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R. Klingbeil, 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries.
 

R. Klingbeil, 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries.

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Klingbeil, R., 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries. Presentation at the KISR/ESCWA Workshop on Shared Groundwater ...

Klingbeil, R., 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries. Presentation at the KISR/ESCWA Workshop on Shared Groundwater Aquifers in GCC Countries, 01 Apr 2014.

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    R. Klingbeil, 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries. R. Klingbeil, 2014. Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries. Presentation Transcript

    • Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries KISR, Kuwait 01 April 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Regional Advisor Environment and Water
    • Outline • Shared Groundwater - Transboundary Aquifers • Legal Instruments – Global - Regional - Bi- or Multi-lateral • Inventory on Shared Water Resources in Western Asia – Overview – Groundwater Chapters related to GCC, focus on Kuwait • Conclusions and Outlook www.escwa.un.org 2April 2014
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 3 Schematic Diagram of a Shared Aquifer and its Flow Directions Puri,S.&Arnold,G.E.2002.
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 4 Challenges with Shared Groundwater – Transboundary Aquifers in the Region Klingbeil&Al-Hamdi,2010. Historic and Prior Use Renewable / Non-renewable Groundwater Differences in Recharge and Use Areas Spatial Extent of Surface and Groundwater Catchments Aquifer Management Units ≠ Entire Aquifer / Aquifer System
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 5 Overview Global and Other Regional Legal Instruments 1966 Helsinki Rules 1997 UN Watercourse Convention 1992 UN ECE Water Convention 2003 UN ECE Amendment 1998 SADC Water Protocol 2000 SADC Revised Water Protocol 2000 EU WFD 2006 EU GW Dir 2008 UN GA Law of TBAs 2011, -13, -16 UN GA Reviews Aquifer Mgmt Unit: Groundwater Body 2010 AMWC Res for Drafting AWC Annual AMWC Reviews
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 6 UN General Assembly 2008 - 2013 Transboundary Aquifer Draft Articles • 11 Dec 2008: UNGA A / RES / 63 / 124 “The law of transboundary aquifers” • Encourages States concerned to make appropriate bilateral or regional arrangements, • Decides to include in provisional agenda of sixty-sixth session (2011) item entitled “The law of TBAs”, and • Examining question of form that might be given to draft articles. • 09 Dec 2011: UNGA A / RES / 66 / 477 • Further encourages States concerned to make appropriate bilateral or regional arrangements, • Decides to include in provisional agenda of sixty-eighth session (2013) item entitled “The law of transboundary aquifers”, and • Continue to examine question of final form that might be given to draft articles. • 16 Dec 2013: UNGA A / RES / 68 / 118 • Commends (..) as guidance for bilateral or regional agreements and arrangements for proper management of transboundary aquifers, • Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its seventy-first session (2016) item entitled “The law of transboundary aquifers”.
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 7 UN SG report 2013 Transboundary Aquifer Draft Articles 1/2 22 Jul 2013: UN GA publishes UN SG report on status of law of transboundary aquifers (A/68/172), comments by IRQ, KUW, MOR, 22 Oct 2013: further comments by BAH, QAT, PAL, Arab Group Kuwait 23. Kuwait noted that, in the arid environment in which it was located, there was no surface water and the usable groundwater was either limited or overexploited. That state of affairs necessitated effective management of its transboundary aquifers, including the Dammam Limestone Formation and the Kuwait Group aquifer system, the major recharge zone of which was located in Saudi Arabia and the discharge zone of which extended along the coastal parts of Kuwait and the lower parts of the Shatt al-Arab valley in Iraq. 24. To ensure the effective sustainable management of its transboundary aquifers, Kuwait had identified a number of necessary measures. First, a comprehensive and cooperative hydrological evaluation of the aquifer systems in neighbouring States was essential to assessing the long-term sustainability and water quality of the aquifers in the region. (…)
    • February 2014 www.escwa.un.org 8 UN SG report 2013 Transboundary Aquifer Draft Articles 2/2 (cont.) Kuwait 24. (…) Second, it was vital that the States in the region managed brackish groundwater resources cooperatively in order to enable their sustainable use, preservation and protection. Moreover, Kuwait would make all efforts to formulate bilateral and regional agreements with neighbouring States in relation to transboundary aquifers. In that effort, it might seek the assistance of the UNESCO Internationally Shared Aquifers Resources Management Programme. 25. For Kuwait, the draft articles on the law of transboundary aquifers, and their commendation to the attention of Governments by the General Assembly, represented a timely step in supporting the effective management of transboundary aquifers. It hoped that the draft articles would soon be adopted, taking into consideration the viewpoints of all stakeholders concerned. Kuwait also looked forward to using the draft articles in its efforts to reach mutual understandings with neighbouring States.
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 9 Legal Framework for Shared Water in the Arab Region • Legal Framework for Shared Water in the Arab Region – “Arab Water Convention” • Preparation of Draft Text for Legal Framework, Cooperation of • UN ESCWA • Centre of Water Studies and Arab Water Security • supported by ACSAD, BGR Germany • Arab Ministerial Water Council (AMWC) Resolutions • Res. No. 20, Second Session, Cairo - 2 Jul 2010 • Res. No. 37, Third Session, Cairo - 15 Jun 2011 • Res. No. 56, Fourth Session, Baghdad - 29 May 2012 • Res. No. 71, Fifth Session, Cairo - 06 Jul 2013 • (Res. 71 of Exec. Bureau of AMWC - 29 Jan 2014) • (Fourth Consultative Meeting, Ministries of Water and Foreign Affairs, Cairo - 28-29 Apr 2014)
