Regional Experiences inManaged Aquifer Recharge andAquifer Storage and Recovery:An Opportunity also for Oman?Muscat, Oman0...
2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 2Outline• Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) –Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)– What is it?– Why...
What includesManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 3UNESCO, 2005
What falls underManaged Aquifer Recharge?Human enhanced and managed groundwater recharge2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 4[with...
Reasons forManaged Aquifer Recharge• Strategic water reserve for emergency situations• Short-term or seasonal peak demands...
What falls underManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 6International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centr...
What includesManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 7UNESCO, 2005• Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR):“well/bore...
Challenges• Technological, Scientific– Groundwater level rise– Hydrochemical mixing– System efficiencies– Health risks• So...
www.escwa.un.org 9Examples from the Region
Bahrain:Isa Town: Storm Water Runoff• Unique gravity-fed aquifer rechargesystem:– Gulleys, catch pits, delivery pipes,oil ...
Bahrain:Potential Larger Scale ASR / ASTR• 1986: TSE recharge to Khobar aquifer• 2010: Dammam aquifer regional simulationm...
Jordan:MAR - Infiltration of Floodwater• 2012: Cooperation MWI/JOR – BGR/BMZ/GER– Guideline for assessment andimplementati...
Kuwait:Dammam, Kuwait Group• 1964: First field tests in Raudhatain…• 2002: Numerical modeling of artificialrecharge option...
Oman:TSE Reuse, MAR, Salalah• Salalah Sanitary Drainage Services Co.: SSDS• Ownership, management, O&M of current network ...
Qatar:Northern Groundwater Basin, ASR• 1976: “Artificial recharge with desalted sea water to permitadditional agricultural...
United Arab Emirates:Nizwa, Sharjah: 1st Operational ASR• 2001-2002 feasibility study• 2003-2004 pilot project• ASR to rep...
United Arab Emirates:Liwa, Abu Dhabi: large scale ASR• 2003-2005 feasibility study• 2006-2009 pilot project• 2010-2013 con...
What can be done at Regional Level?• Technical and scientific challengesto make any MAR schemes successful.• Socio-economi...
MAR / ASR:An Opportunity also for Oman?• Yes!• In fact:– MAR by groundwater recharge dams, and– AS(R) by TSE injection in ...
Regional Experiences inManaged Aquifer Recharge andAquifer Storage and Recovery:An Opportunity also for Oman?Muscat, Oman0...
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R. Klingbeil, 2013: Regional Experiences in Managed Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery: An Opportunity also for Oman?

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Klingbeil, R., 2013. Regional Experiences in Managed Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery: An Opportunity also for Oman? Presentation at the 3rd Oman Power and Water Summit 2013, Muscat, Oman, 06 May 2013.

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R. Klingbeil, 2013: Regional Experiences in Managed Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery: An Opportunity also for Oman?

  1. 1. Regional Experiences inManaged Aquifer Recharge andAquifer Storage and Recovery:An Opportunity also for Oman?Muscat, Oman06 May 2013Ralf KlingbeilRegional Advisor Environment & Water
  2. 2. 2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 2Outline• Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) –Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)– What is it?– Why is it applied?• Challenges• Examples from the region• What can be done at regional level?• MAR / ASR in Oman?
  3. 3. What includesManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 3UNESCO, 2005
  4. 4. What falls underManaged Aquifer Recharge?Human enhanced and managed groundwater recharge2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 4[with the purpose of later abstraction or use either as a freshgroundwater resource or as hydraulic barrier against otherthreats such as seawater or saline water intrusion].
