Higher RMPS – 05/12/11  Kantian   Ethics
Using the above words for guidance,list 3 disadvantages of Utilitarianism.
What will we be learning?o I understand the main principals  of Kantian Ethics.o I can identify advantages and  disadvanta...
What will we be learning?o How does Kant say we should act  towards each other?o How does Kant interpret duty?o What is th...
What is Deontology?     Deon - tology ‘Duty’          ‘Study of’          Deontology is the study          of both the act...
Immanuel Kant            1723 – 1804o German Philosophero Born privilegedo Deeply religiouso University at 16o The Enlight...
18th    Century GermanyPrussian                   Enlightened Wars                      Absolutism              Holy Roman...
“Act in such a way that you treat humanity,whether in your own person or in the personof any other, never merely as a mean...
Means to an End…Kant saw that peoples’ actions were based on theend result. He proposed a shift in thinking.Instead of usi...
Duty…Kant noted that it is everyone’s duty to act out of good-will.  ‘Duty’ is what you ‘should’       do in a situation.
Kant posited that there were     two types of knowledge…  A Priori               PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge gain...
Kant posited that there were      two types of knowledge…A Priori                     PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge...
Kant posited that there were      two types of knowledge…A Priori                     PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge...
Reason  Kant believed in the Sovereignty of Reason. He believed that there weremoral absolutes. An absolute ‘right’ and an...
The Groundwork1)   The intentions and the actions matter     more than the consequences.2)   People should not be used as ...
‘Summum Bonum’     The ULTIMATE Good.Where happiness and Virtue coexist.            Heaven?
The Categorical  Imperative      Act only according to      that maxim whereby      you can, at the same    time, will tha...
The Categorical Imperative…The Categorical Imperative is a systemthat everyone can, and should, use to  reason moral laws ...
The Categorical Imperative…If you were King of the world, what     would your first ruling be?                 I decree to...
The Categorical Imperative… Is this something, that everyone,     everywhere, could follow?                     No 
Maxims, basically, are rules. For Kant theyhad to have universality – one rule that can    be applied to every person equa...
Next Kant showed that for the Maxim to  work it had to be motivate by youWANTING to do it and not simply doing       it ou...
Lastly, he had to make sure that theactions would treat people as an end inthemselves, and not a means to an end.Are you s...
If your maxim has satisfied universality    and our motivation is of duty, andhelping someone is your focus, then it is   ...
Application    You arrive home from work       to find a baby left on           your doorstep.   1) Using Kant’s Categoric...
Higher RMPS - Kantian Ethics (SlideCast)
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Higher RMPS - Kantian Ethics (SlideCast)

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Kantian ethics is, arguably, the most beautiful Philosophy written. It is grand, intimidating, and at times quixotic; however, it has been an integral component of the Higher and Intermediate curriculum and thus required the proper intention. When a student is faced with Kant’s lofty descriptions of ‘duty’ and ‘good’ one can’t help but feel for them. I must assure you, whilst bearing in mind everything I have said, for the studious mind it is also one of the most engaging pieces of philosophy and one in which you will be able to write about hopefully with interest.

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Higher RMPS - Kantian Ethics (SlideCast)

  1. 1. Higher RMPS – 05/12/11 Kantian Ethics
  2. 2. Using the above words for guidance,list 3 disadvantages of Utilitarianism.
  3. 3. What will we be learning?o I understand the main principals of Kantian Ethics.o I can identify advantages and disadvantages of this viewpoint.
  4. 4. What will we be learning?o How does Kant say we should act towards each other?o How does Kant interpret duty?o What is the ‘summon bonum’?o What is the Categorical Imperative?o What is universality?
  5. 5. What is Deontology? Deon - tology ‘Duty’ ‘Study of’ Deontology is the study of both the actions and intentions of actions to determine the morality thereof.
  6. 6. Immanuel Kant 1723 – 1804o German Philosophero Born privilegedo Deeply religiouso University at 16o The Enlightenmento Copernican Revolutiono Contemporary of Humeo Before Bentham.
  7. 7. 18th Century GermanyPrussian Enlightened Wars Absolutism Holy Roman Empire
  8. 8. “Act in such a way that you treat humanity,whether in your own person or in the personof any other, never merely as a means to anend, but always at the same time as an end.” Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, 1785
  9. 9. Means to an End…Kant saw that peoples’ actions were based on theend result. He proposed a shift in thinking.Instead of using people to achieve your goals,make your goals to serve people. “The ends do not justify the means.”
  10. 10. Duty…Kant noted that it is everyone’s duty to act out of good-will. ‘Duty’ is what you ‘should’ do in a situation.
  11. 11. Kant posited that there were two types of knowledge… A Priori PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge gained with reason through experience
  12. 12. Kant posited that there were two types of knowledge…A Priori PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge gained with reason through experience
  13. 13. Kant posited that there were two types of knowledge…A Priori PosterioriKnowledge gained Knowledge gained with reason through experience
  14. 14. Reason Kant believed in the Sovereignty of Reason. He believed that there weremoral absolutes. An absolute ‘right’ and an absolute ‘wrong’ and that it is with reason we discover them.
  15. 15. The Groundwork1) The intentions and the actions matter more than the consequences.2) People should not be used as a means to an end.3) Duty is was you ‘should’ to do out of good-will.4) Morality, right and wrong, is fixed and can be reasoned. We can decide wha to do by applying reason.
  16. 16. ‘Summum Bonum’ The ULTIMATE Good.Where happiness and Virtue coexist. Heaven?
  17. 17. The Categorical Imperative Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.
  18. 18. The Categorical Imperative…The Categorical Imperative is a systemthat everyone can, and should, use to reason moral laws (Maxims) thateveryone should follow, everywhere…
  19. 19. The Categorical Imperative…If you were King of the world, what would your first ruling be? I decree today Kit- Kat Tuesday!
  20. 20. The Categorical Imperative… Is this something, that everyone, everywhere, could follow? No 
  21. 21. Maxims, basically, are rules. For Kant theyhad to have universality – one rule that can be applied to every person equally. Start Is there a universal maxim? Yes No Go Forward Start again
  22. 22. Next Kant showed that for the Maxim to work it had to be motivate by youWANTING to do it and not simply doing it out of instinct or habit.Is the Maxim motivated by Duty? Yes No Go Forward Go Back to Start
  23. 23. Lastly, he had to make sure that theactions would treat people as an end inthemselves, and not a means to an end.Are you sure the Maxim does not use people in order to work? Yes No Go Forward Go Back to Start
  24. 24. If your maxim has satisfied universality and our motivation is of duty, andhelping someone is your focus, then it is morally right to do. More importantly, you are morally compelled to fulfil your duty. GO ON, DO’S IT!
  25. 25. Application You arrive home from work to find a baby left on your doorstep. 1) Using Kant’s Categorical Imperative decide how you should act. 2) What, if any, problems can there be in this method?

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