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  • 1. Health ImpairmentsAsthma & HIV/AIDS
    Presented by
    Janice Jones
    Rebecca Winebrinner
    Amarillo College
    Children with Special Needs
    CDEC 1359
    November 2010
    Children with asthma
    human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • 2. Asthma
    Definition
    “Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder that produces airway hyper-responsiveness, air flow limitation and persistent respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath,”¹
  • 3. Asthma
    Rate of Occurrence
    Asthma affects 17.3 million people in the United
    Children age 10 and younger account for 50% of asthma cases.
    More than twice as many boys than girls have asthma
    Asthma affects all races worldwide but is more common in blacks and Hispanics, but this may be due to socioeconomic conditions rather than genetics.
    Five thousand people die each year from asthma.
    About 25% of children who have asthma have at least one parent who smokes.
  • 4. Asthma
    Causes or triggers of Asthma
    • Respiratory infections
    • 5. Allergens (anything that causes an allergic reaction)
    • 6. Irritants such as tobacco smoke, cold air, chemicals, perfumes, paint odors, hair sprays
    • 7. Weather change
    • 8. Exercise
    • 9. Emotional factors
    • 10. Inflammation of the upper airways such as sinus infections, lung infections, bronchitis
  • Asthma
    Behavioral Characteristics
    The main characteristic is wheezing.
    Wheezing is a whistling, hissing sound when breathing.
  • 11. Asthma
    Physical Characteristics
  • 12. Asthma
    Educational Needs
  • 13. Asthma
    Resources
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and Adolescent: http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/children.htm
    American Lung Association: http://www.lungusa.org/
    Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma: http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/faqs.htm
    Asthma in Children: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/asthmainchildren.html
  • 14. Asthma
    Organizations
    National Asthma Education & Prevention Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Information Center (301) 251-1222
    Internet: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
    Allergy & Asthma Network
    Mothers of Asthmatics (800) 878-4403
    www.breatherville.org
    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (800) 822-ASMA
    www.aaaai.org
    Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (800) 7-ASTHMA
    www.aafa.org
  • 15. Asthma
    Parent Resources
    Websites to Visit
    Website: Do you want to learn about asthma? Here are some fun facts and some games and learning activities that are fun and easy to do at home or in the classroom, whether you are a child, childcare provider, parent, or teacher. http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/children.htm
    Interactive Website: Interactive tutorial all about asthma that can be viewed on the web: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/asthma/htm/index.htm
    Article: Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/lungs/asthma_basics.html
    Book: Children With Asthma: A Manual for Parents [Paperback] by Thomas F. Plaut
  • 16. Asthma
    Classroom Strategies
    Make your school asthma friendly:
  • 17. HIV -- AIDS
    Definition
    AIDS/HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus destroys or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
  • 18. HIV -- AIDS
    Rate of Occurrence
    At the end of 2009, there were 2.5 million children living with HIV around the world.2
    An estimated 400,000 children became newly infected with HIV in 2009.
    Of the 1.8 million people who died of AIDS during 2009, one in seven were children. Every hour, around 30 children die as a result of AIDS.
    There are more than 16 million children under the age of 18 who have lost one or both parents to AIDS.
    Most children living with HIV ­– almost 9 in 10 – live in sub-Saharan Africa, the region of the world where AIDS has taken its greatest toll.
    ******************************************
    There are between 6,000 to 7,000 children who are born to HIV-infected mothers each year in the United States.
    Teens between the ages of 13 to 19, especially among minority groups, represent one of the fastest growing HIV-positive groups.
    Between 1992 and 1997 the number of infants who became HIV positive when born to an infected mother decreased by 50 percent.
  • 19. HIV -- AIDS
    Causes
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is spread through one of the following ways:
  • 20. HIV -- AIDS
    Behavioral Characteristics
    CHILDREN
    Young children become infected with AIDS/HIV due to maternal transmission in the uterus, during the delivery process and through breast feeding; Children can also become infected through child sexual abuse
    ADULTS
    Adults become infected with the virus due to behaviors:
    Sharing needles with drug use
    Unprotected sex
    Through blood transmissions (mostly in Third world countries)
  • 21. HIV -- AIDS
    Physical Characteristics
    Infants - At birth, infants born to an HIV-infected mother may test negative for the virus and have no symptoms. This does not mean that the infant does not have the virus. Blood tests will be done at various stages after birth up to and past 6 months of age to determine an infant's HIV status. There may not be symptoms at first, but develop later. Symptoms may include the following:
    failure to thrive - delayed physical and developmental growth as evidenced by poor weight gain and bone growth.