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 10 Bi- and Multi-lateral Agreements • Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System - NSAS: Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan • Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional - SASS (North-Western Sahara Aquifer System – NWSAS): Algeria, Libya, Tunisia • supported through Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (Observatory of the Sahara and Sahel) – OSS
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 11 Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Overview www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 12 Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia - Overview www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 13 Inventory - Features www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 14 Inventory - Chapter Features - Groundwater www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 15 Inventory - Key Findings www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 16 Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 17 Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 18 Inventory - Umm er Radhuma - Dammam • Umm er Radhuma - Dammam most extensive aquifer system in Arabian Peninsula, • Main geological aquiferous formations: Umm er Radhuma, Dammam and Rus, • Variation in thickness, sequence and water-bearing characteristics, lateral variations in lithology, but hydraulically continuous across the peninsula, • While scientifically correct to refer to full aquifer system as one, from Yemen to Iraq – little help for practical implementation, • Inventory: Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System divided into several sections. www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 19 Inventory - Shared Aquifer Systems www.waterinventory.org Shared Aquifer Systems ESCWA member countries Non-ESCWA BH EG IQ JO KW LB OM PS QA SA SY UAE YE IR IL TR ARABIANPENINSULA SaqRam Aquifer System (West)   Wajid Aquifer System   Wasia-Biyadh-Aruma Aquifer System (South)   Wasia-Biyadh-Aruma Aquifer System (North)   U er R‘ Dammam Aquifer System (South)     U er R‘ Dammam Aquifer System (Centre)    U er R‘ Dammam Aquifer System (North)    Tawil-Quaternary Aquifer System   MASHREK Anti-Lebanon   Western Aquifer Basin    Coastal Aquifer Basin    Basalt Aquifer System (West)   Basalt Aquifer System (South)   MESOPOTAMI Taurus-Zagros    Jezira Tertiary Limestone Aquifer System   Neogene Aquifer System (North-West)   Neogene Aquifer System (South-East)   
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 20 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 21 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 22 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 23 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 24 Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North), Widyan-Salman AGREEMENTS • No water agreements in place for Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer System (North) between Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. COOPERATION • Kuwait and Saudi Arabia are reportedly preparing a joint study of the shared aquifer. OUTLOOK • Monitoring of groundwater quality in general and the groundwater-seawater interface in particular would allow for the detection of increasing salt concentrations. • Effective joint management decisions could decrease the risk of salinization and make the aquifer system more sustainable. www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 25 Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 26 Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 27 Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta www.waterinventory.org The Wadi ar Rimah - Wadi al Batin System
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 28 Neogene Aquifer System (South-East): Dibdibba - Kuwait Group, Dibdibba Delta AGREEMENTS • No water agreements in place for Neogene Aquifer System (South-East) between Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. COOPERATION • No information was available regarding cooperation between the riparian countries on the aquifer system. OUTLOOK • The quantity and quality of available groundwater in the Neogene Aquifer System (South-East) suggest that it could sustain agricultural development in the central gravel plain, along the eastern bank of Wadi al Batin and near the mouth of the delta. • On the plain itself, the aquifer system may have some potential as a source of recharge to the underlying Paleogene Formations, especially where the two aquifer systems are used as a common source of groundwater. www.waterinventory.org
    • Inventory - Website www.waterinventory.org
    • April 2014 www.escwa.un.org 30 Conclusions and Outlook • ESCWA BGR Inventory useful to improved understanding of shared groundwater between countries in the region. • Further joint research cooperation recommended: • Umm er Radhuma - Dammam Aquifer system: IRQ / KUW / SAU joint monitoring of groundwater quality esp. saltwater interface with intention to reduce risk of salinization. • Neogene Aquifer System - central gravel plain, along eastern bank of Wadi al Batin and near mouth of delta: Joint IRQ / KUW / SAU studies on quantity and quality of groundwater with perspective for agricultural development. • Neogene Aquifer System - on plain itself: Joint IRQ / KUW / SAU investigations of aquifer system as potential source of recharge to underlying Paleogene formations. • Based on joint research transboundary cooperation can be developed with a focus on win-win solutions for all parties.
    • Recent Developments at Global and Regional Level on Shared Groundwater Aquifers with a Focus on Arab Gulf Countries KISR, Kuwait 01 April 2014 Ralf Klingbeil Regional Advisor Environment and Water