  5. 5. Reasons forManaged Aquifer Recharge• Strategic water reserve for emergency situations• Short-term or seasonal peak demands• Reducing runoff losses• Preparation for drought periods / dry years• Vulnerability of desalination to pollution / algae• Constant desalination production vs. variable demands• Recharging / improving brackish groundwater• Preventing / reversing saltwater intrusion /controlling salinity upconing• Injection / infiltration of excess rain / flood waters• Intermediate storage of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE)mainly for agriculture or industrial uses• Avoiding potential evaporation losses from dams2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 5
  6. 6. What falls underManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 6International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, 2007, www.un-igrac.orgTechnologyAS(TR)ASRSpreading methodsinfiltration ponds & basinsfloodingditch, furrow, drainsirrigationsand damschannel spreadingInduced bank infiltrationWell, shaft and boreholerechargedeep well injectionshallow well/ shaft/ pit infiltrationSub typeRunoff harvestingbarriers and bundstrenchesTechniquesreferringprimarilytogettingwaterinfiltratedTechniquesreferringprimarilytointerceptingthewaterIn-channel modificationsrecharge damssub surface dams
  7. 7. What includesManaged Aquifer Recharge?2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 7UNESCO, 2005• Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR):“well/borehole is used for both injection andrecovery, costs are minimisedand clogging is removed duringthe recovery cycle.”• Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery(ASTR):“Water can be injected into a borehole andrecovered from another, some distance away,to increase travel time andbenefit from water treatmentcapacity of the aquifer”
  8. 8. Challenges• Technological, Scientific– Groundwater level rise– Hydrochemical mixing– System efficiencies– Health risks• Socio-Economic Viability– Investigation of economic alternatives– System efficiencies– Social acceptance• Governance, Regulations– Laws, regulations and guidelines– Accountable and transparent decision making– Participation and constructive criticism– Advisory bodies with multi-sectoral experiences2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 8...
  9. 9. www.escwa.un.org 9Examples from the Region
  10. 10. Bahrain:Isa Town: Storm Water Runoff• Unique gravity-fed aquifer rechargesystem:– Gulleys, catch pits, delivery pipes,oil trap, filter chamber, andrecharge well– Direct urban storm water flowsfrom suitable low points totargeted Khobar aquifer• Estimated 1,389 m3 recharged• Water level rise 0.6 m• Reduced salinity• Necessity for monitoring potentiallyharmful substances (esp. nickel, zinc,copper)Al-Noaimi, 201002 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 10
  11. 11. Bahrain:Potential Larger Scale ASR / ASTR• 1986: TSE recharge to Khobar aquifer• 2010: Dammam aquifer regional simulationmodeling study• 2010: Feasibility of groundwater recharge withTSE• 2011: National approach to assessing reuse ofTSE and MAR• Future TSE production:– 2015: 390,000 m3/day– 2030: 500,000 m3/day• Alternative uses:– More direct TSE reuse in agriculture– Potential target aquifers: Alat (A) andKhobar (B), both Dammam formation– Expected total volume of TSE to bestored: 24 MCMAl-Mannai, 2010, MoW, 201102 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. Jordan:MAR - Infiltration of Floodwater• 2012: Cooperation MWI/JOR – BGR/BMZ/GER– Guideline for assessment andimplementation of Managed AquiferRecharge (MAR) in (semi-)arid regions– Pre-feasibility study for infiltration offloodwater in Amman-Zarqa and Azraqbasins• MAR potential map for water availability &site suitability for two surface water basins• Limitations:– Source water availability in regions withrainfall of less than 200 mm/a– High sediment load of runoff waters• Operation and maintenance• Monitoring• Assess actual effectiveness• Increase involvement of local communities Steinel, 201202 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 12
