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R. Klingbeil, 2012. Water Management Challenges Under Drought Conditions
 

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Klingbeil, R., 2012. Water Management Challenges Under Drought Conditions. Presentation at the "Consensus Building and Awareness Workshop, Iraq Drought Risk Management Project", joint workshop of GoI, ...

Klingbeil, R., 2012. Water Management Challenges Under Drought Conditions. Presentation at the "Consensus Building and Awareness Workshop, Iraq Drought Risk Management Project", joint workshop of GoI, UNDP, UNESCO and UN ESCWA, 26-28 Mar 2012, Beirut, Lebanon.

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    R. Klingbeil, 2012. Water Management Challenges Under Drought Conditions R. Klingbeil, 2012. Water Management Challenges Under Drought Conditions Presentation Transcript

    • Water Management ChallengesUnder Drought ConditionsConsensus Building and Awareness Workshop,Iraq Drought Risk Management ProjectBeirut, Lebanon Ralf Klingbeil27 March 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water
    • Iraq’s Perspective on Droughts?Cornish, 2009. Australias Drought, www.slideshare.net/mrcornish/australias-drought , accessed 25 Mar 2012 27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
    • Outline• Impact of Drought• Definition and Classification of Drought• Drought Relation to Water• Challenges to Water Management• Drought Relation to Climate Change• Recommendations• Drought: A Management Issue ?27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3
    • Iraq – Displacement due to Drought IOM, July 201027 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
    • Iraq – Water Needs 2008 - 2010 IOM, July 201027 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
    • Arab Countries’ Water Availability and Use www.carboun.com, 201127 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
    • Water – Overall Challenges• Status and Trends• Availability vs. Use and Demand• Renewable vs. Non-Renewable• Population Growth and Agriculture• Pollution – Reduction of Available Resources• Virtual Water• Water Imports and Transfers• Desalination• Transboundary Water and Aquifers• ... and Climate Change27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
    • Water – Key Challenges for Iraq• Increasing population and water needs across the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins;• Conflicting and uncoordinated use of water across the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins among riparian countries;• Increasing variability and intensity of the hydrological cycles with a special impact on droughts;• Fast aging of a large portion of the water infrastructures across the country (dams, irrigation and drainage systems, etc);• Severe land degradation due to poor land management and water quality;• Poor practices in Water Resources Management• Severe water sanitary issues especially in the Center-South of countryCattarossi, A.., 2011. SWLRI. MED INGEGNERIA s.r.l., Pres. at donor coordination meeting, 23 Nov 201127 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8
    • Euphrates: Quantities and Qualities Grey, D. & Blackmore, D., 2011. Pres. at donor coordination meeting, Sep 201127 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
    • Euphrates/Tigris: SalinityArid zone rivers: salinity increases downstream• Storage construction over past 30 years reduced “dilution flows” reaching Iraq• Large geological salt stores mobilised by irrigation development• Storages with large surface area & high evaporation increasing river salinity levels in mid & lower Basin• Irrigation drainage returns bring large salt load to river Grey, D. & Blackmore, D., 2011. Pres. at donor coordination meeting, Sep 201127 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
    • Climate Change: Potential Impacts• Coupled with excessive population growth and rising living standards, climate change will exacerbate water scarcity conditions across the Arab world.• Persistent reduction of total annual precipitation coupled with rising temperatures will reduce water availability.• Higher temperatures will influence water quality and may cause additional sanitation problems27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
    • Climate Change: Potential Impacts• Changes in water availability – Increase system resilience through surface / underground storage and transfer capacity – Shift form surface to underground storage where applicable to reduce evaporation losses• Urban drainage networks - new dimensions – Sewage systems, storm runoff• Desalination - higher temperature in feed water may increase algae growth and risk of closure of plant intake – Improve intake procedures – Increase storage and transfer capacity• Infrastructure failures – Higher flooding intensities, frequencies – Higher temperatures,• Changes in hydraulic patterns and temperatures – Loss of snowpack storage in Lebanon, Oman, etc.• Groundwater recharge changes, impacts on spring and river discharges – Increase managed aquifer recharge schemes – Better monitoring and scientific understanding of recharge mechanism for predictive planning of alternatives, before springs cease• Seawater level rise – Increasing groundwater salinisation27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
    • Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the region Mar to May 2070 Sep to Nov 2070Hemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
    • Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the regionHemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
    • Change in Precipitation Hue shows change in mm/y. Saturation / intensity shows the change as percentage of 2005 PPTN. Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
    • Change in Length of Dry Season Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
    • Recommendations: Drought and WaterWater Management - No Regret Measures:• Traditional knowledge, local scale interventions – Small, decentralised water retention facilities to sustain local livelihoods (e.g. water harvesting in Oman, Sudan) – Shifting from surface to groundwater use in periods before and during drought• Unconventional approaches: – Subsurface water storage, i.e. managed aquifer recharge – More reuse of treated sewage in irrigation• Reduce losses to avoid human made scarcity – Reduce and remediate quality deterioration (salinity, pollution) – Reduce network losses in irrigation (and in urban supplies)27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
    • Recommendations: Drought and WaterCoordination and Participation:• Stakeholder mapping: Which government institutions are addressing which functions, reduce overlap and gaps.• Participation of and close coordination between stakeholders in national drought monitoring and management body.• Improve preparedness by clear split of tasks between stakeholders and periodic reporting back to national coordination body.Monitoring of Precipitation, Storages vs. Long Term Averages:• Setting up of national drought monitoring network for precipitation, surface and groundwater resources, ...• Development of appropriate indicators for an early warning mechanism for upcoming drought situations at national and sub-national level.27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22
    • Recommendations: Drought and WaterResilience, Preparedness, Education at Local Level:• Increase resilience of local population in potentially affected areas by extension services about more drought resisting corps and information on water rationing regulations.• Increase preparedness for next drought by setting up contingency plans at national and sub-national level.Priority Setting, Compensation Schemes:• Develop and implement clear priority system for drinking water, before essential industries, before irrigated agriculture for times of drought.• Develop compensations systems prior to an upcoming drought, esp. if water restrictions for agriculture are needed to prioritize for drinking water.27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 23
    • Recommendations: Drought and WaterTransboundary Challenges wrt Drought:• Setup national coordination body for transboundary water issues.• Ensure close coordination of national body for transboundary water with all relevant stakeholders / government institutions within Iraq.• Ensure close coordination of national body for transboundary water with the respective institutions in the neighbouring countries to allow in cases of drought higher emergency release of water from upstream neighbours.• Exchange visits to other countries in the region or countries in similar situations globally and learn from their experiences.27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24
    • Three Levels of Scarcity WB, 200727 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
    • Drought: A Management Issue ?Experiences show• Drought can be prevented• Drought can be mitigated• Hardships can be minimised• Sufferings can be reducedIf … all institutions work together at all levels• Drought does not need to become a Disaster• Drought can be addressed as a Management Issue27 March 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
    • Water Management ChallengesUnder Drought ConditionsConsensus Building and Awareness Workshop,Iraq Drought Risk Management ProjectBeirut, Lebanon Ralf Klingbeil27 March 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water