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Klingbeil, R., 2012. Groundwater and Water Management Issues in the Middle East. Presentation as part of the Water Resources Management Program / Desert and Arid Zones Sciences Program / Environmental ...

Klingbeil, R., 2012. Groundwater and Water Management Issues in the Middle East. Presentation as part of the Water Resources Management Program / Desert and Arid Zones Sciences Program / Environmental Management Program, 08 November 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Salmaniyah, Bahrain.

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R. Klingbeil, 2012. Groundwater and Water Management Issues in the Middle East Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Groundwater and WaterManagement Issuesin the Middle EastAGU, Bahrain Ralf Klingbeil08 November 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water
  • 2. Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
  • 3. Lebanon - ‫لبنان‬ http://ilndation-elaof.blogspot.com/2009/11/how-to-make-bucket-margarita.html 2, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 3
  • 4. Opening Quotes• “Arabs are already in the heart of the water catastrophe.”• “Any delay in a serious response to the water challenge corresponds to mass suicide. The water apocalypse is knocking on Arab doors, right now.” Najib Saab, SG AFED, 12 June 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 4
  • 5. Iraq – Displacement due to Drought IOM, July 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5
  • 6. Iraq – Water Needs 2008 - 2010 IOM, July 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6
  • 7. Outline• UN-ESCWA UN Regional Commission• Regional Water Overview: The Many Dimensions of Water – Water Availability and Demand – Solutions to a Dilemma? – Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports – Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers – Climate Change• What remains to be said. Hope?12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7
  • 8. UN ESCWA and the Regional Dimension in the UN ECE 1947 ESCWA ECLAC 1973 1948 ECA ESCAP 1958 194712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8
  • 9. UN ESCWA12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 9
  • 10. OrganizationalChart12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
  • 11. Sustainable Development and Productivity Productive Energy Water Sectors § Energy efficiency § Integrated water § Competitiveness § Access to modern resource and productivity of energy services management SMEs § Renewable (IWRM) § Environmentally energies § Management of sound technologies § Advanced/cleaner shared water § Sustainable fossil fuels resources agriculture and § Rural electrification § Improved water rural development § Sustainable energy supply and § Trade and use in transport sanitation environment Cross-cutting issues: § Climate change adaptation and mitigation § Sustainable consumption and production § Green economyNovember 12, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11
  • 12. Water - Challenges• Status and Trends• Availability vs. Use and Demand• Renewable vs. Non-Renewable• Population Growth and Agriculture• Pollution – Reduction of Available Resources• Virtual Water• Water Imports and Transfers• Desalination• Transboundary Water and Aquifers• ... and Climate Change12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12
  • 13. Regional Water Overview Water Availability and Demand12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 13
  • 14. Actual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita. by Region FAO AQUASTST, WB 200712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14
  • 15. Percent of Total Renewable Water Resources Withdrawn, by Region FAO AQUASTAT data 1998-2002, WB 200712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15
  • 16. Rainfall Distribution in the Arab Region ESCWA, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
  • 17. Total Renewable Water per Person in ESCWA Region Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity ESCWA, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
  • 18. Total Actual Renewable Water Resources per Capita in MENA Water Stress Water Scarcity Extreme Water Scarcity FAO AQUASTAT, WB 200712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
  • 19. Arab Countries’ Water Availability and Use www.carboun.com, 201112 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
  • 20. High Rate of Population Growth ICBA, Barghouti, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
  • 21. High Rate of Population Growth in ESCWA Region ESCWA, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
  • 22. Renewable - Non-Renewable Groundwater Renewable groundwater resources Non-renewable groundwater Non ground water resources ESCWA, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22
  • 23. Regional Water Overview Solutions to a Dilemma?12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 23
  • 24. Solutions? – Efficiency, Reuse, Storage• Increase water efficiency and conservation• Reuse of all forms of water and (treated) waste water• Increase smart storage options: Managed Aquifer Recharge12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24
  • 25. Solutions? – Efficiency• Leakage detection for water supplies12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
  • 26. Solutions? – Reuse• Reuse: water and (treated) waste water AlBaz, GIZ, 201112 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
  • 27. Solutions? – Storage• Storage: Managed Aquifer Storage UNESCO, 200512 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 27
  • 28. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Read Sea - Dead Sea Canal WB, Lintner, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 28
  • 29. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Water Level Changes WB, Lintner, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 29
  • 30. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Dead Sea: Sink Holes, Water Level Drop12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 30
  • 31. Solutions? – Water Imports and Transfers• Red - Dead Sea Canal: The Concept12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 31
  • 32. Solutions? - Desalination ESCWA, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 32
  • 33. Desalination for West Bank? Zeitoun 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 33
