public ROR + Poverty expenditure policies human capital Social - protection Productivity, and family and features business - labor regulations Policies + + on cost of living - Economy + Population, l abor force + Savings andROBERTO VILLARREAL investment, public and 1/17/2013 27 private debt
  • 28. INSTITUTIONS FOR RESILIENCE AND RETURN PUBLIC GOVERNANCE Social & economic + Law equity enforcement (water & sanitation, + and anticorruption education, health, gender, etc.) Solidarity Effective Safety Institutional adaptive + freedoms, protection of rights of people and capacity property Social and political leadership & + Social Crime participation prevention cohesion + + Public + governance + + Social Rule of and Law economic capital + Political + stability Preparedness for natural disasters + + Sustainable and safe natural environmentROBERTO VILLARREAL 1/17/2013 28