    swollen abdomen (due to swelling of the liver and spleen)
    swollen lymph nodes
    intermittent diarrhea (diarrhea that may come and go) pneumonia
    oral thrush - a fungal infection in the mouth that is characterized by white patches on the cheeks and tongue. These lesions may be painful to the infant
  • 22. HIV -- AIDS
    Educational Needs
    HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact in a child care setting. The HIV virus cannot be spread by sneezing, coughing, hugging, or touching. Parents worry about accidents and fights, but fresh blood-to-blood contact among children is extremely unusual. No case of HIV/AIDS transmission in a child care center has ever been reported.
    For clean ups: Use gloves and clean up as you normally would disposing paper towels and other items in a plastic bag.
    If a child bites you and draws blood, wash the area immediately with soap and water. As you would for any human bite, consult your physician.
    At Meal Time
    Do not allow children to share food. Otherwise, there are no restrictions. Clean up and sanitize as you normally would
    Clean and sterilize baby bottles as usual.
    At Play Time
    If the child puts something in their mouth, the toy should be cleaned and sanitized as normal.
    In the Laundry
    If items have been soiled with body fluids, wash separately. Otherwise, articles can be washed with others
    For First Aid
    Keep a first aid kid handy. It should include: a box of disposable latex gloves, antiseptic or disinfectant, a bottle of bleach diluted to 1 tbsp bleach to one quarter water mixed immediately before use, disposable paper towels, gauze, medical tape and plastic bag for waste disposal.
  • 23. HIV -- AIDS
    Resources
    You Can Call Me Willy [Paperback /children’s book] by Joan C. Verniero
    The Encyclopedia of AIDS: A Social, Political, Cultural, and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic, Raymond A. Smith, Editor. Copyright © 1998, Raymond A. Smith. Carried by permission of Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
    Adverting HIV and AIDS: HIV, AIDS and Children: http://www.avert.org/children.htm
    HIV Info Source: Children and HIV
    http://www.hivinfosource.org/hivis/hivbasics/children/
  • 24. HIV -- AIDS
    Organizations
    AIDS Healthcare Foundation: http://www.aidshealth.org/
    Project Hope: http://www.projecthope.org
    Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation : www.elizabethtayloraidsfoundation.org
    National Association of People With AIDS Hotline:1-240-247-0880
  • 25. HIV -- AIDS
    Parent Resources
    Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs
    http://www.ucsfchildcarehealth.org/pdfs/illnesses/HIV_0509.pdf
    Children Parents and AIDS: Brochure
    Children and HIV
    http://www.hivinfosource.org
    HIV/AIDS and Children Information for the Parents of an HIV Positive Child
    http://aids.about.com/od/childrenteens/a/HIV_Kids.htm
    www.redcross.org/www-files/Documents/pdf/HIVAIDS/27377.pdf
  • 26. HIV -- AIDS
    Classroom Strategies
    Information about a child with HIV/AIDS should remain confidential.
    Use universal precautions when dealing with body secretions such as blood.
    Protect child with AIDS/HIV from being exposed to secondary infections.
    Assure that any open abrasions, cuts, or wounds are covered until a scab appears.
    No additional classroom strategies are required.
  • 27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Asthma's Impact on Children and Adolescent: http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/children.htm
    Management of Asthma in Children: American Family Physicianwww.aafp.org
    Center for Disease Control; Basic Information about Asthma: http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/faqs.htm
    Asthma in Children: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/asthmainchildren.html
    Asthma Basics for parents, kids and teens: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/lungs/asthma_basics.html
    Asthma in Children: emedicinehealth
    www.emedicinehealth.com
    Bibliography: Asthma
  • 28. Bibliography: AIDS
    The complete resource on HIV/AIDs
    www.thebody.com
    AIDS: Medline
    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/aids.html
    Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDs
    http://www.ucsfchildcarehealth.org/pdfs/illnesses/HIV_0509.pdf
    HIV Info Source: Children and HIV
    http://www.hivinfosource.org/hivis/hivbasics/children/