  • 34. Desalination for Gaza! • Desalination for Gaza? • YES, … – with funding from EU, WB, Arab Funds – with renewable energy – with measures to limit environmental damages12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 34
  • 35. Regional Water Overview Water and Food, Virtual Water, Food Imports12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 35
  • 36. Water and Food Morelli, 2012: www.angelamorelli.com/water
  • 37. Water and FoodFood Security• Food security vs. food self-sufficiency.• Food security vs. internal agricultural production.• Food security and non-renewable groundwater resources. • A recent World Bank study on water economics in the Middle East and North Africa estimates that groundwater resources depletion has substantially reduced GDP in some countries, by 2.1% in Jordan, 1.5% in Yemen, 1.3% in Egypt, and 1.2% in Tunis.• Food security and virtual water - implications for: • Trade • Rural development, including women & youth • Foreign revenue reserves • Sustainability
  • 38. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia 1991 2000 201212 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 38
  • 39. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 39 FAO AQUASTAT, 2008
  • 40. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Accumulated 30 year groundwater abstraction, 1975 - 2004 per Region for KSA (WaterWatch, 2006)12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 40
  • 41. Irrigated Agriculture in Saudi Arabia Location of aquifer utilisation zones (A) and outcrop areas and subsurface extent (B) of principal aquifers (WaterWatch, 2006)12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 41
  • 42. Sustainability and Non-Renewable Groundwater• Immediate gains vs. long term benefits• No clear “Exit Strategy”, no replacement for non-renewable water resource we are here, but where are we going next? after Al Zubari, 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 42
  • 43. Declining Shares of Agriculture in GDP ICBA, Barghouti, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 43
  • 44. Perverse Incentives for Excess Irrigation WB, 200712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 44
  • 45. Radioactivity-related Cancer Risk from Groundwater in the Middle East? Spiegel Online, 05 Nov 2012:www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/radioaktive-strahlung-im-grundwasserin-nahost-und-nordafrika-a-854588.html Schubert et al., 2011: www.psipw.org/attachments/article/300/IJWRAE_1(1)25-32.pdf 12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 45
  • 46. Sources of Water and Use ICBA, Barghouti, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 46
  • 47. Alternative Future Water Policy OptionsBasically 3 future policy options available:• Population Policy change – high political risk, long term impact, adopted economic development model• Agricultural Policy change – medium political risk, medium term impact• Water Policy change – lower political risk, short term impact• Combination of two or three of the above12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 47
  • 48. Three Levels of Scarcity WB, 200712 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 48
  • 49. Regional Water Overview Transboundary Water and Transboundary Aquifers12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 49
  • 50. TB Water & Aquifers Worldwide • MENA Region: Only few transboundary rivers, BUT large volumes of transboundary groundwater • Concepts for Transboundary River Basins do not necessarily fit to the needs in MENA12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 50
  • 51. What is a Transboundary Aquifer ? UNESCO / ISARM, 200112 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 51
  • 52. TB Water & Aquifers in Middle East12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 52
  • 53. TB Water & Aquifers in Middle EastSaq-Ram AquiferSystem (West) 12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 53
  • 54. TB Water Cooperation – Principles1. Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation2. Obligation not to Cause Significant Harm3. General Obligation to Cooperate § Regular Exchange of Data and Information § Bilateral and Regional Agreements & Arrangements4. Environmental Protection § Protection and Preservation of Ecosystems § Prevention, Reduction and Control of Pollution5. Monitoring and ManagementLimited Sovereignty of Riparian / Aquifer States12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 54
  • 55. Jordan River Basin12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 55 FAO. 2009
  • 56. Jordan River Basin• 4 of 5 riparians Y officially support the LEBANON 1997 UN Watercourse Y SYRIA Convention JORDAN N RIVER Y BASIN Y JORDAN PALESTINE12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 56 Zeitoun 2010
  • 57. Israel, Jordan and Palestine12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 57
  • 58. Lebanon12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 58
  • 59. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Klein, 199812 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 59
  • 60. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs Hasbani (125 Mio m³/a)Libanon Dan (250 Mio m³/a) Banias (125 Mio m³/a) Israel Golan Jordan12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 60
  • 61. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Hasbani Spring, Hasbani River12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 61
  • 62. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs• Ouazzani Spring, Hasbani River12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 62
  • 63. Upper Jordan River Basin - Springs km2 MCM/y mm/y Dan 17.60 228 12,954.55 Hasbani 698.00 122 174.79 Banias 189.00 113 597.88 Dan 715.60 350 489.10 Hasbani Banias 189.00 113 597.88 Dan Hasbani 904.60 463 511.83 Banias Klein,199812 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 63
  • 64. Lake Tiberias12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 64
  • 65. Lake Tiberias discharge – “Spring” of the Lower Jordan River Zeitoun. 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 65
  • 66. The Mouth of the River Jordan - at the Dead Sea… in 2008:1.20 m wide12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 66
  • 67. Jordan River Basin12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 67 Moelle. 2000 ?
