Transboundary Water andTransboundary Aquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing a Precious ResourceUNESCO, Pari...
1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2Outline• Introduction: Global – Regional• Regional Challenges forWater Resources Manage...
1966Helsinki Rules1997 UNWatercourseConvention1992 UN ECEWaterConvention2003 UN ECEAmendment1998 SADCWater Protocol2000 SA...
Challenges for Water ResourcesManagement in the Region• Water resources availability – scarcity concerns:– External surfac...
Proven and Potential Transboundary /Shared Aquifers in ESCWA Region1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the RegionHistoric and Prior UseRenewable / Non-ren...
Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the Region• Historic and prior use ?– Shall prior u...
www.escwa.un.org 8Historic and Prior UseHistorical Use: Surface and GroundwaterZeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 Februa...
Non-renewable Groundwater:Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the Region• Spatial extent of surface and groundwat...
Differences in Outcrop / Rechargeand Use Areas1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11Location of aquifer utilisation zones and...
Upper Jordan River BasinSpring Catchments1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12Klein. 1998Dan:Q = 250 MCMa = 24 km2Rech. ≥ 10...
www.escwa.un.org 13Joint Investigations / ResearchGroundwater Development CostsMacDonald et al., 20091 February 2012
ESCWA / Arab Region• Active support from regional organisations– knowledge building of shared resources,– bilateral and re...
ESCWA / Arab Region• Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC):– June 2009, 1st session:Regional Strategy for Water Security– ...
Principles for Arab Sharing ofTransboundary Water and Aquifers• AMWC to decide on format of legal framework• Definition of...
Potential for Regional Support• UN Regional Commissions can– Assist developing regional legal tools  AWMC,– Host regional...
ESCWA – BGR CooperationInventory of Shared Waters1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18Compilation ofInformationMap of the s...
1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19Conclusions• Global challenge to integrate 2009 UN GA Law onTBAs into 1997 UN Watercou...
ESCWA / SDPD contacts• Sustainable Development and ProductivityDivision – SDPD– Director SDPD - Ms. Roula Majdalani:majdal...
Transboundary Water andTransboundary Aquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing a Precious ResourceUNESCO, Pari...
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R. Klingbeil & M.I. Al-Hamdi, 2010: Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource

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Klingbeil, R. & Al-Hamdi, M.I., 2010. Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource. Presentation and paper at the International Conference on Transboundary Aquifers - Challenges and New Directions (ISARM 2010), 06-08 December 2010, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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R. Klingbeil & M.I. Al-Hamdi, 2010: Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers in the Middle East: Opportunities for Sharing a Precious Resource

