R. Klingbeil, 2011: Treated Sewage Effluent as a Resource for Urban Planning


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Klingbeil, R., 2011. Treated Sewage Effluent as a Resource for Urban Planning. Presentation at the National Workshop on Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) and its Utilization in the Kingdom of Bahrain, 26 October 2011, Manama, Bahrain.

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R. Klingbeil, 2011: Treated Sewage Effluent as a Resource for Urban Planning

  1. 1. Treated Sewage Effluent as aResource for Urban Planning:Examples from ESCWA RegionManama, Bahrain26 October 2011Ralf KlingbeilRegional Advisor Environment & Water
  2. 2. Outline• ESCWA and Regional Advisor services• ESCWA support to Bahrain:– MEW / EWA– MMAUP• Treated Sewage as Resource• Examples from ESCWA Region:– Haya Water, Muscat, Oman– Aqaba Water, Aqaba, Jordan• Conclusions & Recommendations1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2
  3. 3. 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 5UN ESCWA• 14 Member Countries• Bahrain• Egypt• Iraq• Jordan• Kuwait• Lebanon• Qatar• Oman• Palestine• Saudi Arabia• Sudan• Syrian Arab Republic• United Arab Emirates• Yemen
  4. 4. 1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 6OrganizationalChart
  5. 5. Sustainable Development and ProductivityDivision and RA Environment & Water1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 7WaterEnergyProductiveSectors§ Energy efficiency§ Access to modernenergy services§ Renewableenergies§ Advanced/cleanerfossil fuels§ Rural electrification§ Sustainable energyuse in transport§ Integrated waterresourcemanagement(IWRM)§ Management ofshared waterresources§ Improved watersupply andsanitation§ Competitivenessand productivity ofSMEs§ Environmentallysound technologies§ Sustainableagriculture andrural development§ Trade andenvironmentCross-cutting issues:§ Climate change adaptation and mitigation§ Sustainable consumption and production§ Green economy
  6. 6. RA services as part of Technical Cooperation• ESCWA RA services in– Empowerment &Advancement ofWomen– National Accounts &Economic Statistics– ENVIRONMENT & WATER– Social / MDGs– Social Policy– Information &CommunicationTechnology (ICT)01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 8 http://www.escwa.un.org/divisions/pptcd/TCnetwork
  7. 7. RA Environment & Water 2009-2010• Modalities– Policy Advice, TechnicalSupport and Advocacy– Training & CapacityBuildingWorkshops, Study Tours,Fellowships– Regional KnowledgeNetworkingPartnerships w Centers ofExcellence– Field ProjectsPilot projects with seed money• Total requests 2009-2010:– Environment: 38– Water: 601 February 2012 9Status:End of 2010
  8. 8. ESCWA Support to Bahrain 1/3• Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) /Electricity & Water Authority (EWA)• Date of request: Mar 2010– Assistance in the Field ofNational Water Conservation andWater Demand Management• Refinement of joint activities: Oct 2010• Review of ToR for consultancy onNon-Revenue Water (NRW): Mar 2011• Proposal for Further Support:– On site review demand management efforts of EWA– Review of water related bylaws, initial deskstudy with presentation of outcome toconcerned stakeholders01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 10
  9. 9. ESCWA Support to Bahrain 2/3• Ministry of Municipalities Affairs and UrbanPlanning (MMAUP)• Date of request: Sep 2010– Assistance in developing a national approach toReuse of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) andManaged Aquifer Recharge (MAR), Oct 2010• 1st Ad-hoc National Technical Consultation Groupmeeting on Managed Aquifer Recharge in Bahrain• Proposal for institutionalization of nationaldialogue process under the newly set upNational Water Resources Council• Commenting on on-going technical work– Support to the Workshop on“Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) and itsUtilization in the Kingdom of Bahrain”, Oct 2011Rausch, 200801 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 11
  10. 10. ESCWA Support to Bahrain 3/3• MMAUP, Recommendations Oct 2010:1. The “Ad-hoc Technical Consultation Group for MAR inBahrain” shall meet regularly (bi-monthly or quarterly) tobuild an exchange forum for all institutions related to MARin Bahrain.2. A substantive feasibility study shall be conducted toassess the different options for MAR in Bahrain, takinginto account different injection/infiltration waters andhydrogeological, economic and social aspects.3. A pilot test injection and recovery shall be conducted withclose monitoring of all surrounding groundwatermonitoring wells for water quality changes.4. The National Water Resources Council (NWRC) maywish to assign a “National Technical ConsultationCommittee for MAR in Bahrain” with the task of assessingthe different options for decision making by the NWRC.5. The NWRC may include a Technical Chair which ideallycould be assigned to one senior staff member from theMMAA with substantive groundwater experience.Rausch, 200801 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 12
  11. 11. 13www.escwa.un.orgTreated Sewage Effluent as Resource• DomesticReuse• AgricultureIrrigation• IndustrialReuse• ManagedAquiferRecharge1 February 2012FAO, 2010
  12. 12. Reuse: Domestic “Grey Water”1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 14Bath35%Toilet30%Laundry20%Drinking10%Cleaning5%Green Buildings: “Grey Water”Surendran. S.; 1998: Grey‐Water Reclamation for Non‐Potable Re‐Use, Water and Environment JournalJefferson, B., Palmer , A., Jeffrey, P.; 2004: Grey water characterization and its impact on the selection and operation of technologiesfor urban reuse, Water Science and Technology Vol 50 No 4Sources:http://guelph.ca/
  13. 13. TSE Utilization in Middle East1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 15FAO, 2007