  13. 13. Kuwait:Dammam, Kuwait Group• 1964: First field tests in Raudhatain…• 2002: Numerical modeling of artificialrecharge options for Dammam formationat pilot recharge site• 2004: Laboratory investigation compatibility ofdesalinated water, RO-treated wastewaterwith the Kuwait Group aquifer• 2010: Selection of suitable sites for artificialrecharge– Kuwait Group: Mutla, Sulaibiya,Raudhatain areas– Dammam Formation: Kabd area• 2013: Start of KISR pilot project in Kabd,injecting RO-treated wastewater intoDammam formation02 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 13Abdel-Jawad/KISR, 2008; Dawoud/EAD, 2005; Mukhopadhyay/KISR, 2010
  14. 14. Oman:TSE Reuse, MAR, Salalah• Salalah Sanitary Drainage Services Co.: SSDS• Ownership, management, O&M of current network forgroundwater recharge and future expansions• No legislation in Oman yet on TSE reuse for aquifer recharge• Average quantity of treated water– to recharge wells: 18,090 m3– to SSDS clients/consumers: 2,680 m3• 48 recharge wells02 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 14AlQasmi, 2011; Shammas, 2007; Wahaibi, 2011
  15. 15. Qatar:Northern Groundwater Basin, ASR• 1976: “Artificial recharge with desalted sea water to permitadditional agricultural development appears technically feasiblebut its practicability needs to be examined further.” (Vecchioli)• 1992-1994: Feasibility study for injection of desalinated water inRus and Umm er-Radhuma, result positive for both formations• 2012: QNFSP/KAHRAMAA: Investigation of four sites in northerngroundwater basin to store 30 billion gallons (136 MCM) as long-term security in the event of an interruption to desalination.• ASR as two-fold opportunity:Imperative for utilities to treat wastewater totertiary level and TSE available for non-potableapplications such as agricultural irrigationpossibly with intermediate aquifer storage.02 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 15Dawoud/EAD, 2009; MEED, 2012; Streetly, 1998; Vecchioli/USGS, 1976
  16. 16. United Arab Emirates:Nizwa, Sharjah: 1st Operational ASR• 2001-2002 feasibility study• 2003-2004 pilot project• ASR to replace seasonal peak load capacity• Site characterization and evaluation,geophysics, trial boreholes, monitoring network• Hydrochemical modeling: Mixing of injected ROproduct (250 µS/cm) and native groundwater• Pilot project: Cycles of injection - storage -recovery, currently in >10th cycle,• 4th Cycle: 24,700 m3 over 26 days injection, 30days storage, 23,400 m3 over 19 days recovery,system efficiency 95% recovery of injected water,cost efficiency 10% of equivalent surface storage• Planned for 400 MIG (1.8 MCM)02 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 16SEWA, 2009
  17. 17. United Arab Emirates:Liwa, Abu Dhabi: large scale ASR• 2003-2005 feasibility study• 2006-2009 pilot project• 2010-2013 construction of “Strategic WaterStorage and Recovery Project (SWSR)”• Planned for 23 MCM of surplus desalinatedseawater• Emergency water supply for Abu Dhabi up tothree months at 40 MIG/d (181,800 m3/d)• Extensive site characterisation, shallowaquifer system, semi-consolidated Aeoliandune sands• When completed: Benchmark for watermanagement in arid regions02 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 17Koziorowski, 2012 ; Wolke, 2011
  18. 18. What can be done at Regional Level?• Technical and scientific challengesto make any MAR schemes successful.• Socio-economic aspectshave to take a greater role in overall assessment stagesand require close interaction between economists,engineers, social and natural scientists.• Regional knowledge exchangeon technical, scientific, socio-economic and regulatoryapproaches for MAR.• Exchange visitsbetween countries; developing staff capacities andlearning networks.• Advisory bodieswith experts from different sectors and countries.2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 18
  19. 19. MAR / ASR:An Opportunity also for Oman?• Yes!• In fact:– MAR by groundwater recharge dams, and– AS(R) by TSE injection in Salalahis already being implemented• MAR:Oman has great experience in groundwater rechargedams, also for knowledge transfer to other countries andregions• ASR:Oman may wish to join regional exchanges for knowledgesharing and development of appropriate approaches2 May 2013 www.escwa.un.org 19
  20. 20. Regional Experiences inManaged Aquifer Recharge andAquifer Storage and Recovery:An Opportunity also for Oman?Muscat, Oman06 May 2013Ralf KlingbeilRegional Advisor Environment & Water

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