Recent Developments:
Groundwater at National Level and
Shared Aquifers Between Countries in
Middle East and North Africa
F...
Outline
• UN ESCWA - Regional Cooperation
• Groundwater Management at National Level
– Drought - Water Scarcity
– Managed ...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3
UN ESCWA
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
• Headquarter in
Be...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4
Organizational Chart
Sustainable Development Policies
Division SDPD
Social Development Divi...
Iraq: Displacement due to Drought
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5
IOM,July2010.
Syria: Drought and Groundwater Use
www.escwa.un.org 631 May 2014
• Drought since
2008
• Inability to
“make a living”
• Int...
Lebanon: Historic Drought 2014 ?
731 May 2014
BGR,A.Margane,2014.
Using the Groundwater Buffer Wisely:
MAR - ASR
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8
UNESCO,2005.
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9
Tunisia: Korba Aquifer Recharge
• Groundwater used mainly for
irrigation
• Prior to recharg...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10
Oman: Salalah Aquifer Recharge
Groundwater Levels
Salalah
Aquifer Recharge:
• Halts aquife...
Jordan:
MAR - Infiltration of Floodwater
• 2012: MWI/JOR – BGR/BMZ/GER
– Guideline for assessment and
implementation of Ma...
Schematic Diagram of a Shared Aquifer
and its Flow Directions
Puri,S.&Arnold,G.E.2002.
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13
Challenges with Shared Groundwater –
Transboundary Aquifers in the Region
Klingbeil&Al-Ham...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org
Overview Global and Other Regional
Legal Instruments
1966
Helsinki Rules
1997 UN
Watercourse
...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15
Inventory of Shared Water Resources in
Western Asia - Overview
www.waterinventory.org
16
Inventory of Shared Water Resources in
Western Asia - Overview
www.waterinventory.org
17
Inventory - Features
www.waterinventory.org
Inventory - Chapter Features - Groundwater
www.waterinventory.org
19
Inventory - Key Findings
www.waterinventory.org
20
Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems
www.waterinventory.org
April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 21
Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems
www.waterinventory.org
22
Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer
System (North), Widyan-Salman
www.waterinventory.org
31 May 2014
Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer
System (North), Widyan-Salman
www.waterinventory.org
24
Inventory - Added Value
www.waterinventory.org
25
Inventory - Added Value
www.waterinventory.org
Inventory - Website
www.waterinventory.org
Kuwait: KISR
• Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)
• Assistance in field of shared groundwater & aquifers
– KI...
Jordan River
Basin Dialogue
• Jordan River Basin Dialogue (JRBD)
• Requested by Palestinian Water Authority (PWA)
• Based ...
31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 29
Conclusions and Outlook
• National groundwater management faces many challenges:
– Sustain...
Recent Developments:
Groundwater at National Level and
Shared Aquifers Between Countries in
Middle East and North Africa
F...
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R. Klingbeil & R. Majdalani, 2014. Recent Developments: Groundwater at National Level and Shared Aquifers Between Countries in Middle East and North Africa.

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Klingbeil R. & Majdalani, R., 2014. Recent Developments: Groundwater at National Level and Shared Aquifers Between Countries in Middle East and North Africa. Presentation at Meeting of the German Association for Hydrogeology, 28-31 May 2014, Bayreuth, Germany.

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R. Klingbeil & R. Majdalani, 2014. Recent Developments: Groundwater at National Level and Shared Aquifers Between Countries in Middle East and North Africa.