  14. 14. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatOverall Goals:• 100% of landscaped areaaround Muscat is irrigatedby Haya Water’s TE• Keep Muscat city Greenerby saving every drop ofpotable water and use theTE for irrigation01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 16
  15. 15. Oman: Haya Water, Muscat• Vision:To enable Muscat to become one of thetop cities in the world by building &operating a world class Water Reusesystem that connects at least 80% of theresidential properties by year 2018.• Mission Statement:Serving society by converting wastewaterinto environmental friendly products.• Our Slogan:Protecting the environment,Serving societywww.haya.com.om/hayawater/aboutus_Vision_ Mission.aspx01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 17
  16. 16. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatBuilding Positive Image: Corporate Identity• Haya Water is Oman WastewaterServices Companys brand name.• It is fresh, short and green.• Haya in Arabic is a three letter word“‫“حيــــا‬ and is the root for the ArabicHayat or life.• Haya is also used to refer to the grass thatcomes out after the rains in the desert.• At Haya we bring life to the waste waterthat we treat and we produce water thatbrings life to the soil helping make Muscatever greener ...www.haya.com.om/hayawater/aboutus_Vision_ Mission.aspx01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 18
  17. 17. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatTreated Effluent Quality:• The Treated Effluent is– Clear– Colorless– Odorless• Some TE Parameters, 145/93 Ministerial Decision01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 19
  18. 18. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatTreated Effluent Quality:• Usages of TE classes vary,according to different quality of TE classes01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 20
  19. 19. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatTreated Effluent Usages:• Current Applications:– Irrigation of public parks andlandscaped areas– Irrigation of golf courses– Dust control• Future Applications:– Managed Aquifer Recharge– Agriculture – Farms– Industrial – Cooling, Construction01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 21
  20. 20. 01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 22Oman: Haya Water, MuscatTreated Effluent Network and Production:
  21. 21. Oman: Haya Water, Muscat01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 2320102011
  22. 22. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatConsumer Prices:• Potable Water:• Treated Effluent:01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 24Segment Quantity(Gallon)Quantity(Liter)Rate(R.O./Gallon)Rate(USD/Liter)Residential &Government0 - 5,000> 5,0000 - 18,927> 18,9270.0020.00250.00140.0017Commercial - 0.003 0.0021Blue Tanker 0 - 3,000> 3,0000 - 11,356> 11,3560.0010.0030.00070.0021HayaSegmentTE Rate(R.O./Gallon)TE Rate(USD/Liter)Network 0.001 0.0007Green Tanker 0.0005 0.0003
  23. 23. Oman: Haya Water, MuscatHighest Level Support:“Conserving water is a sacredduty for which we will be heldaccountable in the future if wedo not undertake our dutytowards this vital resource”Sultan Qaboos bin Said01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 25
  24. 24. Jordan: Aqaba Water, Aqaba• Aqaba Water:– Network coverage97% of urban Aqaba– 4.5 MCM/yr TE– 31% of total water supplywww.aqabawater.com01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 26
  25. 25. Jordan: Aqaba Water, Aqaba• Natural treatment plant (1987):– 9,000 m3/d TE production,40% of Aqaba WW– Irrigating bush and date palm trees• Mechanical treatment plant (2005):– Activating sludge, UV radiation,sand filters, chlorination– 12,000 m3/d TE production,60% of Aqaba WW– Green spaces inside the city byseparate network– Industrial purposes:5,000 m3/d to Jordan phosphate company01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 27
  26. 26. Jordan: Aqaba Water, Aqaba• Reclaimed wastewater usage:– Aqaba treatment plant greening project– Aqaba city greening project– Pioneering project– Palm tree forest project– Alsalam forest project– Al-Haq farms project– Phosphate Mining Company – industrial complexes01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 28
  27. 27. Jordan: Aqaba Water, Aqaba• Quality of reclaimed water:01 February, 2012 www.escwa.un.org 29
  28. 28. Conclusions & Recommendations 1/21. Cost-benefit-assessments of alternative usagesfor TSE, taking into account social, economicand environmental cost factors,2. Use of appropriate decision support systemssuch as WEAP to simulate scenarios andvisualize cost-benefit-assessments,3. Stable TSE composition after treatment,4. Application of TSE to different uses accordingto national quality standards for TSE utilization,5. TSE quality standards may differ dependingon the utilization intended,1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 30
  29. 29. Conclusions & Recommendations 2/26. High quality sewage treatment facilities andinstitutions to manage and operate these,7. High quality TSE network infrastructure, preventingleakages and cross-contaminations,8. Qualified independent regulator ensuring highestquality service for sewage treatment and TSEtransfer, contributing to transparency,9. Higher level political oversight (NWRC ?), ensuringclear mandates of institutions involved, contributing toaccountability of government institutions and actors10. High level political commitment to ensure publicsupport for TSE utilization, PR campaigns1 February 2012 www.escwa.un.org 31
  30. 30. - Thank You -Treated Sewage Effluent as aResource for Urban Planning:Examples from ESCWA RegionManama, Bahrain26 October 2011Ralf KlingbeilRegional Advisor Environment & Water