  • 68. Jordan River Basin12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 68 Moelle. 2000 ?
  • 69. Israel - Palestine: The Mountain Aquifers• Geological Cross Section from West to East FAO. 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 69
  • 70. Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine Historical Use: Surface and Groundwater Zeitoun, Messerschmid, Attili, 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 70
  • 71. Groundwater Data: Israel – Palestine Groundwater Development Costs MacDonald et al., 200912 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 71
  • 72. Perspectives Friends of the Earth Middle East12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 72
  • 73. Climate Change and Water in the Region Understanding Impacts Making Adaptation Work12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 73
  • 74. Potential Impacts• Coupled with excessive population growth and rising living standards, climate change will exacerbate water scarcity conditions across the Arab world.• Persistent reduction of total annual precipitation coupled with rising temperatures will reduce water availability.• Higher temperatures will influence water quality and may cause additional sanitation problems12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 74
  • 75. Potential Impacts• Changes in water availability – Increase system resilience through surface / underground storage and transfer capacity – Shift form surface to underground storage where applicable to reduce evaporation losses• Urban drainage networks - new dimensions – Sewage systems, storm runoff• Desalination - higher temperature in feed water may increase algae growth and risk of closure of plant intake – Improve intake procedures – Increase storage and transfer capacity• Infrastructure failures – Higher flooding intensities, frequencies – Higher temperatures,• Changes in hydraulic patterns and temperatures – Loss of snowpack storage in Lebanon, Oman, etc.• Groundwater recharge changes, impacts on spring and river discharges – Increase managed aquifer recharge schemes – Better monitoring and scientific understanding of recharge mechanism for predictive planning of alternatives, before springs cease• Seawater level rise – Increasing groundwater salinisation12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 75
  • 76. Change in Precipitation Hue shows change in mm/y. Saturation / intensity shows the change as percentage of 2005 PPTN. Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 76
  • 77. Change in Length of Dry Season Evans, J.P., 2009. 21st Century Climate Change in the Middle East.12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 77
  • 78. Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the region Mar to May 2070 Sep to Nov 2070Hemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 78
  • 79. Changes in RCM projections of seasonal precipitation (mm/season) across the regionHemming, D. et al., 2007. Environmental Stresses from Detailed Climate Model Simulations for theMiddle East and Gulf Regions. Defense and Security Implications of Climate Change – Gulf Region12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 79
  • 80. RICCAR - Regional Initiative12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 80
  • 81. Water, water, everywhere … but not in always enough for everybody and everything12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 81
  • 82. Water – Key Development Issues Facilitating Food Crisis Economic Growth Governance & Finance Water Resources Management Livable Water Supply Climate CitiesGrowth and Change Human Development Water Conflicts Decentralization Sanitation Peak Water Water Security Local human services Urbanization Irrigation Energy and and Rural Development Hydropower Poverty Impact Challenges Water, Climate and Environment Transboundary Water Financial Crisis WB, Saghir, 201012 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 82
  • 83. Main Messages• Water is everybody’s business.• Goal of many countries: National water strategy for water security, enough water for all demands.• Countries in the region are largely unable to sustain their water needs only from within their national boundaries.• All countries are already net water importers through food imports – virtual water.• Largest water consumer is agriculture, although rarely economically viable nor socially necessary.12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 83
  • 84. Main Messages• Urgent need to change water, agriculture and population policies with regard to water consumption and protection.• Surface and groundwater is often transboundary, i.e. (needs to be) shared between neighbouring countries.• Effective und sustainable management of transboundary water needs willingness to cooperate for a more equitable sharing of the benefits from the common resource.• Without cooperation, without innovative integration of economic tools, social justice and environmental sustainable approaches, without regional and bilateral agreements on water, the region may actually slowly move towards a mass suicide.12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 84
  • 85. Hope? – A More Optimistic View12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 85
  • 86. Hope? – A Less Optimistic ViewThe Scorpion and the FrogA scorpion is asking a frog to carry himacross a river. The frog is afraid of beingstung during the trip, but the scorpionargues that if it stung the frog, the frog wouldsink and the scorpion would drown. The frogagrees and begins carrying the scorpion, butmidway across the river the scorpion doesindeed sting the frog, dooming them both.When asked why, the scorpion points outthat this is its nature. http://www.flickr.com/photos/medmss/5887746629 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Scorpion_and_the_Frog 12 November 2012 www.escwa.un.org 86
  • 87. Groundwater and WaterManagement Issuesin the Middle EastAGU, Bahrain Ralf Klingbeil08 November 2012 Regional Advisor Environment & Water