  1. 1. Transboundary Water andTransboundary Aquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing a Precious ResourceUNESCO, Paris08 December 2010Ralf Klingbeil,Regional Advisor Environment and WaterMohammad I. Al-Hamdi, First EconomicAffairs Officer, Water Resources Section
  2. 2. 1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2Outline• Introduction: Global – Regional• Regional Challenges forWater Resources Management• Sharing Transboundary Water andGroundwater / Aquifers• Towards Regional Legal Instruments forSharing Water Resources• Conclusions:How Bright is the Future?
  3. 3. 1966Helsinki Rules1997 UNWatercourseConvention1992 UN ECEWaterConvention2003 UN ECEAmendment1998 SADCWater Protocol2000 SADCRevised WaterProtocol2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir2008 UN ILCDraft TBA Articles2009 UN GALaw of TBAsIntroductionGlobal – Regional1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3Aquifer Mgmt Unit:Groundwater Body
  4. 4. Challenges for Water ResourcesManagement in the Region• Water resources availability – scarcity concerns:– External surface water resources,– Non-renewable groundwater reserves,– Non-conventional water resources,i.e. desalinated sea- and brackish water, treated wastewater.• National water governance and management:– Water quality protection,– Allocation of large water quantities to less productiveand/or less socially relevant sectors.• Dependency on internal sharing of transboundary waterand aquifers:– Suitability of data on quantity & quality of rivers & groundwater.1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
  5. 5. Proven and Potential Transboundary /Shared Aquifers in ESCWA Region1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
  6. 6. Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the RegionHistoric and Prior UseRenewable / Non-renewableGroundwaterDifferences in Recharge and Use AreasSpatial Extent of Surface andGroundwater CatchmentsAquifer Management Units ≠Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
  7. 7. Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the Region• Historic and prior use ?– Shall prior use justify the reduction of another party’sright to utilisation and development?– How can historic, current and potential future benefitsof one party be taken into account?– Offer alternative water supplies?• Renewable resources vs. non-renewablereserves ?– What is a fair share of a limited reserve?– Include past water uses in agreements?1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
  8. 8. www.escwa.un.org 8Historic and Prior UseHistorical Use: Surface and GroundwaterZeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 20091 February 2012
  9. 9. Non-renewable Groundwater:Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
  10. 10. Challenges to Sharing Transboundary Waterand Groundwater / Aquifers in the Region• Spatial extent of surface and groundwatercatchments ?– Exclude ambiguity by not dealing with groundwater?– Invest into joint research?• Need for joint cooperation / management overthe entire basin / aquifer ?– Planning of large scale investments needs to includeall -also upper- riparians?– Reduced scope of cooperation, specific jointzone of cooperation on both sides of a border?– Aquifer management unit, i.e. “groundwater body”,differing from entire TB aquifer?1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
  11. 11. Differences in Outcrop / Rechargeand Use Areas1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11Location of aquifer utilisation zones and outcrop area of principalaquifers (WaterWatch, 2006)
  12. 12. Upper Jordan River BasinSpring Catchments1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12Klein. 1998Dan:Q = 250 MCMa = 24 km2Rech. ≥ 10400mm/yHasbani/Snir + Dan:Q = 325 MCMa = 653 km2Rech. ≥ 500 mm/y
  13. 13. www.escwa.un.org 13Joint Investigations / ResearchGroundwater Development CostsMacDonald et al., 20091 February 2012
  14. 14. ESCWA / Arab Region• Active support from regional organisations– knowledge building of shared resources,– bilateral and regional cooperation ontransboundary water and aquifers.• International donor involvement– mainly focused on river basins,– little attention to groundwater.• UNGA Law of TBAs, 2009:“Encourages the States concerned to makeappropriate bilateral or regional arrangementsfor the proper management of their transboundaryaquifers, taking into account the provisions ofthese draft articles” (Recommendation No 5)1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14
  15. 15. ESCWA / Arab Region• Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC):– June 2009, 1st session:Regional Strategy for Water Security– July 2010, 2nd session:Shared Water Resources as Regional Priority“Invite the CWSAWS and UN ESCWA,in coordination with ACSAD and SIWIto prepare a draft legal framework onshared waters within the Arab Regionfor its discussion during the next meetingof the Technical Scientific AdvisoryCommittee of the Ministerial Council inJanuary 2011.” (Resolution 4, Item 3)1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
  16. 16. Principles for Arab Sharing ofTransboundary Water and Aquifers• AMWC to decide on format of legal framework• Definition of shared water resources:Surface and groundwater (renewableand non-renewable) that exist, flowacross, underneath and/or alongcommon national borders of two ormore countries.• General guiding principles may include– General obligation to cooperate,– Equitable and reasonable utilisation,– Obligation not to cause significant harm.1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
  17. 17. Potential for Regional Support• UN Regional Commissions can– Assist developing regional legal tools  AWMC,– Host regional institutions / secretariats for implementing regionallegal frameworks  UN ECE,– Assist through normative work; increasing Member Countries’understanding and interest in joint cooperation,– Assist through direct policy and technical support from RegionalAdvisor services  UN ECE, UN ESCWA.• UN ESCWA serves its Member Countries and supportsregional organisations such as LAS and GCC through– ESCWA Ministerial Session Resolutions / Mandates  233, 244,– Regular work programme, Committee of Water Resources(CWR) meetings, Expert Group Meetings,– Regional Advisor services based on requests from MemberCountries.1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
  18. 18. ESCWA – BGR CooperationInventory of Shared Waters1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18Compilation ofInformationMap of the sharedbasinReportBasin Description(including map & table)Thematic chapters(e.g. monitoring,shared non-renewablegroundwater )Member countriesConsolidation Consultation PublicationBasin Description•Basin introduction• Hydrogeology• Groundwater use• Agreements, cooperationand TB mgmt issuesOther processstakeholderSub-regional meetings& EGMsTable summarizingfacts & figuresIdentification ofShared Basins inWestern AsiaSources- ESCWA reports- Regional literature- Scientific publications- Country papers- Media
  19. 19. 1 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19Conclusions• Global challenge to integrate 2009 UN GA Law onTBAs into 1997 UN Watercourse Convention• Arab regional institutional development:AMWC and its resolutions, focussing inter alia on– Arab water strategy– Preparation of legal framework on shared water resources• How to include prior use of non-renewablegroundwater into equitable and reasonableutilisation?• Making the most of regional tools to upgradenational knowledge and increase cooperation
  20. 20. ESCWA / SDPD contacts• Sustainable Development and ProductivityDivision – SDPD– Director SDPD - Ms. Roula Majdalani:majdalani@un.org– Regional Advisor Environment and Water• Mr. Ralf Klingbeil:klingbeil@un.org– Water Resources Section – WRS• Chief WRS - Ms. Carol Chouchani Cherfane:chouchanicherfane@un.org• FEAO - Mr. Mohammad Al-Hamdi:al-hamdi@un.orgwww.escwa.un.org 2001 February, 2012
  21. 21. Transboundary Water andTransboundary Aquifers in the Middle East:Opportunities for Sharing a Precious ResourceUNESCO, Paris08 December 2010Ralf Klingbeil,Regional Advisor Environment and WaterMohammad I. Al-Hamdi, First EconomicAffairs Officer, Water Resources Section

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