  1. 1. Recent Developments: Groundwater at National Level and Shared Aquifers Between Countries in Middle East and North Africa FH-DGG, Bayreuth, Germany 28-31 May 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Roula Majdalani, Director, SDPD
  2. 2. Outline • UN ESCWA - Regional Cooperation • Groundwater Management at National Level – Drought - Water Scarcity – Managed Aquifer Recharge - Aquifer Storage and Recovery • Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers – Legal Instruments: Global, Regional, Bi- or Multi-lateral – Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia: Shared Aquifers – Sub-regional Cooperation • Conclusions and Outlook www.escwa.un.org 231 May 2014
  3. 3. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3 UN ESCWA United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia • Headquarter in Beirut since 1997 • 17 Member States
  4. 4. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4 Organizational Chart Sustainable Development Policies Division SDPD Social Development Division SDD Economic Development and Globalization Division EDGD Information Communication and Technology Division ICTD Statistics Division SD Emerging Conflicts and Related Issues ECRI ESCWA Centre for Women ECW Administrative Services Division ASD UNESCWA Energy Section EnS Food and Environmental Policies Section FEPS Water Resources Section WRS
  5. 5. Iraq: Displacement due to Drought 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5 IOM,July2010.
  6. 6. Syria: Drought and Groundwater Use www.escwa.un.org 631 May 2014 • Drought since 2008 • Inability to “make a living” • Internally Displaced People IDPs • Additional stress on resources and society in urban areas in West irinnews.org,2009.Syria’sdrought-affectedprovincesasofAug2009.
  7. 7. Lebanon: Historic Drought 2014 ? 731 May 2014 BGR,A.Margane,2014.
  8. 8. Using the Groundwater Buffer Wisely: MAR - ASR 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8 UNESCO,2005.
  9. 9. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9 Tunisia: Korba Aquifer Recharge • Groundwater used mainly for irrigation • Prior to recharge, contaminated with seawater intrusion, nitrate and bacterial pollutants • TWW “recycled” into the aquifer via infiltration basins • Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion ElAyniF.etal.,2011,ChaiebH.2011,CherifS.etal.,2013. Salinity of groundwater prior to recharge
  10. 10. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10 Oman: Salalah Aquifer Recharge Groundwater Levels Salalah Aquifer Recharge: • Halts aquifer depletion • Halts water salinisation ShammasMI.2007,2008. Salinity Levels
  11. 11. Jordan: MAR - Infiltration of Floodwater • 2012: MWI/JOR – BGR/BMZ/GER – Guideline for assessment and implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) in (semi-)arid regions – Pre-feasibility study for infiltration of floodwater in Amman-Zarqa and Azraq basins Steinel, 2012 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 11
  12. 12. Schematic Diagram of a Shared Aquifer and its Flow Directions Puri,S.&Arnold,G.E.2002.
  13. 13. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13 Challenges with Shared Groundwater – Transboundary Aquifers in the Region Klingbeil&Al-Hamdi,2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable / Non-renewable Groundwater Differences in Recharge and Use Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System
  14. 14. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org Overview Global and Other Regional Legal Instruments 1966 Helsinki Rules 1997 UN Watercourse Convention 2014 Entry into Force 1992 UN ECE Water Convention 2003 UN ECE Amendment 1998 SADC Water Protocol 2000 SADC Revised Water Protocol 2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir 2008 UN GA Law of TBAs 2011, -13, -16 UN GA Reviews 2010 AMWC Res for Drafting AWC Annual AMWC Reviews
  15. 15. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15 Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Overview www.waterinventory.org
  16. 16. 16 Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Overview www.waterinventory.org
  17. 17. 17 Inventory - Features www.waterinventory.org
  18. 18. Inventory - Chapter Features - Groundwater www.waterinventory.org
  19. 19. 19 Inventory - Key Findings www.waterinventory.org
  20. 20. 20 Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems www.waterinventory.org
  21. 21. April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 21 Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems www.waterinventory.org
  22. 22. 22 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
  23. 23. 31 May 2014 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
  24. 24. 24 Inventory - Added Value www.waterinventory.org
  25. 25. 25 Inventory - Added Value www.waterinventory.org
  26. 26. Inventory - Website www.waterinventory.org
  27. 27. Kuwait: KISR • Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) • Assistance in field of shared groundwater & aquifers – KISR / ESCWA Workshop Shared Groundwater Aquifers in GCC Countries, Apr 2014, – Presentation “Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries”, – Support and technical inputs to develop research proposal on shared groundwater aquifers between Kuwait and neighbouring countries, • Further activities envisaged – Assistance in review of research proposal, – Backstopping and advice through participation in advisory committee. UN ESCWA & BGR, 2013 www.escwa.un.org 2731 May 2014
  28. 28. Jordan River Basin Dialogue • Jordan River Basin Dialogue (JRBD) • Requested by Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) • Based on ESCWA - BGR Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia (2013) • UN ESCWA facilitated riparian dialogue, cooperating under 1997 UN Convention on Non-Navigational Uses of International Water Courses • Addressed themes: Hydrology and hydrogeology, historic development of water use and options for further cooperation between riparians • 1st meeting: Amman, 06-07 Apr 2014 www.escwa.un.org 2831 May 2014
  29. 29. 31 May 2014 www.escwa.un.org 29 Conclusions and Outlook • National groundwater management faces many challenges: – Sustainability of renewable and non-renewable groundwater, – Increasing pollution risk from population and land use changes, – Groundwater as “buffer” for periods of water scarcity and drought, – Managing the “buffer”, the groundwater storage. • Transboundary cooperation on water and aquifers remains important: – Global and regional legal frameworks for cooperation are developing to also address transboundary aquifers, – ESCWA BGR Inventory useful for improved understanding of shared groundwater between countries in the region, – First sub-regional cooperation between aquifer / riparian states developing.
  30. 30. Recent Developments: Groundwater at National Level and Shared Aquifers Between Countries in Middle East and North Africa FH-DGG, Bayreuth, Germany 28-31 May 2014 Ralf Klingbeil, RA Environment & Water Roula Majdalani, Director, SDPD

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